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roAT> 741. 



Hh. XXVI. 



8TH0rPA*HHCK0E 

0B03P-BHIE. 

H3#ame BTHorpa*H^iecKaro OT#ifejia 

MMiiEPATOPCKAro 06mecTBa Moth EcTecTBOSHaHiii. 
AHTponojioriH h 3THorpa|iH, 

COCTOHIUArO nPH MoCKOBCKOMT* y HHBEPCHTET* . 



1895, Ns 3. 



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jn. T-so Csopon A. A. JtoMHCOHV Ko«i»ccio«epB HMIIEPATOPCKAIX) Oflmecri* 
1»6hT*m1 EcT«CTt03HUU *% MocebI, IfoTpOVKa, x< JleieHcoat. 

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nenaiaHO ct» pa3p*meHia CoBtra HMIlEPATOPCKArO OdmecTBa JIioGnTejieft 
EcTecrBOSHaHia, AmponojioriH h dTHorpa$iu. MocKBa, 10 aeKaCpa 1895 r. 

npean^eHrb OtfmecTBa # AnynuKb. 



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COAEPWAHIE. 



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I. JpeBHe-apiftcide h ApeBHe-ccMHTcicie ajieMCHTU Bb o6h- 
iaflxi>, crfpflAaxi*, BtpoBaHiaxi> h Kyjn>Taxi> cjiaBairb. 

Ajtencaudpa (paMuuuuua 

II. Kt» Bonpocy o npoHcxoraaeHw KnprH3cicaro uapoja. Amk- 
cn>x Xapy3uua 

III. 3nocB jh— ,npoBH*fcftiijitt poAi> no33iu? Jf. Mamoea. Ile- 
peB. 6i 6ojrapcwiro if. rpyucnaxo 

IV. H3T> sanaAHO-eBponeficKoii dTHorpa^imecKoii jiH r repaTypu. 
II. Hobu6 MaTepiajH jjih isywBia icTopii pasBHTin cevbH. 
(IIo Heinrich'y Cunow'y). J5T. Xapy3uua 

V. Cm*ci>: 

Mejicia ♦ftiLMopicmecKiff aav^TRv. 6. 3**& ropuHHTt h Ty- 
rapHH-b 3ii«eBRTL. jP. Uomauuna 

MyeyjbiiaHCRoe cmaHie o cb. Ieopria no AT-Ta6api. M> 0. 
Amman. Ci npexici. A. KupnuHHuxoea 

IIocJtKHee MHfcHie pyMHHCKaro yqeHaro (Ar. Densusianu) o 
npoicxosjemi ea3BaHia <Bjaxi>. A, if. JIuuMupcnaio. 

VI. KpiiTHKa h 6n6jiiorpa(|>iH: 

1. KHarn, yieaua h copaBOiHua Bahama 141- 



B. 0. Huuepi: CncTeifaTfliecBoe onHcaaie ftauiKOB- 
cnaro 9THorpa«HiecKaro My sea. Bun. IV. M. CnepaucKato. 
(141).— A. 6. Phtthxi: ^cnupe aeKuiw no pyccKofl btbo- 
rpaww. H. X. (142).— 3 e m ji e b li * * n i e, 1894, M 4 h 
1895 JOJ* 1, 2-3. JET. X. (143),-A j t a ft c k i H C6op- 
n h n t>. Bun. I (1894). Ba. 27. (145). — MaTepia-iu no 
apxeujorin KaBiasa, coGpaaaue eKcneffimiamr HMnepaT. 
Mock. Apieojorn^ecKaro OtiujecTBa. Bun. IV: XpHCTiaecaie 



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Mipocosepijame Hapoi08 r b cjiaBHHCKaro hjiomghh js,o Hacroamaro 
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H3M'feHHJICH; M8JI0 TOrO, MHOrie Hpa3£HHKH COXpaHHJH BT> HapO** H 

H3bnecKia Ha3BaHia, npoaojuicaionua cymecTBOBaTB pa^oM* vb ho- 
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Be^ep-b", n KopoqyHT» tt . flpyroft rjiaBH-fefiraift HapoflHuft npasjuraKB, 
jrfcTHifi, ^OHb cb. IoaHHa KpecTHTeaa, hochtb Ha3Bame „Kynajio M ,. 

aHTOrFA«H<I£CKOS 0B08P9HXI. XXVI. 26 



aaraAOHBHH napajjreiH. 




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ocJxjraijiaJibHo ycTaflOBJieHBtiMR, TaRi> HasuBaeMbiMH TafiejibHUMH, npa3A- 
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TBopein>, IoaHHi, Kpecurreab (hjih an. IleTp-b) u npop. flLnba; oco- 
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ace npHBaAJieacHTb h cb. IlrfTHHija (flapaciceBa), bt> qecrb KOTopoft 
12 pa3i> b% roAy npasAHywTCH Tam> HaauBaeMUH n BpeHeBHua a hjih 

* ^HMeHHHH MTHHUbl**, HpeAUieCTByiOmia pa3HHM'b fiOJIbmHM'b rOAOBUMt 

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nflTHHUi a B'b Te^eaie 9 HeatJib, Ha^HHaa Cb Jlacxa; HaKOHem>, yBa- 

JKBHie KT> CB. IlHTHHErb paCHp0CTpaH6H0 TaiCb CHJIbHO, 4T0 AaXCO 
DC* 52 HBTHHUU B'b TOAy C^HTaiOTCH BO MHOrHXT> MtCTaXT> Dpa3AHH- 

icaMH hotth cTOJb ate BancHbiMH, Kairb BOCRpeceHbe, h bt» sth auh 
cqnrraeTCH rptxoirb pafioTaTb, bt> ocofieHHocTH npacTb a naxaib 
3eui>: n naTHHi*a He padoTHHua", roBoparb BejiHKopyccu. no ApeB- 
neMy asuiecKOMy ofcraaio, cy66oTu ciHTawTca no npeHMymecTuy 

AHHHH UOMHHOBeHLB, HOCBHlIVIIOTCH BOCHOMHHaHi K> 06*b yCOBIUHX'b p0- 

AHUX'b h qecTBOBaaiio hxt>: no napoAHOMy onpeA'bJieBiio, „bt> nnTHBuy 
Ao6pwe jioah ho dphjh, bt, cyfifioTy poAHTeJieA noMHHaJiH*. IIpaBO- 
cjiaBHaa aepKOBb, o^eBHAHO, coo6pa3yacb ct> ap^bhhmh napoAHUMH 
npeAaniHMH, onpeAtJiHja noMnnaTb yconmiixi, ue&ny npoMHMi,, wh 
<;y66oTH nepeAT> npasAHHKaMH Po*AecTBa XpucTOBa, ComecrBia Cs t 
jlyxa, YcneniH IIpecB. BoropoAwn;u; HapoAb sse npeHMyniecTBeHHO 
cnpaBJiflerb itomiihkh, KpoMt KaHyHa MacjieBHn;u h ahh Pa^yHHUbi, bt> 

<jy660Tbl TpOHUKyiO, IlOKpOBCKyiO H J^MHTpOBCKyiO. 



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H'bttcTBia, gaHHTia bt» ofijiacTH npeHMymecTBOHHO seauieAfeJJbqecKoft «H3- 
hh; OTToro oht, upHAae'fb hml 3iihtgtu, cooTB'feTCTByiomioBpcMOHH roAa, 

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ott> Mopo3a), TuMOoefi IIojiy3HMHHicb (22 bhb.), Akchhjh Il0Jiy3HM- 
Hima (24 bub.), BacHJiift KanejbHHK'b (28 o>GBp.— HaqaJio OTTene- 
jieft), EBAOKifl BecHOBKa (1 wapTa - Haiajio bgcum), Kohoht> Tpa^apb 
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n bwb ApoBHie B3biqecKio 6oni, ne mabKO 3aaitcTHJiH nocjrfcAHHX'b bt> 
HapoAuoMb co3HaHiH, ho h caMii iiocjiyaciiJiH K-b yBGJiHMGHiio paAa 
o6oroTBopfleMbixT> npeACTaBHTeaefi BBJieHifi npupoAH, k*b qp63Bbwaii- 
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Ay en* HcnaTb b-b Aaaeicoft o6me-cjiaBHHcicoft CTapnnb. H3b*ctho, Kam> 
Kptraco npocTOfi Hapojo* aepxHTCH HCKOHHax-b, CBoficTBeHHux'b esiy, 



Digitized by 



3THorpa*H<iecKoe OBoapsuie. 



OCBHmeHHUXb CTapflHOK), y H ACXhXOMKB fcCTb EWh OTb Bpe&QKh pe- 

jrario3fHixi» noHAiift h otfpjuoBi, a aain> cKeannecxB ■ Bpaauetfao, 
HMefiHO BT> 3T08 06jaCTH, OTBOCBTC* ko sceiiy hobomj, HeopaBuq- 
HOMy, rtn 6oxfee — hho3Cmbomv, ecja oho choco6bo HapymaTb B3- 
ApeBJie ycTaHOBJCHHtifi, tohho onpejtjeHHuft cTpofi ero AOMamaoft 
m ofimecTBeHHoft, odpaxHoff a pejurio3Hoft a»30H. He 6oxfee ckjo- 
H6VB 6HBaen> oht> kt> opflaaiiio bt» cboh oGpuHua HtcHH aaaax-b- 

4B60 H0BHX1>, HJXXUXh BMJ 3^CMeHT0Bl>. EcJB, CJ bJOBaTCJbHO, 

cymecTByerb bt> Hapoxfc nosceirfccTHO Kaaoft-Ha6yAb o6pa;ib, supa- 

*eHHWft BT> TOTOO 0npejl1>jieHB0ft (^Opirfe, CBB3aHBUi CT> H3fffcCT- 

Hburb AfleMi» hjih BpeaeaeM-b nua, hjh cb H3BtcTHuirb o6cTOHTejb- 
ctbomi> hjih AtftcTBicM-b bt» Kpyry cejteAaoft HJB o6mecTBeHHoft 

erO 3KH3HH, TO TaKOft OtfpHXb, 6e3T» COXHtHifl, MOXCTb CqHTaTbCil 

ApGBHHMi>; ecja Ton. aee o6pH3.b BCTptqaeTca y pa3Huxb aapo- 

AOBT>, MeSC^y KOTOphlMB He tifaUIO HaCTOJbKO 6jin3KHX-b, TtCHUXT, CBO- 

aieaifi, qTo6u moxbo 6mjio npe^nojioxHTb B03MoacaocTb cajbaaro ne- 
amy hhmh B3aano,ntftcTBia, to Taaaa ofimaocTb jariaaro o6p;u& ro- 
BopHT-b bt> nojb3y eme ropa3AO 6oj£»ineft ero apobboctb. 

lAaxbnenifi BHimHHX'b, npeanymecTBeHHO KJHMaTiraecKBX'b ycjio- 
Bifl, npn KOTopaxT* caarajiacb aca3Hb jrawqecKax'b cmbhetl, no atp-fe 
hxt> nepecejieHiff h pa3Gejiemft (fle3aBBCHM0 ott> npaaflTia hmb bt> 
no3AH'bffniia BpeMeaa xpacriaHCTBa), HeMHHyeMO aojkchh 6ujih OTpa- 
3HTbcn h Ha hxt> pejarin. nepexojfl H3-b 3HOfinaro lora na xojioj- 
huH crbBep'b, HapoA'b HesojbHO cTaaoBHJicfl vb jpyria OTHomema kt> 
OKpyatawmeft ero npapoA'b: acHoe, jia3ypeBoe loacaoe ae<So, Auewb 
03apeHHoe Jiyqara C.aaroA'fcTejibHaro, ho bt> to ace Bpeaa rpo3Haro, na- 
jwm;aro, Bcenoacaraiomaro cojiHua, a HoqbK) fijiemymee apaaMH or- 
hhmh aB-feSA'b, Ha cfeBept 3airbHHjiocb 6ji-bxabiwb, 6ojibrayio qacTb 
row- saBOjroqeHHbiirb cfepwuiH TyqaMii He6ecHUMi» cboaomt.; ctBepHuft 
atHTejb c-b aca^HOCTbio jiobhtt. Kaa^wft Jyq*b cojiHiia, corptBaioniaro 
xoJiOAHyio no?By, 6ojrmiyio qacTb roj^a cKOBaaByio Mopo3oirb, noKphi- 
Tyio JibAOM'b h CH'braMH. Bi> cfeBepHbiXT> mnpoTaxt coJrHn,e ecTc- 
CTBeHHO yTpaTHJio bck) cbok) rpo3ByK) npapo^y, nojiyqHBT> Ha Hapo r T- 
homt» h3uk* Ha3Bame ^MaTyniKH KpacHaro cojinua"; 3b1>3am ko- 
TopuH Hrpajia CTOJib aaacHyio pojib b^ pejiHriax'b watHfjx-b napoAOB^, 
npeuMymecTBeHHO ceMHTcaaro njieMeHH, y c jiaBH ht> — T'feM'b 6o:i±e bo- 
CToqHuxi> — noqTH BOBce noTepjuiH cboo MHoojoraqecKoe saaqeHie; 
cojhi^o cocpeAOToqajo Ha ce6is npeHMymecTBeaHoe BHHMaHie Hapo#a, 



Digitized by 




SPeBHe-APiflcKie h apobh6-c6hhtcki6 ajieiieHTu cjaBJiHi. 7 



Ha cojiHije nepeHeceeu MHoria qepra h CBOftcTBa, bt> ApeBHia Bpe- 

MOHa npHQRCUBaBEUiACH APyTHMT* HefieCHblM'b CB-fcTJUaMT*. rpo3Hhifl, 

ry6mejibEui am qejnrc>B*Ka h Bceft atHBoft npHpoAH ©acHHtf saoft, 
npHHOcamift sacyxy n aapaay, Ha c-feBept saMtHHjiCH xojioahoio ch- 

pOCTBK), JIOTHMH BbJOraMH H M0p03aMH. Ha 101* H6J0BtKl> HpOBOAHTb 
60JIbinyi0 TOCTb CBOeft 5KH3HH HOA* OTKpHTHBfb He60MT>, HOBOJIbHO 

co3epi^aH aBJiema oKpyawuomett ero npapoAH, Ha cfeBept ace — OH^ 
iothtch bt> Tenjioft H36t, 3amnmaiomeft ero orb HenacTba, aokaoiI 
h MHTejieft: BM'fecTO apnaro 3B-fc3AHaro He6a, OH'b co3epn;aerb ujimn 
oqara, KOTopoo jho6htt> h noHHTaerb, k&ktj cbhthhk). 

KpoM-fe KJiBMaTHqecKKxii ycjroBift, Ha cTpofl pejiHrio3Haro MipoBOS- 
3ptHiH HeJiOBtKa BJiiaioT-b h o(5cTOHTejibCTBa nojiHTHnecKaro xapaK- 
Tepa: CMtmeme hjih Aaace aaiame ct> ApyrHMH HapoAaMH, noicopae- 
mumh AaHHUMT> HapoAOMi> hjih noicopaiomHMH ero, Sojrfce HJH MOHte 
oacHBjreHHUH ToproBaa h hhuh CHOHiema hjih ctojikhobohlh ct> Apy- 
rHMH HapoAaMH, ycabxH bt> n;HBHJiH3aE^iH h, HaKoneivb, Hept^KO 
BCTp-fcqaiomeecfl bt, HCTopin HapoAOB-b HenocpeACTBeHHoe Bocnpiarie 
hmt> HOBaro BbpoyqeHia orb 6ojito cajibHuxx, 6ojrfce n;HBHjra30BaH- 
Hux'b coctAeii. BcfeM'b noHmeHOBaHHUM'b BJiaHiaarb Heo AHOKpaTH o 
noABepraJincb h HapoAH cJiaBHHCKaro HJieMeHH. ^mt* pa3HOo6pa3fffce 

H CHJbH'be 6hJIH 3TH BJliflHifl, Tbwb 6dJIbHliH BHA0H3M-bHeHLH AOJIHCHO 

6hjio ct> TeieHievb B-fcKOB-b npoTepirkTb h ocHOBHoe, ApeBeee pe- 
jiHrio3Hoe MipoB033ptHie cjiaBHHCKHX'b HapoAOBT>. Bt> HacToain.ee 
BpeMa orb npcacQeit pejarin coxpaHHJiocb bt> HapoA* TOJbKO wb- 
CKOJibKO MajionoHHTHbixT> eMy HMeHT> 6oaecTBT», KOTopua iipOAOJI- 
acaiorb yAepacHBaTbca bt> ero nana-m jiHmb vb CHJiy Toro, qTO ohh 

BXOAaTT> BT> COCTaB^ ofipflAHHX'b HtceH-b, oSpHAHHX'b H3peieHift H 

up, IIocjitAHia ace, bt> cbok) oqepeAfc, HepaspHBHO CBa3aHu cb 
HapoAHMMH o6biqaaMH h o6paAaMH, KOTopue, xoTa h aBjaioTca 
odbiKHOBeHHo yTpaTHBoiHMH bt> HapoAHOMT> co3HamH CBoe nepBo- 
HaqajibHoe 3Haqome, rfeai-b He MCHte o6jiaAaK)T*b qpesBBiqaiiHOK) hch- 
Byqecrbio. 06paAi> ofibiKHOBeHHO h AOJiaceH'b ciyacHTb KpHTepiem npa 
o6xacHeniH CMbicJia conpoBOHCAaiomHX'b ero H3peqenift a ntceHi>. 
fl3biqecKHx , b ofipHAOBT* coxpaHHJiocb bt> HapoA* eme oqenb MHoro. a 
ohh Aaiorb HaMi> chocoCh kt> npoHHUHOBemio bt> Taftnu ApsBHtftmHX'b 
BtpoBanift/AaBHO yTpaqeHHrnx-b h saSaTuxi), kt» B03BeAeHiio CKyAHHx-b 
oeTaTKOB'b ApesHHx-b pejrHrio3Hbix r b npeACTaBJieHifl, o KOTopuxx, He- 
coMH-feHHo, CBHA'tTejiLCTByiOT'b mhohh HapoAHHa ntcHH h H3peqeHia» 




8 



wmopu, BoroBopa a up., n Bepmawuuoay ■» aenmaaaj, 
n BOMTaaosjeauD ax* n oepBoaaujMan an aajcfc. 

Huneenn apejaaia u afcpoaaaia ui eyeatpia uaain, a nurfc 
eaje upeweaomiom* m zs3E&, aara jmxm me, aaxoxarc* 
n Tkcaoi caasa cv atpoBaaiaaa a npejaaiaaa ipenm npojvm 
a apa ron Be tojmco apif eaaro ajeaeaa, aa tto aeojHoapaTao 
<duo yace ywuuBaeao aa&rMoBaTejaaa, ho a eeaaresaro, aa qro 
eme aajo 6iuo otipameao BBBaaaia. Hots, cajojioiiufl jjuauia 
apejaaia, afcpoBaaia a conpflxeoBue cb aaaa o6paxn bo norm 
cjyqaaxi> aoryTb 6tm. npocxfcaeaH bt> iMytioayv ^ aaHjamax-b 
rtBon a TfcioiiexfcTifi, a aoroay BoaraiKBOBeHie an aojxbo 6htb 
crraeceao a* arot juuefioft crapaat hjh xaxe ao BpeaeHam> eme 
tiojrfee xpeBBaaii. Maoria qep™ *3uqecKO-pejario3Baro xipoB033p£- 
aia a odpajOBi* cjasaB-b ecrecTseBBO a Bpa3yaaT&ii»BO ofrtacBwrca 
ApeBaaaa BaaaTaaaaaa Bocroqauxi* BapoAOBi, bti. Hero, ojflaao, ae 
CJtjiyerb, «ito6u bc* ob* aeapeataBo 6hjb 3aaacTB0Baau H3i rfcn 
aaeaao aapoAOBi, bt» coxpaaBBmBxea 6oxfee hxb aeate oiyiaiao 
naaaTBaaax'b BOTopuxi ob* aaxoMTb ce&h pa3i»acfleflie. Bt> ai- 
KOTopun cjyqaaxi* aoBTopatoBuacfl bt> jpeBflocTB h bt> hob-M- 
mec Bpeaa qepru Bapojflofi 2kb3bb, o6uqacBi>, noBtpifi aoryn> 6htb 
BoaBOiaau m> OAHoay, otimeay, ApeBflMmeay acToqaaKy — MHoroirk- 
koboII opaKTHrb nepBofitiTBoS XH3HH qeaoB-feqecTBa: bt» ary aobcto- 
paqecayjo anoxy aojukbu titua cjoxbtbca bt> &3iaTCK0ft aojurfeja 
aap0A0B?> apificKoA a ceaaTcaoft ceaei ocbobbho aieaeBTti t&ki> aa- 
SHBaeaoft SBTeficaoft MyapocTB 3tbxi> HapoAOBi>, nopoxjaBnieft as- 
jrfjCTHbw pejiHrio3HUH npeACTaBjesiji a B-bpOBaBia, uastcrBJue aura- 
aeflBue npaBBjia, oSuqaa h o6pham, ochobhoB cmmout* KOTopuxt 
bub*, npa aflaqflTe^bflo BsatflBBniaxca ycJOBiaxt sbsbb b B3rja- 
j&xt> BapoaoB*, HeptAKO oaasuBaeTca y»e yTpaqeHBUMt H3i> aa- 
poiiHaro co3Hania, bo oht> bo yTpaTBJiCH w« qejiOBtqecTBa, Taai 
icaai ycirbjrb 4>HKcnpoBaTi>CA b% TBopeBiaxT> nHcaTejeft MBBprnaxx 
BtK0BT» a TucnqejitTift. Bt Apyrnxi cjiyqanxt bo3mo»hu aenocpex- 

-CTB6BBMH HJIH nOCpOACTBOflBblH 3aBMCTB0Baflia OAHBMl HapOAOBTb OTb 

Apyroro. Kt> 3toH nocjitABe* aaTeropin aojwbju 6bitb oTHeceHu, sanp., 
pbSKso Bu^aiOBiiBCB qepTu pejiHriosaaro 6biTa h KyjitTa 6aJTiftcKHXi> 
CJiaBBH'b-jHuqflBKOBi, o6flapyjKBRaiomiH cnjibHwa, bi» ^aHHuxt cjy- 
qa»x% npoHHMi> cJiaBBHaa^ HecBottcTBeHHun, bjUhui comhtckm a. 
aajioaaiflcaia. 



Digitized by 




flpeBHe-APiftcKie h ^peBHe-ceMHTCKio ajieMeHTu cjiaBaHt. 



9 



1. OEPflAHblE orHH. 



Bo MHorax-b MtcTaxi> MaJioft h Efcjioft (oTqacTH h BejBKoft) Pycn 
cymecTByerb o6uqa* Ha npa3WHin> HBaHa Kyna.ua, T.-e. bt> nopy 
evicwaw coAHttecmoxnifi, aaKuraTk Ha ropax-b h nojinxt Kocmpta. 
Ofiuqaft aTOTi> hckohh pacnpocTpaH6Hi> ho tojh>ko cpeAH HApyrnxij 
CJiaB^HCKHXTb Hapo^oBi, ho h BooCme BOBCoft 3anaAaoft EBpon-fe. He3a- 

BHCHMO OTb 3TOrO, OO^TH IIOBCGM'feCTHO BT> EBpOlrf> £0 HaCTOHIWO Bpe* 

MeHH y^epatajocb o6biKBOBeHie BCTp-feqaTL npasAHHirb Poac^ecTBa 
XpncTOBa, oTnpaBJiaeMBzft na npoTHBynojioacHOM-b nojuocb roAOBoro 
Kpyra, T.-e. bt> nopy HU3iuaio coAmecmoHuiH^ B03»HraHiejn> oweu. 
y io/khux^ cJiaBHRii HaicaHyHb PoHc^ecTBa codmnaemc* rpoataAHo:) 
Cpeeno, Hocamee Ha3BaHie „($aAHflKT> a . Bt raiHiggott a Maaoft PycH 
Haejnoaawrb, qToCw bo bcio Hoqb Ha PoacAecTBO rop-fcjn> bt> xaTax-B o%om>, 
Micro ace roacHo-cjaRHHCKaro fiaAHflica 3acTynnjia coaomo,, KOTopyio otciytm 
BfbcTaMH Ha BTOpoft AeHb npa3AHHica, wbcTaiaH bt> HoBbift roAt. Bochomh- 
MHHaHie o B03JBHraBinHxcfl BCTapHHy Ha npa3AHHicb PoacAecTBa (Ha „Kojifl- 

JCj u ) KOCTpaXT* COXpaHHJIOCb BTb H-feKOTOpblX^ MaJO-H ra.IHmCO-pyCCKHX'b 

poacflGCTBeHCKHxii atcHHX'b („KOJiHAKax'b tt ), rA*, Hanp., ynoMHHaeTCH 
„qyAO-qyAHoe, eoineM* CTpaniHoe tt , hjih H3o6pa«aeTcn co6pauie cbh- 
thxt> Kpyroarb ntuiaiomHX'b koctpobt*: „kojio thxt> oxneeb yce cbh- 
THe tt , HaKOHeivb, roBopHTca o njwcirh Kpyroirb KOCTpa: 



Bt> BejHKoft PycH, Hanp., B-b CapiTOBCKo* ry6., cootcuiaiofm Ha- 
KaHyH'fe HoBaro ro^a na yjiHivfe orpoMHhifl OMerb coaomm, Ha3UBaeMuft 
^KocTpoMoft"; B^ Kypcicoft ry6. HaKaHyH-fe PoauecTBa h Kpememn 
otmjmb uaeoto Ha ABopt. H bt> BeJinKopyccKHXT> CBflToqHbixt nic- 
hhxt> coxpaeHjiocb BOCQOMHsaHie o B03HCHramH poacAOCTBeHCKHX'b ko- 
ctpob^, Hanp., no caoBan-b Taicoft ntcHH, bt> jrfecaxT> ApeMyqnxT> 
v owu \opnmb BeJiHKie a ; Apyraa KOJiHAKa, 3anHcaHHan bt> CapaTOBCKOft 
ry6., HaqnHaeTCH ciOBaitii: „3a ptnoft own* iopumi u . Bi> 3anaAH0ff 
EBpont npemiyn^ecTBOHHO coxpaHHjrcn otfuqaft cootcuiamb Ha Po»Ae- 
ctbo, fcaifb y loatHuxx cjiaBflHT>, 6peeno, Hocamee bt> pa3Hbix-b arbcTax-b 
pa3HUH Ha3BaHia, Hanp., bo $panmH — soache de noel, calendeau h t. n., 
bt» TepMaHiH — Weihnachstblock, b*b AHrjiiw— Ynle-clog, bt> HlBeiUH — 
Iula-brasa; bt> ctBepHoft HTaJiin AaBHwfi o6uqait Ha3biBaeTca: „arder il 
ceppo tt (aceqb 6peBHo). Cjiobomt*, noqTH noBcejrfccTHO b^ EBpon-fe, bt» o6p«- 



w TaMT» ace ropnrb TepHOBH* oihuki, 
Kojtb o\Hfi xoahtb niHpoKilt TaHem> K . 



Digitized by 




jax v a;n. 25 miaeg xiij-s, jrs T3»3ais jr^rug mi ramr :- 
wmh^ KAj mmx mAjaeut, % m&vmnzn&am ^zerr* kbts nwrn 

sjaem&a us**?***. 3ftj_fesrr& i mi »:nj«& ne- 
^prrvrv. <o»vrv, yyr.'/n %ji^xl pvnaTg ir^:fc 

n w?v?a ocaa TpKosa-iar c<r/>i» i;«TiTe-ttaar*> r» aor tfrso- 

ewjrr uy/MWtutsuM otmwj k ckxmiu: ho. K&oxfcroro. on n Heoecaon 
orirt, futxhxmtzznr*, no in apejKraueai», btb wcz^ H^feceoi 
^rj/f, ? fcHitjH ncmnmch cojHeiHaro foecxa, Heroism rpo3aaro, 
f)^HT^jfc«ia;o, Bcea^srpaoniaro jfrrraro 3«oa x cozpszeBBura 
ifffjrtr aacyxx, aapazu a t. n,, x npajas&jH. cjfcj03aTeji»H0. oraio 
H£ erojMco (Jjaro^tre-iLHoe, ckojlko cmpauuto*, ui**Hoe. xpocmnoe y 
<Mw*M)av>ityz m ucmpeGjuuoutee 3Haqeete. KHHraxi* BCTiaro 3a- 
rfcra xeojHoxpaTxo naxoxurh cefrfc Bupaxeme Tasoe opejrraaieHie 
mmumto ermxiu, HeojwoKpaTHO pncyercn ocrfeinrreJbHax xaprnaa 
ufawvtH w/fW\\&T<) orax, rj-fc irb rpo3Hofi cjaeb n Bejxtix aapen, 
V>.v\,haya WMMiuuok, xapaiomlft h co*pyaiaionuft njaxeHex-i>, hhcdo- 

CtAAMMAWt* HWb Cb Xe&L IIpOpOKL JaHlH-Tb BT> Biutflin CBOeiTb BH- 

xfcj* jpffcnxaro AwnnH x , Boactjuuauumii Ha npecroj*, KOTopwi fiuxt 
r/ Kaiifc tuaMAotH*". 9 0TBep3JHCb ne6eca" nmnen> npop. Ie3esiHJB y 
W H a \Mx\>,\h iMxbmn Boacin... Bejincoe o6jaKO b KJiyfiflmilicH 
Ofomp m tt'/wti BOKpyrii Hero, a h3t» cpcahhu ero Kairb 6h mmr» 
nMMtnu un cpeOunu own, h H3t cpc^RHu ero bhahoCujio no^ofiie 
'ferMpcxr* atHBOTHMxt.,. h biux 9thxt> anBOTHbixt 6u.rb v Kairt biu'b 
ropHiimxL yrjiefl, xaici bhat> -laMna^T*; ow«6 xojfut* xexAy atHBOT- 



Digitized by 



APeBHe-APlftCKIG H APCBHe-CGMHTCKie 3JieMeHTH CJaBflHl 1 1 



HftiitH, m cimie omi o%hr u moahm ucxoQuau ontb otnn". CaMt IeroBa 
abjihgtch KaieB 6h ojumeTBopeHieirb He6ecmio own: „rocnoju> Borc> 
TBoft ecTb oiom no*daioutiu u ; R no3HattTe MorymecTBO mog% roBopirrb 
PocnoAB... w kto H3b Baci> Moacerb «HTb npn otntb noxcupawuieMb, 

KTO H3T> BaCT> MOaCOTb KHTb npH SfbHHOMh flAUMeHU?* jJaBHJTfc TaKT> 

H3o6paHcaeTt KapTHHy mtBa rocnown: „iioabhj[ch ^umt> orb rtrkBa 
Ero h H3T> ycrb Ero oxom noxdaioutiu" . 06t> orHt, HCxoflamGarb orb 
rocnoAa, npHHOcameM'b caaepTb h paspyniGHio, qacTo ynoMHHaeTCH 
bt> KRurax'b BeTxaro saBtTa; IeroBa — no-HCTirafc owennuU 2>o»&, 

aBJLHJOIIUftCa BT> pa3HbIXT> BH£OBblX'b (fjOpMaXT, y pa3Hb!X-b CeUHTCKHX-b 

Hapo^OBT>. AccHpiftcicift 6on» oraa Adapt (BejmqaeMHft HHor/ca h 3nn- 
TeTOM-b MaJD[llK'b-MoJIox^) Tairb xapaKTepn3yGTca ua apgbhhxi. Baa- 
nHcaxT>: „6orb, ocetbu^afou^iu napodt* u cOAMte,", »cerbmi 6oweb a , 
^cTpaniHhift BJia^HKa xpa6pbixi>, ijapb emu, pa3opnTejib Bpaiwb, 
noKopHTejib nenoc^yniHbix'b, ncTpeonTejib MiiTescHHKOB'b, uapb »e- 
jrb3a a , cjOBOMb, Kairb npcucTaBHTejib boAhh, cflMBOJiOM'b KOTopoft bt> 
ApeBHOCTH HeoAHOKpaTHO cjiyacHJT> oroHb. y HapoaoBt XaHaancKHx-b, 

Bl> CnpiH H <t>HHHKifl, rp03Hblft apGACTaBHTGJIb OrHtf HOCHJTb Ha3BaHie 

MoJtoxb (MaJiaxt, Mojiexi). Kyjbrb ero xapaKTepH30Bajicfl npHHO- 
meHieM'b eMy bt> acepTBy jriofleft (B3pocjibixi> h MJiaaeHUGB-b), npeda- 
eaeviuxcH nAOMeuu. Ofaaqaft commam/i Aiodeu wh qecTb Baajra-Mo- 
jioxa nepeHeceHi* 6nxb (|>HHHKiHHaMH h bt> KapeareH'b, aorryAa — bi 
Cap^HHiio, TJiaBHfeitfflyio KapeareHCKyio npoBamuio. JKcpTBonpHHoniG- 
Hifl 3th nacTbK) nouTopflJTHCb nepioaaqccKH, qacTbio ofiycjroBJTHBajiHCb 

0C06blMH 06CT0flTeJIbCTBaMH 06meCTBGHH0fi H qaCTHOft 5KH3HH H HM^JIH, 

cooTB-feTCTBeHHO TOMy, xapaicTep-b to y mh jio ct hb HTe Jib h h ft (Kor^a no- 
CTHrajiH Hapo^-b (StacTBia: BoffHa, aacyxa, qyaia), to ofitTHuft iijih 
SjraroAapcTBeBHbift. Bt> apeBHearb Ermrrfe 6wjrb cxoflHbift ofiuqaft co- 
acnraTb »hbhxt> jiK)Aeft bt> qecTb 6ora 3acyxH a oraa, Cema, bjih 
Cymexa (TucpoHa rpeqccKHXT. nHcaTejieft). 9to Harfejio urfeGTO bo speiaa 
KaHHKyjn*, T.-e. bt» nopy CHjbHtftinaro 3hoji. Bt> TaJiJiiH, bi Kyjrbrfc 
^pyH^OB-b, no cjroBaMT> rpeqecKBx^ h phmckhxt> aBTopoB^, TaK^e cy- 
mecTBOBaJiH acecTOKie acepTBeHHue ofiuqan, o6Hapyac«Baiomie Bju'HHie 
ceMHTCKaro KyjrbTa Mo^oxa; coopy«ajiHCb h3t> npyTbeB-b KOJioccajibHun 
qejfOB'bqecKiH (})Hrypbr, nycTua BsyTpn; OH-fe aanoJiHfljHCb otcuebtMu 
AiodbMtt, HHor^a AwdbMu u otcueomubiMu, u cooicutaAucb. 

Hejib3fl He BHA*Tb ocTaTKOBi> 3Toro ApcBH^ro ceMHTCKO-rajwbCKaro 
o6biqaa bt> HtKOTopuxi> acepTBeeHbixi, odpH^axi., con])OBoac l s,&K)ii^xi> 



Digitized by 




12 



dTHOrPa*fl?ECKOB 0B03PBME. 



BOSKarauic HBaaoBCKaxi* KOCTpoBt. Bo $paauiH BCTapHHy cacuxa* 
Aua, ita ueauoecKOMi nocmptb oKuevui kouiku bjiu aucuwa, 3auioqeB- 

HbUI BT> KOp3HflKt HJH BT> JftfllKt. Bl> IlBpBBeaX'B en*e B61EBBO 

cymecTBOBaii, a uoxerb 6uti>, eme h huh* cymecTByen> o6wqa* 
caMutamt ua ueauoecKOM own, mcueuxb 3Mn>u. Pa3j.apaiomie kpbkh h 
OT«iaBHHi>iaHCKpHBjiefliA Tfcjia cropaionmxT> 3CHBUXT> XnBOTBUX'b apasiT- 

CTBOBaJIHCb TOJBOft rpOMKHMT, JIBKOBaBieiTb H 6tmeHHMH HJflCKAMH 

Kpyroifb oruji, aanonaaaioiflaMB bbbctobuh ujihckh h 6-bcaoBaaie xa- 
BaaHCKuxii Hapo^oBrb KpyroMt sepTBeaaaica Baaaa-Mojoxa. JtajB- 
Htflniee ooaa6jieBie apeBaaro cexBTCKaro otfhiqaa npe^cfaBJiaerb 
coofcmanie ua ueanoecKOMb tcocmptb noemeu nepTBUXi> xiiBOTHbixt (bo 
<J>paBuia) bjb Aoxaadunou tOAoet* (bt, repnaaia). B*b ojboA rajiamco- 
pyccKofi Kynajibcicoft a*fecB*fe coxpaHajocb bociiomh aaaic o cootcoiceHiu 
(^Hcncqeflie") na ueanoecKOM* Kocmpn, ( w co6oTirfc a ) CJtnoft koiuku: 



Bt> Hacopt (bt> OKpecTHOCTaxT* ITeTep6ypra) eme bt» npoine^raein> 
CTOJitTiH HaKaayn-fe HBaaoBa aha npa njwcRaxT> cootcuicuu ua ko- 
cmprb 6fbAato nwmyxa. 3ctm 6pocatomz era owm ueanoecmto xocmpa 
pa3Ht*e npedMemu (k&mhh, KycKH ^epeBa, npyrwi h t. n.), wh Ka- 
qecTBt Qtcepmeemuxb dapoei <nwo 9 npoH3HOca apa 3tomt>: B MBt Jiefli, 

OrHK) — COpBUB TpaBbl". 

Bt TO Bp 6MB KaKT> BO BCtxt npBBeAGBBfclX'b CJiyqaBXt, OTflOCB- 

maxca npeflMymecTBeaHO ao 3anaABOft EBponu, koctph, B03*arae- 
Bue bt> Bopy Bfaicmaro coaBuecnwiBifl, bbjlbiotcb otcepmeenHUMu oraa- 
ua, aa KOTopux^ 6ory ae6ecHaro oraa npaaocaTca bt. ?u*pt> acaBae 
h ae 3KHBM6 npeAMera, ohh y cjaBBHT, 6ojrfee hjb neate yTpanaBa- 
K>Tb atepTBGBHbift xapaicTepT>, a npio6p < bTaioTi> npeAnoiTBTeJibao cum- 
eoAUHecnoe aaaieaie, cjyaa Kaicx-6u 3m6acmou neOecnaxo oim t yaa- 
qTO«aiomaro a noaaraiontf.ro padjBtTmyK) Becaoio apapoAy: y cja- 
bbh'b aa BBaaoBCKOMi> koctp* cacaraeTca mojoaoo AepeBO ( cm&bicb* ) 
hjb cojiOMeaaaa Kyima (<Mapeaa>, tKyuajio> a t. n.)> ajra ABt™ 
a BtaKB, cjyacan^ie caHBOJiaHa fioiKCCTBa Beceaaaro ajio^opoAia (cp. 
MOft oqepKt: <Boraaa Becau a aaepTa bt> ubcB^xt a o6paAaxi> 

CJiaBBBT>>. BtCTBBK-b EBpOBU 1895 r. iiOBB a hOJIb). CaMLifi 
OrOBS BBaBOBCRBXt KOCTpOBT, BO MBOrBXt MtCTaXT* BOGBTb B^ 



„AojiamBjiBe! ropaniaaae! 
CxoAbTcca ao Haci> aa co6oncy, 
CneueMu earn cjmny Komntf". 




jpeBHe-APiflcKie h ^pcBHe-ceMHTCKie a-aeMeHTu cjaBamb. 13 

Hapojrfc xapaKTepHCTHqecidH Ha3Bania: «atHBoft oroHB* , «ijapb oronb» 
(HoBropoACK. ry6.)> «6oarift oh)hb», «He6ecHu8 oroHt> — «Himmels 
f euer*(BT> HlBafiiH), h Aaace fcpeAO-jrfeTHiftBaajrb» — «Midsommersbaal» 
(bt> AairiH). 

H ynoMHHajrb yace Burae o tom-b, hto ApeBirie HapoflBi Kara apift- 
cnaro, Taift h cjraBancicaro njieneHH npanncuBajiH orHK> Boofime ohu- 
cmumexhHyK) cuay. Ha tobtb ace npeACTaBjema ocHOBaHw pasHtia 

06p«ABHfl A^fiCTBifl, KOTOpUMH COHpOBOaCAaeTCfl B03«HraHie 06p^HLIXt 

KocTpoBT>: TaKt noBCOMtcTHO y cJiaBiiHt pacapocTpaHeHT, oduqafi 
npoeodumt atom* nepesb hmms nocmpoeb (ho tojibko HBaHOBCKHX'b, 
bo h MacJieHHiHuxt, nacxajibBuxi>) h cxamm* nepe&> ueamecnie 
tcocmpt* , ct> i^fejiBto ofiesneqema cefia ott> noryOHuxt BJiiamft BJioft, 
He^HCToft chjim, cjOBOMt— ajih orameHia otb He^yroBt HacToan^ux'b 
h 6yAymnx*B. Tott> ace oCbiqaft cofaiOAaeTca h y MHoraxT> eBponefi- 

CKHX'b HapOAOBT>, Cb TOK) 3K6 U*JIbK> OIKmema.' Bo $paHltfH He TOJIB- 
KO cnanymb ncpezb own* B3pocJTLie, ho nepeHocxmcji 4epe3X Hero h 
A*feTH. Bt> nioTJiaH^in MOJioflwe jho^h cnmyrm uepe3b oionb^ bi> to 
BpeMH KaKi> noacHJitte fiopMoqarb mojihtby; A^BymKH nepexodxmz ne- 
pe3b njiaMx nocmpoeb bt> HaAcacA* noiiyqaTb acemixa, (JepeMCHHua 
acenmnHH — tto6h poAM 6ujh jrencn. H moTjraHAHH nepenocuAu ne- 
pesb oioub A*Teft. Bt> TpeaiH aceHmHHM, npmax nepe3b ueanoecnie 
Kocmpu, BOCKjHuaiOT'b: €H36aBJiaK)CB (T.-e. oqanjaiocb) otb ^p'fcxoB^> . 
06uqaft bo BpeMfl CKOTCKaro naAeaca 3aoicmamb otonb nocpeAH ckot- 
Haro 3aroHa h npoeodunib nepen ueio CKomb^ ct> nrkibK) npeAOxpane- 
Hia ero ott> 3apa3bi, (fourb H3B-fecTeH'b yace bt> ApeBnefl Hhaih. IIpo- 
BoacAeeie «e A*Tefi qcpe3T> oroHb 6ujio o6uqaeMT> BecbMa pacnpo- 

CTpaH6HHMMl> y HapOAOBTb CeMHTCKHX'b, 0 qeM*b HeOAHOKpaTHO cbha*- 

TejibCTByioT-b khhth BeTxaro 3aB*Ta, Hanp.: <He AOJiaceHt naxoAHTb- 
ca y Te6a npoeodnvjfiu cuna ceoexo uau donb ceoto uepen otonu. 
Chhu HspaajieBu, BuaAan bi» haojiohokjiohctbo, noKJiOHajrHCb Baajiy 
h tnpoeodujiu cuuoeeu ceouxb u donepeii ceouxb nepe3b oioub* . 06paAT> 
BTorb, no cBHAtTeabCTBy Apyraxi* Mtcn>, coBepmajcH bb ^ecTb 
Baajra-Mo^oxa, npn qeM^ ocTajrca eme Hepa3'bHCHeHHbiM r b, 6buio jiu 
utjibio 3Toro ofipaAa oqHmeHie npoBOAHMbixi> qepe3i> oroHb, hjh chm- 
BOJHqecKoe BwpaaceHie hx^ coacHraflia, KOTopoe bt> h^kotophxI) c;iy- 
qaax-b ^aKTHqecKH npHBOAHJiocb bt> HcnojrHeme. 

ConocTaBjiaa Bee BumeHajioaceHHoe, npnxoAHMi kt> 3aKjuoqemio, 
hto oronb HBaHOBCKHxi> KOCTpoBT*, B03acHraeMbifi bt> nopy BHcmaro 



Digitized by 



14 



3TH0rPa4>H<lECK0E 0B03PSHIE. 



cojiHuecTOflfliii, npeacAe Bcero npeACTaBJiaerb chmbojii* HetiecHaro 
oraa, DCTOJIHHK& jrfcTHaro 3Hoa. Bi* H-feKoxopuxt M-fccrax'b (npenMy- 
mecTBGHHo bt> sanaAHofi Eepoirfc), Kaici> yae tfuao 3aMl>qeH0 mhok> 
paHbine, orHio 3T0My npaHocnTca acopTBM, bt> Apyraxi (npenityme- 
CTB6HHO cpena cjiaBHHi>) oht>, Kaui> awfijieaia ncfiecHaro oma, ho»h- 
paerb chmbojiw 6oacecTBa BeceHaaro njiOAopoAia. IToBceM-fecTHo 
oruio 3TOMy npannctiBaeTca oqacTBTe-abaaa cajia, npeAoxpaaaioinaa 
otl HeAyroB-b, o6e3neqaBaiomaa SAopoBbe, njioAopoAie h 6jaro- 
nojiyqie. 

9Ta nocjrfcAaaa, hmghho OHucmumeAhwui h bt> to ace BpeMa 003- 
pooKtdawutufii otcueumeAbHaa cum ovhh npewMymecTBeHHO naxoAnrb 
cg6-b Bupaaceme b-l ofipaABHX'b oxnazb — poo/cdecmeencKOMh nun noeo- 
lodneMb h poACTBeHHux-b eMy eecennuxb. lOacao-anaBaacKaa poacAe- 
CTBBHCKaB nBcaa Bocn BBaerb CTaparo CaAHflKa h MOJOAoro fioacnqa. 
CTapuft €6aAHHKT>> — AytfOBoe 6peBH0, cropaiomee HauaHyH-B Poac- 
AecTBa — eo3pootcdaemcji bt> o<5pa3T> MOJOAoro fioacaqa, npeACTaBBTeJia 
AaHHaro npa3AHHKa. *KocTpoMa», y KOTopoft, no cjioBaarb conpoBoa- 
Aaiomefi coacaraoie ea bvbcbr, cro-HOByinica 6ojhtt>> , aiOBOirb, 6ojb- 

HSLH BT> 3HMH10K) HOpy 6orflHH, CrOpafl »a pO»AeCTBOHCKHXT> CBflT- 

icaxi), oqeBHAHO, 603poncdaemcH nocpeACTBOMi> oraa h aBjiaeTca no3« 
ace npeACTaBHTejibHimefi Beceaaaro njroAopoAia, bt> nopy shoh onaTb 
norn6aK)iuefi a omiaKBBaeMoft (cp. <BoraHa BecHH u cMepTa*). Kt> 
aToft ace KaTeropia cJitAyeTb othccth a aecbiia pacnpocTpaaeaahift 
bt> pa3Hux*b irfccTaxi EBponw o6paAi> coacaraaia (mjih noTOiureHia) 
bt, BeceaHioK) uopy nyKOBi cojiomu, qyqejrb (Mapeui, CMepTH) u 
t. n., 3aKjnoqajomifica BCTp-fcqeft a npHBtTCTBOBauieM'b B03poAHBoiefiea 
BecHhi (cp. TaMi>-ace). 06paA&t eosotcutaniji Kocmpoe*, KaKi> Bbipa- 
aceaie caMocoofcotceni^ ct> u*fcjibK) eo3pootcdeuiji % repoeBi> h repoHBb 

ApeBHHXT. MHOOBTb, MU HaXOAHM*b y HapOAOBT> CeMBTCfCBXTi) TaKT>, BT» 

Tapcfe (B-b KHJiBKia) qepe3T> KaacAwa naTb jiBTb npaBAHOBajocb top- 
acecTBO bt> qecTb CaHAaHa, npa qearb cootcutaAOCh na Kocmpib e%o tao- 
6paotcenie. GdMj&wh^ KHJHKifiCKiit repaiwn>, no Bupaacemio Be6epa, 
« nocpeACTBOMb caMocooKoiceni* nofitacAaerb BpaacAe6B&ia eMy cum h 
eorpootcdaemca Kb hoboS schshb oqmuenHHM'b h iohumt,; boao6ho 
eaiy h CapAaoanaji*b, no B^poBaaiio ccmhtckhxt* HapoAOBT>, uib iua- 
Menu noxcpaeiuato eio nocmpa bwxoaht^ tepoeMi, no.\y6oiOMb* . Ot- 
npaBJiaBmiftca <J)HHHKiaBaMH bt, Tnpt eaceroAHO npa3ABHKT> bt> qecTb 
npofiyacAaJomaroca orb 3HMflaro cna cojiHeqHaro repoa TepaKJia-Mai- 




APeBHC-ariitcKie h APeBHe-ceMHTCKie ajreMeHTu cji&bhri> . 15 

KapTa, BfepojiTHO, Tanace conpoBoacnajicfl B03HceHieMT> KocTpoBt,— Ha 
3to yKa3UBaerb ApoBHee CBHA'fcTG.JibCTBo o rpo6HHi;i> TepaK-ia m> 
Tnpt, rxb oht> 6bun» tcoMMftm omeMi*. IlaMjiTb o coacaceHin Te- 
paiua-MeJTRapTa npa3AHOBajiacb h {J)HHHjciftcKOft KOJionieft B^TaAnpb 
(KaAHKCb). Tlo rpoqecKOMy cicaaaHiio, repaid, norntfaiontifi orb OTpa- 
bu, bt> npeiCMepTHMXT> wyKaxi* BCTynaon» Ha B03ABHrByTwfi juui 
Hero Kocmeph. KocTep-b paawpaemcn, h 6oronoAo6Hbifl bht\h3&, npii 
pacicaTaxT> rpoMa u cBepKaHm MOjmiH, Ha oft/raid^ o^hcthbiuhcl ott> 
weAyra, B03po)KAeBHufi eo3nocumcH ua ne6o, H bt> Mneaxi> o Cgmh- 
paMHA*, JuAoiit (KapeareHCKofl AcTaprfe) h Apyrnx-b Ooninnxx tofo 
ace UHKJia, Tanace Baacoyio pojib HrpaeTi> aKTi> caMocoofcotceni/i tepounu 
Miiea. H3b1>ctho to BucoKoe 3na<ieHie, KOTopoe y jrfekoTopbixi> Ha- 
po^OBt nepeiHett A3in HM-fcjiH cBH3aHHuo Cb oco6wmh chmbojihmc- 

CKHMH 06pHAaMH, HCpOMOHiflMlI H nepepflHCHBaHiflMH Iipa3AHHKU KO- 

ctpobi> h (J)auejOBb, oTnpaBjiBBuiiecH bi> hqctl h BOCiioMHHaBie onu- 
uteuifl u o6no6AeHXR oweMb Toro hjih Apyroro (JoacecTBa. 9th npasA- 

HHKH KOCTpOB-b AaKVTb Ha.Mli KJIlOYb lCb ypa3J r MtBiK) OCHOBHOrO 3Ha- 
qeHifl H HaUIHXTi 0(5pjIAHHX'b KOCTpOBT, HOBOrO^HHX-b II BeCGHHHXl>, 

TaKHce CHMBOJin^ecKH BbipaacaiomHX'b 603po9/cdenie nocpedcmeoMb oihh 
oipnxjitBfflaro bt> nopy KpaTqafiuiHXT> AiieS cojmua, hjih sa&iepniefi, 

3aCTUBffleft 0TT> 8HMHeff CTyttCH npHpOAW, TOMHIjO — 603KCCTBeHHOft 

n pe^cTaBHTeji i) hh u,li en, bochok) o6HOB.i>iK)inefica h oacnBaiomefl . 

2. WMBan BOAa. 

Orb aKTa OKHBjreHin hjih oqnmeniH orcein* nepexoay kt> hc mo- 
Hte pacnpocTpaHOHHOMy bt> ap&bhhxi> pejiHriax*b o6p«Ay oMOBemn, 
KynaHiH, norpyrceHia bt> BOAy hjih ootcueAenix eodou. Ih> AI>yroin> 
Mtcrb *) h o6paTHjn> BHHuaHie Ha to, *ito cojihuo h aboHhhkt> ero 
oroHb npoAcraBJifliorb no npenaiymeeTBy npeAMerb KyjibTa Myaccicoro, 
a BOAa— acencKaro HaccncHbi: MyacqHHw bt> o6pflAHHxi> AtflCTBinxi 
6ojrbe rpynnnpyioTCH okojio orHH, aceHnwHu— okojo bo ah. Kt> cjia- 

BflHCKHM-b 06pHAaM-b, BT> KOTOptIXT> OaBHyK) pOJIb HrpaiOTb 3K6BHIHHU, 

npnHaAJieacarb MewAy npoqHMi* coBepmaeMue paHHeio BecHOK) npoBO- 

AH CMepTH H BCTptia BBCHbl (jrfeTa). OT^tJIbHUe MOMOHTLI 3TOrO TOp- 

*ecTBa, ao chxi nopx oTnpaBjHeMaro B^ h4kotopuxt> M'bcTax^ He- 



4 ) w BoaecTBa xpeBHizii cjaBflHi*". I. 300, 301. 



Digitized by 



16 



dTHOITaWIECBOE OB03PBHIB. 



xia, MopaBifl, noj&mH 1 ) 1 3aKJuoTOK)Tca: I) bt, mecTBiH cb iqraejon, 
H3o6paxaiomHirb CMepTb(cnepTOHOcHyio 6oniHio), h3t» cejema kt> boa*; 
2) bt> cpi>iB&HiH crb Hero otfjesaiomeS ero ojeauu (ec-m syqeao He 
ojtbto, to ero canon) padpueaiOTB Ha tooth); 3) b* noxpyotceniu ny- 
veM eb eody (noTonjeaifl, HHor^a sairfemaeMOMT, coxarameKb, cm. 
Burae), nocxfc qero 4) cpy6aiors jepeBiio, H3o6pamajomee boc- 
Kpecmee jtbto, OABBaiorb ero bt> iuaTbe, bt> Koropoe nepej-b tbmt. 
o^-feTO 6buio iyic.10 (=M6TaMop<J>o3i> cCnepTH» btb c % ItTo»), yKpama- 
wrb necTpuMH jieHTaitH h 6aecTKaMH h ct> dtbchhmh h jniKOBaHieirb 
bhochtl bt> cejeeie. TaaBHufi aicrt o6pn^a coctohtt. bt, noipyotceniu 
(BBepxeHin) u3o6paotceniji Cjnepmu ei eody, BarfcACTBie iero CMepmb 
npeepatqaemcxez <Jn»mo> T.-e. bt, 6orflHK> BecHH (jrfcTa), chmbojomt* 
KOTopoft cjryacHTB pa3yBparaeHooe zepeBup. IIorpyxeHie H3o6paaceHla 
6oxecTBa bt> aoay, OMOBeme ero hjh ofiHoaieHie chjb ero bojo», 
cocTaBjfl-io n waBHtftniyio toctb ofipHAHMX'b AMcTBift, exerojHO 
coBepmaBOiHxcfl Bt qecTb MaTep h -36m j h Herthus bt> ApeBHeft repMa- 
hih, BejHKofi MaTep h HieficKOH bt> Phm-b, 6orHHH CnpificKoS b*l He- 
ponojiHcb h ap. AparoirfeHHUH ApeBHe-accHpiftcKifl: kji hbtoiiii CHtjfi na- 
mhthhk'b noBtcTByerb o HHcxoajeHia 6oraaa HcTapu (AcTapTu) bt> 
uoA3eMsoe iiapcTao, KaKi> 6u cnepTb ea, h 3arbMi> oxifB-ieme hjh 
BOCKpecenie ea nocpeacTBOMT, ksjuitih Ha Hee kbboA Boju: Gorana 
HHexoAHTb bt> Mpa?Hyio o6BTe.ib 6ora Hpita-iJia, kt> AOMy, He hm-bio- 
meMy Buxo^a, no nyTH, no KOTopoMy yace H-fcrb B03BpaTa. Mpairb 
qapcTByerb bt> 3toJI o6jiacTH, nujib uoKpuBacrb BopoTa, btb koto- 
pua 0Ha CTy^HTCH. CTpax-b OTflBpaeTT> BopoTa h, Kor^a OHa npoxo- 
Ahtt> nepe3*b hhxi>, CHHMaerb ct. tojobu en Tiapy, y BTopbixT> bo- 
poTi> oht> BUHjiMaerb H3T> ynieS ea cepbra, y TpeTbHXT> Boporb OH-b 
CHHMaerb oxepejbe crb en men, y qeTBepThix-b— oAeacAy crb en rpy- 
y narax'b — noacb ct> ea iuaTba, y mecTHXT,— 3anacTba ct> ea 
pyirb h Hon>, y ce^Mifcix'b— o^eKAy ct> ea iueq-b: cTairb nocTynaerb 
HflHKHraJia (fiornna npeHcnoAHeft)— roBoparb owb— ct> tbmh, kto npH- 
xoAHTb Kb neft> . Bcfc qjeHM 6oraHH McTapu: rjra3a, pyicH, Horn, cepAUC, 
roiOBa nopaataiOTca 6oji'l>3Hbio. Ho Mipi He MoateT-b xaTb 6e3i> 
HcTapu, noAaTO.ibHHn;bi njio^opoAia. Bon, la nocujiaeTb bbcthhk£1 kt> 
HHHKHraJit ct, npatta3aHieMi> OToycniTb HcTapy. IlHHKurajia Be^arb 
opocumb Rcmapy otcueou eodou, OHa aco;tjiaeTca otb HeAyroBi, B03- 



x ) I1oapo6eiocth CM. BT> CTaTb*: ,BorHHH BeCBbI H CMCpTM a . 




APEBHE-APlttCKlE H flPEBHE -CEM RTCKIE 3JIEMEHTU GJIAEflH'L. 17 

BpamaeTCH Kb «h3hh a ot QpaB jiaeTca bt> otfpaTHwit nyTB Ha3eMjno; 

y KaJKIUXT, M3T> CGMH BOpOTT> eft B03BpamaK)TCH CHHTHH CT> HOH 

ojrbama h yKpaoieaiii. <3KHBaH BO^a> , KaK-B cpoacTBO jua oqnmema, 
ynoMHHaeTCH u bi> BeTxoarb 3aBtrfc, TaKrae bt> orapoBemH IoaHHa. 
«HtHBaH BO^ai tbophtb qyaeca h bt> pyccKHxt CujinHaxt. Ha Ha- 

pOAHOM1> fl3bIK r fe HUBt cJKHBOft BO£Oft> Ha3bIBa6TCiI JOHCAeBaH, T.-6. 

He6ecHaa BJiara. 



Bt> HapoAHoft MOAHi^HB'b h BOJnne6Hbixi> qapax^ y bc*xt> cjiaBHH'b 
nrpaK)TT>3Ha4HTejibHyiopojiB«ay3i4 ? y^tt*, uaeji3Ku-aMyji,emM 9 3a»rbqa- 
ert AeaHacbeB^ h uphboahtb MHoroqHCJeHHua CTapHHHwa cBH^tTeJib- 
CTBa xpMCTiaHCKHXT> nucaTejiefi cjiaBaHCKHXii, nopHuaBiuHxt Honieme h 

. HaBH3HBaHie afitCOBCKHX-b" y3JIOBT> H Hay3Tb. IIay3bI COCTOJ1JIH H3t 

padJinMHUX'b npHBii30Ki>, Ha^bBaeMMXT. Ha nxeK). Bojbiueio qacTbio 3to 
6bijiH TpaBbi, KopeHKH h HHBia CHaaotfba, KOTopMMi, cyeB-bpie npariH- 
CMBajro urbAeGuyio cmy. Bt xpHcriaHCKyio anoxy ynoTpefijieHie bt> 
Hay3axT> Jtadoua (KOTopwfi nojiyqHjrb ocodeHHo BaxcHoe 3HaqeHie, no- 
TOMy qTo B03HCHraeTca bt> xpaMaxi>) *o toto ycnjiHJiocb, qTO B<rb 
npnBii3RH CTajin HasbiBaTbCH jiadoMcaMu, aarae h Toraa, how bi> 
hhxt> ho 6biJio jia;i,0Hy. JIaflOHKH #o chxt> nopi> arpaiOT'b BaacHyio 
pojib bt> npocTOHapoAtt: OTnpaBJlaacb bt> flajLHioio aopory, nyTHHKH 
Ha^Baiorb hxi Ha meio, bt> npe^oxpaHeme ott> 6-bAt h nopqH. Boj- 
me6Hbia npuB-bcKH, qapoabftHbie arbnjoqKH nsjipeBJie H3B-bcTHbi 6ujm 
bt> qHcirb cyeB^pift, 3aHMCTB0BaHHbixi> eBpeHMH orb (JmjiHCTHMJiaH-b 
h npoTHB'b KOTopux'b B03CTaK)T'B npopoKH h yqHTejm Hspanjin: fl BT> 
Ton* AeHb oTHHMerb rocno^B upacHBbia i^tnoMKH Ha HoraxT>, n 38*3- 
AoqicH, h jiyHoqKH... h npuetbCKu 60Aiuefffitaji u , BOCKJiHi^aeTB npop. Hcaia. 
fl rope cniHBaioiimM'b napodrbuuue MtbviOHKu noAT> muucH", bockjih- 
uaeTT> npop. Ie3euiHJib. Taicia npnB-bcKH (TajniCMaHw) BecbMa pacnpo- 
CTpaHeHbi <5bijiH bt> ApeBHOCTH y xajfAeeBT) h accnpiaH^. OH-b 6ujin 
pasHbixi* poaobt>: to npeACTaBjrajiH KycoqKH MaTepift, aaKJiioqaBuiie 
bt> ce6-b TeKCTM 3aKJiHHaTeJibHbix r B 4>opMyjn> h npHB-bmnBaBmiecji ki> 
npeAMeTaMT> flOMauiHeff yTBapn hjih vn> njiaTbio, to npHroTOBjrajincb 
H3i> ipyrHX'b MaTepiajiOB-b h HOCHJiHCb na met, Kaicb npeaoxpaHH- 
TejibHoe cpe^CTBO npoTHB-b agmohobT), 6ojrb3Heff, 6-bACTBifi. Bt> My- 
seaxi ApeBHOCTeft BCTp-bqaiOTca MHoroqHc^eHHua accHpiftcKO-BaBH- 

»TBOrPA«HYECXOK OB03P*H1S. XXVI. 2 



3. HAY3bl. KPACHAfl HMTb. 



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18 



3TH0rPA4»HqE0K0E 0B03PSHIE. 



JOHCKiH K&M6HHBIA IipHB'feCKH, Ha BOTOpUXl BfjptsaHbl H306paweHifl 

fioroBt h remeBTi, a paBHO h saiUHffaTejibHHH c|)opMyjbi, ri* koto- 
puxi> p-feib HAerb o6t> H3rHaHin sjiuxi> ^eMOHOBi> ) qyMU h t. n. h 
npHSUBaioTCfl 6jiaria 6o»ecTBa h Aofipue AeMOHH ua nojib3y h 6jiaro 
qeJOBtKy. CjiaBHJiHCb bt> apcbhocth h Taxi Ha3HBaeMHH „3<{)eccKifl 
UHCbMeHa tt , T.-e. sauHHaTejibHBiA cjroBa hjih (j>opMyjiM, KOTopHa bt> 
Bii^t npHBtcoK'b HOCHjHCb aurreJitf mh 3<J>eca, Cb utJlbK) npeAOxpaBema 
ce6n orb AypnuxT, Bjriairiff; oh* »e, no napoAHOMy vfepoBamio, cno. 

C06HH 6blJIH HSrOHflTb ^eilOHOBT> H31> JMOfteft. IIOAO6HHJI MC6 npHBtCKH 

B3BtcTHU 6ujih u B*b Mnjierfe. 3aKJHoqaBinu]Cfl bt> hhxt> ^MHJieTCKia 
nncbMeHa a npeACTaBjinjrH CMbcb cjiobi> rpeqecKHxi h <f)pHrificBHxi>. 

OcofieaHoe SHaqeHie ripHAaeTca y BctxT> cjiaBtfH'b npacnou numu, 
Kpacmu wepcmu hjih AeumoHKn»: bt> Bojirapia, okojio Tarap'b-Ba- 
3apjp&HKa, k% HHCJiy o6phaobt>, coBepniaeMHX'b 6epcMeHHUMH aceHin.H- 
«aMH 8 AHBapji (bt> TaKi> Ha3HBaeMbiit „Ba6HHT> ACHb tt ), np h Ha^Ji eacH tt> 
npHHflTie orb 6a6KH numu xpacuou tuepcmu 9 KOTopaa, BM-fccrfe ci» 
jipyniMH npoiMCTaMH, AOJiacHa cnocoficTBOBaTb CKopMoieMy pasptme- 
niio ott> 6poM6HH. y M&3ypoBT> KpdCHdH MumoHKa,' EwbT da Ha meio 
HOBopoMyj,eHHaro MJiaAenija, cjiyacHrb K*b orpawAemio ero orb BpeA- 
Haro Bjiiinia qyacoro rjiasa. Y qcxoB'b TaKace npacnaji noensna o6e- 
peraerb pefieHKa orb 3aK0JiA0BaBifl hjh nopqn. Bi> Poccin deenmh 
HumoKb KpacHoft tuepcmu, HaBjreaHHHa Ha meio pefieHKa, npeAOxpa- 
HJiforb ero orb CKapjiaTHHH; orb jinxopaAKH Hocarb na pyKaxi> h 
Ha Horax'b noenanu nm> npacnou tuepcmu hjih mectMu; ecjiH „pa- 

30BbeTCH tt , T.-e. 3a60JIHT'b CBH3Ra py<IHOft KHCTH, TO QQ o6BH3HBaiOrb 

KpacHOio npmcm. CyeB-fcpia 3th onaTb rH*fe3AaTCH bt> ApeBH'fcfiniHX'b 
npe^aHiHX'b. SaKOH'b MoYcea, cTOJib 3HepniqecKH nopnuaBmiff BCflKia 
qapoAiaHia, BOJixBOBama h B0Jinie6cTB0 cockAHHxi> ct> eBpe^MH Ha- 

pOAOBl, OHeBHAHO, BCJltACTBie CJIHinKOM'b TJiy60K0 BKOpeHHBUiefiCH BT> 

cosHame Hapo^a .np^BHett Tpa^HiUH o qy ( a;oA , bficTBeHHbix , b CBoifcTBax'b 
KpacHotf hhth, He TOJibKO He rHymaeTCH yuoTpe6jieHiH en bi a*Jio, 
KdKT> MarnqecKaro cpe^CTBa hpothbi> HequcTora hjih ocKBepHeHin 
(poACTBeHHaro dojiteBH, xypnoMy roiasy h np., TaKi> Kaicb HciitjieHie 
orb HeAyra, rjia3a h np. ecTb oqnmeHie), ho Aaace npeAnncwBaerb 
upHfi-feraTb, Me»Ay npoMMi, kt> OTOMy cpeACTBy npn oqnmeHiH AOMa: 
w h B03bMerb KeApoBoe AepeBO, h Bccom>, h HepeAeuyw numb, h aHByio 

nTimy, H OMOMHTT. HXT> BT> KpOBH nTimU 3aK0JI0T0H H B'i» HCHBOft BOA*, 

ii noKpomiTb aomi> ceMb pas-b, M onucmurm aomt> KpoBiio hthixw h 



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APEBRE-APlffCKIE H £PEBHR-CEMHTCKIE DJIEMEHTbl CJIABJUTb. 



ID 



KHBOIO BOJtOK), H 3KHBOK) HTtmeiO, H Ke^pOBHMT> J^epeBOMt, H IICCOHOMT>, 

h Hepexenm hummo*. EBpen, Moacert 6htb, 3aHMCTBOBajiH irfepoBanie 
bt. ^yaecHyio CHjy KpacHofi hhth h3t> EnanTa. ErnneTCKie aepeubi- 
KHHHCHHKH, no CBH^'bTejiECTBy Jtfoaopa, hochjih Ha rojuoB* nepo Kop- 
mytta h nypnypoeym mm*. J pHMJiflH-b aceHa KmHTepoBaacpeua, <5mb- 
man bt> to ate BpeifH h acpauefl IOhohbi, o6a3aT6JibHo, no dpeeneMy 
oGtanaio, yicpamajia rojiOBy cbok> ocoCoft irapaMHflajibHoft npnqecKoff, 
^epe3t KOTopyw nponycKaJiacb wepcmman Aenma nypnypoeato Vi<mma. 
FpHMMt yKa3ajn» Ha aaTcicifl Hapo^Hua irfecHH, bt> KOTopuxT> repoii, 
js,Jisi w 3aKpbnjieHiH ce6n a , T.-e. ;wh orpaacfleniH cBoero mjieBia h CBoefi 
3KH3HH, nepeBHSUBaforb mjieMT> npacHou uteMcoeuuKou. 



Bt> apyroMi* tibcrfc *), npn paacMOTp-femH acepTBeHHHXT> o6pa^OB*b 
ApcBHHX'b cjraflairb, a yicaaajrb Ha BasKHoe 3Ha<ieHie, KOTopoe npHrra- 

CblBaJTOCB CJiaBHHaM H* H3 bl 1 ! HHK&MH &6pTBeHH0ft KpOBH. BojrapW H HUH* 

eme, Kor^a kojhotb 6apaH0BT> bt> lOpbeB-b ^eHb ) co6apaioT^ HCTe- 
Kaiomyio H3i> acepTBeHHaro acHBOTHaro npoeh bt> namy h ynoTpetfjifl- 
k)ti> ee, KaKTb mbAumeAhuoe cpe^GTBO. JKpenbi CajiTiftcKax'b caaBSH-b 
nuAu oKepmeeHuyio xpoeb, KOTopaa npoCyamaJia bt> hhxt> aapi> npo- 
pimaniH. Ha BKymenie y pyccKHXi> oicepmeeHHOu npoeu HaMesaeTb 
mhtpoiiojihtt> HjuiapioHt; npoetw yfiHToft Ha PoacaecTBO cbhhlh jo 

CHXT> HOpT» BT> H^KOTOpUXt BrbCTaXT> POCCIH 6phl3taiOrm 6h OlOHh, 

h eft npHHHCUBaeTCH cnocofiHOCTb ustWHJimhHeHucmyio cuAy H3T>xjirfcBa. 
TaKoe ace (faaroTBopHoe A^ftcTBie npHnncuBaeTCH h hhh* emenpoeu 
ntiyxa, 3aKajiWBaeMaro jiaraniaMH bi> YcHHbeBT> #eHb, H3JHBaeMoit Ha 
OBecb hjih Ha kochkt, ABepn bt> KOHtoHiH fe. Ct> TaKOK) ace utjibio qexn 
bt> CTpacTHoit qeTBepn* (irfccTaMH bt> cTpacrnyio naTHimy hjih cy6- 
6oTy) 3ap-fe3MBaK)TT> ^ByxT> mojioahxt. rojiy6eft h npoeb hxt> usAma- 
torn* Ha npuroTOBJieHHbia ^jih npoHHX'b ro;iy6efi nnjeHH^Hbiii 3epHa. 
TojiyfiH, HotBinie ^THx^ sepenb, rfewb npedooopawmmcR ott> bchkhxt* 
nes3wdb. Y jihtobckhx* HapoA<^ acpei^i* (BypiDKaftT'b) B03Jiarajn> pyny 
Ha oGpeieHHoe Ha saRjiaeie acepTBeBHoe acHBOTHoe h, 3aK0Ji0BT> ero, 
cofipaHHyio bt> qaray vpoeb pacnpucKueaA* hjih onponAXAz eio npH- 
cy TCTBOB&B cuhxt* \ ocTaTOK^ ace KpoBH nocjrf>AHie atjiHjni Meac^y co- 
6oft, h Kaacflbift oKponAR.%* eio y cefin nom cboio CKOTHHy. 

1) Bos. ftp. cjaB I, 43 h ci. 



4. KPOBb, MflCO m KOWA WEPTBEHHArO JKMBOTHATO. 



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I 



1 



20 3TH0rPA4>H4£CK0JE OB03PBH1I. 

CpaBHBMT> OURTb OHHCaHHbie OfipflAH CO CXOAHUMH OtfpHAaMH H*feKO- 

■ropux'b ApeBHHx-b Hapo#OB'i>. 5 T pmuiRWh bt> no3AHliJiaiia BpeaieHa cymo- 
CTBOBaji> sanMCTBOBaHHuft H3T> $pHrhi oUbraafi OHUKtenin omi tprbxotn no- 
cpoxcTBOMi> ^potf« «epTBeHHaro *HBOTHaro (Taurobolia). Ilo aaoBaMi, 
itepKOBHaro bhc&tbjih IlpyAeHiUH, nocBamaeMufi caAHJCtf bt> smy, koto- 
pyio DOKpuBajiH npoSypaBJieHHUMH, Ha noAofiie ptineia, AOCKaMH. I la 
bthxt, AOCKaxt 3aKajruBajiock a^pTBeraoe acHBOTHoe: KpOBt cTpycft 
jHjacL H3i> pauu qepeai* OTBepcrifl bt> jiMy n oponiajia h o6arpjua 
HaxoAHBmaroca wh am*; Btpyiomift jiobhjit, ee ycTaum, o6MUBa.ai> 
ce6*fe ew juujo, upo oHTaH huh ace KpoBbK) njiaTba TnytTejibHO cfiepera- 
jhcb. 3tomy KpoBaBOMy Kpemeniio npHnacuBajiacb OHHCTHTejrbHaa 
CHja „B03po«A6HiH a , k&ktj CBHA'feTeJibCTByiorb HtKOTopuH ApeBHin 
Ha^nHCH. Ilepexoacy kt> o6paAaMT> KpoBHaro acepTBonpHHomemfl, npcu- 
HHcaHHUM'b Movceearb: npeacAe H'bwb pfeaTb acnBOTHoe, acepTBOoa- 
TeJBb B03jarajn> Ha Hero cboio pyiey (k£lkt> juTOBCKift BypmicaftTb, cm. 
Bume). Bo3Jf03Kenie OAHoft hjh ofi'bHX'b pyicb Ha*rojiOBy acepTBeHHaro 
SHBOTHaro HMtjro SHa^enie nepeHecema Ha nocjitAHee rptxoBi>, bo 
BCKynjieme KOTopux^ coBepiiiajiocb acepTBonpHHonieHie: n B03Jioacin , b 
pyKy cboio Ha roJOBy acepTBH 3a rptxt h 3aK0JieT*b ee 3a rpton/', 
npej;iracHBajn> Tochoab Movccjo, hjim bt> ApyroM*b M-fccrfc: „bo3jo- 
jkhttj AapoHT> o6i pyKH cboh Ha rojiOBy acHBoro K03Jia h Hcno- 

VbRWTb R&JHh HHATb BCt 6e33aKOHlH CblHOBls H3paBJteBblXl> > H BC'fe 

npecTynjieHiH hxtj, bc* rptxn hxt>, h B03JioacHTi> hxt> Ha roJOBy 
KOSJia... h noHecen> K03ejt Ha ce6t bc* 6e33aK0Hin hxt,". IIo saiua- 
Hin K03Jia, cofiHpajiacb bt> qaniy HCTeicaBmaa H3T> pana npoeh^ npaBo 
cofinpaTb KpoBb npHHaweacajio OAHOMy CBameHHmcy. 06xoaa KpyroM b 
ajiTapa ct> ynoMHHyroio ^anieio bi> pyKaxi>, ohTj onponMAb Kpoatw 
hjh offMcuifieajto eio pora, HoacKH, yrjoi h ct^hrh aJiTapa, a ocTa-ib- 
Hyio BLUHBajn, Ha crimcy ajiTapa mn y ero noAHoacia. KpoBH npn- 
nHCHBajiacb cnoco6HOCTb OMtteamb omi xpibxoei Hapoit, onuutamb omi 
npecmynAeuiu HapoAa CBHTHjmme h acepTBCHHHK'b. KpoBb acepTBeH- 
Haro anma ynoTpefijifljiacb enp6>iMn h npn nocBamenin bt, cbhuich- 
HH^iecKift cam,: eio OKponji«jiocb yxo h 6ojibiuoft naJieifb pyKH h Horn 
uocBflmaeMaro h o^eacAa ero. CxoAHufi o6pflAi> coBepuiajicH eBpe;i>iH 
h npn oqamemn qejiOBtKa ot^ rptxoBT>. Phaomt, ct> ynoMHHyTbiMH 
o6pnAaMH BCTp-feqaeTCH y eBpeoB'b h npodoe oupoojieHie napojia 
acepTBeHHOK) KpOBbio H3^ qauiH, KaKb y aP£bhhxi> cJiaBuni* h jih- 

TOBUeB'b. 



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JLPEBHE-APlffCKIE H £PEBHE-CEMHTCKIE DJIEMEHTM CJABHH'b. 21 

BaacHan pojrs, KOTopyio nrpajia y eBpeeB-b KpoBb, o6i»flCHHeTca 
rfcarb, mto, no npe^CTaBJieHiio hxt>, eb npoau 3aKAjowiMct> dytua xcu- 
eomwixo\ bott> noqeMy oahh tojtbko cBameHHHKH hm^jih npaBO co6h- 
paTb acepTBeHHyio KpoBb, h cTporo 3anpemaJiocb 3aKOHoarb BKyuiaTb 
KpoBb: n JIyuta mruta eb npoeu", roBopwJTb Tocno^b Movcew: Ba- 
3HaqHJH> ee BaMi> ^Jin acepTBeHHHKa, <ito6h oqiimaTb AyiiJH BaniH, 
h6o KpoBb cia aymy oquraaerb. .. He •fciubTe kpobh hii h3t> KaKoro 
rfejia, HOTOMy qTO dytua ecxmio mtbAa ecntb npoeb cio; Bcafcift, kto 
Syaerb "fecTb ee, HCTpe6iiTOi tt , hjih: w cTporo HaejHO^afi, hto6h hg 
•fccrb KpoBH, nOTOMy qTO nposb ecmb dywa\ He tnib AyniH BMtcrfe 
ci> mhcomt>, He tnib en, BHJiHBaft ee na 3cmjiio, Kairb BOAy". 

Ilocjrfc Bcero cKaaaHHaro ciaHOBHTca jjchumi^ oTqero h apcBHie 
cjaBHHe (bt> oco6eHHOCTH fiajniif cicie), h BapoAH JiHTOBCicie, B-bpoBaniji 

KOTOpMXT> HaXOA-HTCH BT> BT> rfcCHOfl CBH3H CT> ApeBH'feftlllHMH HpeAamflMH 

qejiOBfenecTBa, npn^aBajiH crojib BaacHoe 3Baqeme acepTBeHHoit kpobh. 
JlyraaacepTBeHHaro acHBOTHaro,BT> baa* kpobh ero, oiamajra orb rp*- 

XOBT> H K03Heft 3JOtt CHJIH HapOAT>, KOTOpUII acpei^b OKpOnJHJTb KpOBbK); 

OHa ace orpaacAajia oKpoiuraeMbiii ckott> orb bchkhx-b BBBSvoxb h 
CTBifl. Jtyma accpTBeHHaro arjiBoraaro, npoHHKaa bt> ycTa 6ajrriftcK0- 
cjiaBiiHCKaro acpeua, bt> bra* kpobh, KOTopyio ohi> HcnHBajrb, npo- 
GyoicdaAa bt> Hearb dyx% npdpuuauin. Ha tomt* ace, 6e3T> coMH-fema, 
ocHOBamH Oflncceft, npHfiwB'b bt> iiapcTBO MepTBHxi>, 3aKajibiBaeT'b 
OBen'b h npe^Jiaraerb w qepHyio KpoBb u hxt> rkmwh yMepnmx'b, ko- 
Topwa, HanHBtnHCb en, no^yqaiorb bhobl co3HaHie h n cnoco6uocm% 
efbiyamb ucmuny*. 

npH „MnpHt>ixT> wepTBonpHHoraeHiax'b" eBpeeBi rjiaBHyio qacTb 
o6pH^a cocTaBjajio y6ienie acepTBeHHaro acBBOTHaro h chtbdenie e%o 
MJica. CBHmeHHoe 3Haqeme BKyinema Maca acepTBeHBaro aeHBOTHaro, 
Hept^KO noAaBaBmee hoboa^ kt> ofipaAHOMy o6^t,neHiiD Ha fiojbniHX'b 
HapoflHux'b TopacecTBaxib (cp. noc^tAcepTBeHHtie nHpu bt> qecTb 
Tepaima, Tepicyjieca, CBHTOBHTa ApicoHCKaro h apO. noATBepac^aeTca 
cjitAyiomHMH cjroBaMH BeTxaro 3aBtTa: w OHa (acepTBa) AOJiacHa 6utb 
Cbt^aeaia Ha cbhtomti Mtcrb, Ha ABopt cKHHin co6paHin. Bee, q-ro 
npHKocneTCH kt> MHcy en, ocenmumcn... Becb MyaccKoit nojrb CBameH- 
HHqecKaro po^aMoacerb tcTb ee, — aTO eeMinax cexmviHJi' 1 * Ha tout* 
ace caMOM-b npHHannii ocHOBaHO h Bejinqaftinee TanHCTBO xpncTiaH- 
CKOft uepKBH, npeaimcbiBaiomeft enywenie Kpoeu u mrb\a HcKynHTeJM 
Mipa, SoacecTBeHHaro atnua, npHHABmaro Ha ce6a ipn>zu qeJiOB-feqe- 




22 



3TH0rPA4>H1ECK0E 0B03P*BB1E. 



CTBa; CBameHaa Tpane3a xpHCTiaHCKOff uepKBH — Ta ace n eeAUKcui can- 
muHH^\ eio B-fepyiomie ouuiyaiomcA omi iprtzoeb h AtjiaiOTCfl npu- 
qacTHbiMH BtqHOft XH3HH h Btqaaro 6-aaaeeHCTBa. 

IIo saKOHy Movcea, Tyicb h cajibBHK-b Ha neqeBH npn „MnpHofi 
acepTB* a coKHraJWicb Ha acepTBenBflK'fe, h3t> ocTajibHoS ace qacm 
ua doMO cemqeHHuKa npiixoAHJiHCb tpydt h npaeoe tueno ero; npn aepT- 
B feace nBcecoataceBia", t -e. npn coacnraHiH Bcero acHBOTHaro, 3a hckjho- 
qenieM-b kooicu, nooirkABaa nocTynajia no-wy cenineHHUKa. Y 6oji- 
rap-b, no coBepmefiiu ofipaAHaro 3aoaHia 6apamKOBT> bt> lOpbonb 
i,eHb, nom, npoiTji mojihtbu, h huh* eme 6eperb cb KaacAaro xo- 
3HHH& no nemeepmu 6apawKa, Kpoarfc npoqefl npoBH3iw; cxo£Hbi&o6bi- 
qaft HMterb MtcTO h y cepdoBi^ ceawewiuKb ace nojiyqaerb 0 tunypy 
tfapaimca. 

5. dOMMHA/lbHblE OEPflAU. 

Kt> rjiaBH'feiiniHM'b noMHHaJibHHMi> npa3AHHKaMT> bt> Poccin npn- 
Hweacarb eecmuia homhhkh, huh* coBepuiaenbia bt> Aenb PaayHimu 
(^HaBifi Aenb"), T.-e. bo BTopraicb Ha GombhoS HeAta*, Tanace bt> 
TponuKyio cy66oTy; noMHHarorb Ha Pycn noKofiflBKOBT> h BaKaHynt 
MacJiaHHi^u, T.-e. bt> caaayio panHiOK) eecenniofo uopy; Cb nepeHece- 
HicMi> ace npasABOBania HoBaro roAa aa 1-oe aHBapa, T.-e. Ha aa- 
iiaqajio CBBToicb, noaiHHOBeHie ycoiraiux'b poACTBenHHKOB'b arfccTaMH, 
uaKT> Hanp. bt> MaJioii Pycn, boiujo h bt> mhcjio CBaToqHux'b 
o6paioB'b. Bojirapw Taicace OTnpaBjraiorb homhhkh (,saAyniHHipi*) Bb 
nsB-fecTHwa cy66oTH bt> TeqeHie eectm. Cep6o-xopBaTH cnpaBJiaiorb 
^PaAyHHuy" bx noneA'feJibHHK'b Ha GoMHHoft HCA*Ji'b. KpoM-b Toro, 
rjaBH-fefirnHM-b noMnuajibiiLiM'L AHearb („38AyuiHHua a )y cep6oBi> oay- 
amT'b BcecBaTCKoe BoenpeceHbe, T.-e. Tanace oahbt> u3t> eecennuxi* 
npa3jHHH kobt> . — y ApeBBHXT> pHMJiaHT> TaKi> Ha3biBaeMbie podumeAbinie 
dnu (dies parenfales) OTnpaBjajiHCb nepeA* caMuarb HacTyn-ieHieM-b 
eeenbt urn HOBaro roAa, no cTapoMy KajieHAapio, a hmcbho bo bto- 
poft nojiOBHHt (feBpa^a, ct> 13-ro no 21-e qHCJio 9Toro M-fecaua. Bt> 
HpaH-fe,no HapOAHOMy BtpoBaniio, dywu yconmuxh npo6yoicdamcr, eecuofo, 
BM-fccrb ct> npo^yacAeHieMT, upHpoAu. Bt> &to BpeMa, a mmohho bt> re- 
qeHie ^0CJI•bAHHx^ naTH AHeft CTaparo roAa (<J)eBpajia) h nepBux-b naTii — 
HOBaro (MapTa), cjrfcAOBaTejibHO, B-b To-ate, npH6jiH3HTejii>H0, BpeMa, 
KarK'b y ApeBHHXT> pHMJiam* h cjraBam> > OHb nucxoduAu ua zmAto, 



Digitized by 



APEBHE-APlftOKIE H flPEBHE-OEMHTCKIE 3JEMEHTH OIABflH'b. 23 

nocfcmaJiH %om cbohxt* poactbbhhhkobi> h npuHHMSJiH ott, hhxt> 
yromeHU: ^Kmo otcepmeyemz hmi> (nymaM'b yconniHxi>) a , roBopHTCH 
vb ABecT-b, „pyKOK), CHafiaeHHOio mhcomt>, pyicoio, cHa6HceHB0K> oxera- 
Aoft, ct mojihtbok), xocTHraiomeff qHCTOTLi, moio 6Aa%ocA06Aawmi yxo- 

B JT6TB 0 p 6HHH83 He MCTHTeJIbHfcie, H6 OCKOpfijieHHUe, CHJ1BHU6 <j)paBaniH 

UyniH ycomnHX'b), racTue: B'B 3tomt> aom* (rbBopaTt ohh) tfyaerb 
H3o6njiie <5biKOB , b, JHO^eft, bt> Hen-b Gyayrb CucTpwe kohh h KpinKaa 
KOJiecBHiyt; tott> Mym> (SyaeTB nojiB30BaTbCH noHTeHiein,, fiyaerb 
rjiaBOK) co6paHin, kto Haarb ooctohhho acepTByerb pyicoio, CHa6aeH- 

HOH) MflCOMT>, pyKOK), CHa6aceHH0K) OAeJKAOfi, Cl> MOJIHTBOK), AOCTHra- 

wmeio ihctotu". BupaaceHHufi 3^tcb Bsv&nKh Ha OTHomerie jnoaefi 
bi> yconniHM'b poACTB6HHHKaMi> npo^ojiMcaeTb h HbiH-b cymecTBOBaTb 
bt» Hapojvfe y BC'bx'b c^aBflHT,, HaPycn, Kor.ua 3HMOK),nocjrb Tpeciey- 
qHxi> MopoaoB'b, HacTaHerb BApyr'b OTTenejrb, uocejwine saMtqarorb, 
qTO „pOAHTeJiH B3#oxHyjiH a , T.«e. MepTBHe hob^hjih (AOXHyjin) TenjiOM'b, 
Bt> PocciH ace cymecTByefb noB-fepie, hto Ha nepBuff aeHb ITacxn 
(oahhi> h3t> Ba3KH'feSniHXT> eeceuuuxb npa3AHHK0B'b, Kor^a eocnpecaerm 
npHpo^a) OTKpuBaeTca He6o, h bt> npoAOJiaceme Bcefl CB-fcTJioft RGxk&u 
dymu yconviuxb (no,a;o6HO npaHCKHMT* <J>paBauiH) nocmoRuno offpatqa- 
wmcR Meoicdy ofcueuMu, nocfcmaiOT'b cbohxt> poflCTBeHHHKOBT> h 3Ha- 
KOMbix'b, mwim, fbdnrm u padytomcn BM^crfc ct> hhmh. — .UpeBHie 
HH^ycu Hep-fe^KO npnsbiBajiH yconmHXT> kt» cbohm'b acepTBeHHUMi* Tpa- 
ne3aarc>; hxt>, w poAHTeJieH a , npwrjiai£iajra npHckCTb kt> orHio, hmt> 
npe^arajiHCb eace^HeBHo yromema, a bt> KajKAoe noBOJiyme bt> necTb 
hxt> ycTpaHBaJincb oco6eHHHfl noMunaAtnuji mpane3u. Uapcw (hotomkh 
ApeBH«xT> HpaHi^eBT*), no.no6HO npe^KaMi* cbohmt>, bt> Teqeme nep- 
Baro ro.ua nocjrb CMepra Koro-jra6o h3t> po^cTBe hhhko bt> , noMKHarorb 
ero eaeweBHo mojihtbok) kt> <j)paBamH, npoH3HOCHMOK> nepej^b -fe^Oio, 
a nepesij M'fcc^a'b hocji* CMepra — oco6eHHOK> cjry^fioio. SaTtMi*, Bb 
CJit^yiomie rojta, b^ 4-fl, h 30-fi js.ru KajK^aro Mfecaija, B-b 
oco6eHHocTH ace bt> Teieme ynoMaHyTHXT> abchth ^Heft, npa HacTyn- 
jeniH HOBaro roia, TaiUKe B03H0CHTca mojhtbu kt> (J)paBamn.— Tan-b 
n y cjiaBHH'b rq chxt> nop*b noBcearfccrHO, Brb H3B fecrabie bt> ro^y no- 
MHHajbHHe ahh, a Taicace bt> HSBtcTHue npoMeacyncn BpeMeHM nocjit 
cMepra po^CTBeHHHKa, b^ 9-it, 20-ft, 40-ft ahh h np. (6ojrrapu no- 

cfemaiOT-b MOrHJIH CBOHXT. pOAHHXT, Ha 3-Ji, 12-fi, 20-fl H 40-tt 

Ahh; 3aT-feMT> 3th noc*meHiH noBTopaiOTca wepes'b 3, 6, 9 h 12 Mt- 
GHHeBT)) coBepuiaioTcn &bm h jth Ha Monuiax'b CBoeo6pa3Hwe o6pH^bi, 




24 



3TH0rPA<DH4 ECKOE OBOSPSBIE. 



cocTaBHaa <mcTb KOTopux'b saoKHaeTCfl BO-nepBtixt bt» yromeHin 
yMepniHx-b bhhoitb, nuBOirb, 6jiifHaMH h ^pyniMH acTBaMH, KOToptm 
CTaBflTca Ha ctojtc> (hjh BieqyTea hoat> ctojii>), KOi\n;a noMHHOBeme 
npoHcxoAHT'b AOMa^ hjih ace KJiaayrca Hjm BtuinBaiOTCH Ha Monuy, 
KorAa oho cpBepmaeTCH Ha Kjaax6Hmt, h bo-btophx'b- b^ cjrfeayio- 
uie& 3a Thm> noMunaAhhou mpane3n>. 

„Bt> Tpoumyw cy66orny"', no oaoBaM* OoroiaBa (1550 r.), „no cc- 
jomt> h norocTaMT> cxoahtgh Myacn h aceHbi Ha acajibHHicax'b h nm- 
Hymen no tpoGoM* yMepwuxb <n> bcuhkhm'B BonjieMt". IIpeKpacHofi 
HJMiocTpauielt kt> 3T0My CBHAtTejibCTBy Moryn, cJiyacHTb cjiOBa Ojre- 
apia, nyTomecTBOBaBmaro no Poccia bt> 30-xt> ro^axi XVII cTOxb- 
tlh h onHcaBmaro aomhhkh, npoecxoAHBniifl bt> Tpouwyw otce cy66omy 
Ha pyccKOMt KJiaflCHiivfe m> HapBt: „KjiaA6nme 6hjio HanojHeHo pyc- 

CRHMH aceHmHHaMH, pa3CTHJiaBUIHMH Ha MOriiJiaX'b H H8Arp°()HHX*b na . 

MaTHHKaxt npeKpacHO buhihtijo necTpue njiaTKH; Ha ruiaTKn CTaBu- 
jnHCb 6jno.ua ct> fijiHHaMH h nnporaMH, pufioft h KpameHUMH afiijaMH; 
oh* nacTbio CToajH y Mornjiu, MacTBio jreaaju pacnpocTepraMH Ha 

HHXT>, BHJIH H BOHHJIH, ofipailJ^H pa3H£ie BOnpOCH KT> nOKO# HHK&JTb . 

Meoeuift (bt> Ha^ajrfe XVI Btica), pa3CKa3UBan o noMHHajibHbix'b 06- 
pa^ax* pyccKHXT> Ha nanieit 3ana£H0ft OKpannt, roBopHTt, qTO bo 
BpeMa noMHHajiBHoft Tpaneiu (npoiicxoAHBoieu Ha AOBty) 6pocajiH no^b 
ctoji'b no Kyco^Ky orb KyniaHift, Taicace BmiiiBajiH iiiibo, Kaicb yiowe- 
nie dytuaMh ympmuxb. Ecjh Hro-HH6y,p> CT/fccTtfoe onyqafiHO na^ajio 
co CTOJia Ha nojrc>, to ynaBmee ne no^HHMaJiocb, a ocTaBJiMocb, 
KaKT> roBopHjrb napoA'b, bt> nojb3y yMepuinxT>. IIo OKOHqaHin ate 
nnprnecTBa, 3Haxapb BHMeTajrb h3t> H36w mctjioh) flyoiH yMoporax-b, 
npoH3HOCH: „-fejiH-nHJiH, dytuenKu, a Tenepb cmynaume bout,, Bom>! tt 
H huh* eme 6-kaopyccbi, bt> ocenmti noMHHajibHbift npasAHHK-b, ca- 
IHCb sa Tpane3y, npHrjramaioT'b aynra yMepinHXT> (A3flA0BT»-;vfcA0BT>) 
npejierfeTb kt> hhmt>: 

^Cbhtu daxdut sobomt* Bac^: zodawe do naci\ 

Eciib Ty^ yce, qTO Bon. lay, 

Mhbtb TOJbKO xaTa 6oraTa, 

IIpocHM'b Bacb, ahww (=jieTHTe) do nacbf" 

IIo oKonqamH yacHHa BCTaioTi, H3T>-3a CTOJia, mojhtch Bory • 
pacxofltfTCH, npHroBapHBan: 

^CBHTbie daxdbi, AHtmte uenepb do ne6a! u 



Digitized by 



APEBHE-APlftCKlE H APEBHE-CEMHTCKIE 3JEMEBTH CJIABHHT>. 25 

Eta> HbKOTopuxi> MbcTax-L BejiHKoft Pyca, Korja coBepoiaiOTCJi 
roiOBUH noMHHKH Ha aoMy bt> qecTb BctxT> yconniaxTb poAHieli, ae- 
3pHM0 npncyTCTByiomax'b npa 3tomt* o6pwfe, xo3aHH'b ) no OKOHqama 
Tpane3u, OTKpuBaeTb okho, pacnydcaerb Ha yjraijy Kycoicb xojicia 
h npHrjiamaerb noKofiHHKOBt B03BpaTHTtca Bb cboh 3arpo6Hbia hch- 
jiHina no nocTJiaHHOMy nojiOTHy: ^cmynaume cb EowMb! bott> Tyrb 
fiyaerb BaMi> noMarqe!" EojirapM, nocfemaa Bb yKaaaHHtie Bume 
AHH Mornjiy yMepmaro h npHnoca ct> 006010 yromeme (BapeHufi 
HMMeHb, pacb, Kpyacsy ct> bbhomt, hjih BOAicofi), yBtpeHu, q-ro 
yconmaxo npucymcnxeyemh Tyrb ace h npnHHMaeTT> npH3Ha- 
TeJiBHOCTBio npHHoweHin. ^ajmaTCKie MopjiaKH, no cBHA.tTejibCTBy 
OopTuca (XVIII b.), coBepmaJiH homhhkh no yMepiuewb bt> KaaeAufi 
npa3AHHKT> bt> Teqeme utjiaro roAa: aceHmaHu, npaxoAfl Ha Morajiy, 
oporaaJiH ee cne3aMH, yKparaaJiH ijBfcTdMH, nocwnaja AyniHCTUMH Tpa. 
BaMH. Ecjih no KaKofi-jra6o npaqanfe npaxoAHJiocb nponycicaTb npa3A- 
hhkt> fies'b oTnpaBJieHia iiomhhok^, to OH-fe n3BHHajiHCb bt> tomt* ne- 
peA'b noKoflenfcoM-b, 6eckAya crb hhmt,, icaicb Cb ataBwarb, h Aasaa 
eMy noApo6Hbi8 OTqeTX 0 npaqaHax-b, npaHyAHBmax'b nxi* ho. hchoji- 
HHTb, no OTHonieHuo kt> HeMy, CBoero AOJira. Bo Bcfex-b AanHux'b 
cjyqanx'b o6HapyacHBaeTCii cymecTBOBame bt> 003 Han ia HapoAOBT> cjia- 
BAHCKaro njieaieHH ApeBHe-apificicaro npeACTaB-aeHia 0 rbcHux'b otho- 
meBinxT, qejiOBtKa Kb yconniHM-b ero poAHraarb. 

He ocTaHaBJiHBaflCb Ha 6oJite hoapo6ho>o> onacama yromeHift 
MepTBuxi, KOTopoe 3aBejio 6u uenn cjianiKOM'b Aajieico, orpaHaqycb 
npHBeAGHiewb cJi'feAyiomHX'b caoB'b MycyjibMancKaro nncaTeja nepBoft 

nOJIOBHHM X B*Ka, HfiHTj-^aCTM, CBHAtTeJIbCTByiOmHX'b o,npeBHOCTH 

y cjiaBiiH'b-fl3WHHBKOB'b ofipflAa noMKHOBemn MepTBuxT>: w qepe3T> roAt 
no CMepTH noKofaaro fiepyrb (caaBflHe) KyBmHHOB'b ABa-AHaTb Medy, 
HHoraa H'fecKOJUbKo Sojbiue, a HHor^a H-fccKOJibKO MeHbme, h Hecyrt 

HX-b Ha TOTfc XOJIM-b (Ha KOTOpOMt XTOHXb cocyA* ct> neiuoMi* co- 

jKHteHHaro MepTBeija), to* co6npaeT(«i ceaieScTBO noKoSHaro, fbdsrrn^ 
nbiomi n 3aT-bMi> pacxojmTca". IIocJiOBau'b 0eo4)HJia^Ta (ok. 629 r.) 
y BapBapoB'b, noA^ HMeHGMt kotophdcb KoT4«peBCKill y3HaeT-b npu- 
dynaucKuxb cAaenm, 6Mjn> ofiwqaft npasAHOBaTb noMUHKu no ycouniHM-b. 

Bl» 1HCJIO OfipflAHW^ AtfiCTBl*, KOTOpHMH H HUH* e^e Bt H*- 

KOTopux-b MbcTaxT> y lOHtHux'b cjraBHH-b conpoBoacAaeTcw ropeBaHie 
no yMepuinMT>, ns^peBjio npanaAJieHcaJio ofiuKHOBeeie A^^aib uapmu 
na mvbAfb 11 wpanuntA na Auwh t a TaK»ce ofcmpuiamh ooaocu bt, 



Digitized by 



20 



3THOrPA4>H1ECKOB 0B03PSHIE. 



b BeJWKOft CKoptfH: bt> HepHoropiw, npH onjiaKHBamH MepTBfcixi*, 
MHorie ucuapanueawtm ce6-i> Auua, CTpyamyioctf ace hpb ijapanatrb 

KpOBb HO CTHp&K)Tl H He CMUBaiOTB, B HtKOTOpue HO HtCKOJIbKy He- 

xkxh xoxbtb ct> jhiiom^, HcnempeHHHM-b sacoxineio KpoBbio. Kpoirfc 
roro, aceHiuHHH HHorjia o6pmbieaiomb ce6t boaocu hjih, no Kpafi- 
neii M*pt, xoaht'b nepBoe BpeMH nocirb cMepTHaro coiyqaa cb 
mnoKpumoi* %oAoeou. Cep6u Tanace ritcicojibKO BpeaieHH xoaarb 
Oea-b raanoKt, T.-e. ct o6naoiceHHoU xoaobou. Bt> ^epHoropw MaTb 
u cecTpw yMepmaro offpnabieaiotm ce6t ttom h KJiaAyTt bt> MorHjry, 

BMtCTt Cb nOKOfiHHKOM'b. HeXH, no CJIOBaMt XpOHHKH BtJibCKaro, 

oruaKiiBai caiepTb JIio6yniH, 6pocaJiH bi> pasBeaeHHbifl r&r Morn- 
m£ oroHb o6pn>3aHHwe eoAOCta h mimu. cHa nootceKpoeHix He tbo- 
pflTCJi, hh Auuedpanix* , roBopHTca bt> »HTiH KoHCTaHTHHa MypoM- 
cKaro. IIo CBHA^TejibCTBy KawyGica (yM. 1223 r.), no cjryqaio CMep- 
tii uojibcxaro khhzh Ka3HMipa, cmohcho 6ujo Bn^tTb, Kaieb ct> ucm- 

pana-HHHXb HOITJIMH AMfr H'fcKOTOpblX'b aceHT> H A^BHI^b KpOBb TeKJia 

cTpyflMH>, HtKOTopwe HaHocHJiH ce6t paHM xpyrHMH opyAiHMH. Ha- 
HJiumbift Bbinie MycyjibMaHCKift nHcaTejib HfiH'b-AacTa roBopnrb, <ito 
CJiaaHHCKia HceHumnu, «Koi\na cayqHTCa y hhxt> noicoflHHK'b, wpa- 
namrm ce6i> hokomt> pyKuujiuw* .--JiyKidLWh (B'b II B'feK* no P. Xp.) 
onucuBacT'b cxoAHbift o6pjwE> onjiaKUBaHiH MepTBaro bo speMena 
PsMCKoft HMnepin: «HaqHHaeTCH njia^b h iuaomeHie aceHiEtHH'b (rojio- 
mema njrafcajibmHirb ao chxt. nop*b bt> odbiwat y cjiaBamO, Bcb 
up03BBaK)TT> cjie3bi, yaapaiorb ce<3n B'b rpy^b, eupueawmb cedfc eo- 
v)v>a h ucmpanueawrm ced*fc do npoeu menu* . Ckhom, no CBH^t-j 
TO.iL.CTBy TepoAOTa, B'b 3Haieb CKopfin, no ciyqano CMepTH ijapa, 
ompmaAu ce6fc ywu* offcmpuiaAu eoAOcw, xkmjiH napmu na py- 
Kaxi^ ucuapamteaAU ce6n> Ao6b u nocb, npo6odam cmpn>A(no jrfeByio 
pyKg. Cxo^Hwft o6uqa* ct> .upeBHMniHx^ BpeMeH-b H3B*fecTeHT> 6ujh> 
n y Hapo / Il;oB^ asiaTCKHxi,, o qearb CBHA^TeJibCTByiOT b MHorie TeKCThi 
Berxaro 3aBbTa, Hanp.: <He j^jisAtb napnaoei Ha •rfcji'fc BameMT> h 
hc sbicmpmaume eoAocb na;cb rja3aMH BaniHMH no yMepmeMT>» . IIpop. 
lepoMia Taieb nsodpamaerb KapTHHy CKOp6n MoaBHTflHT> o nocrnrnieft 
nxt rH(5ej[H: «y Kara^aro lOAoea %o*a h y Kaaclaro 6opoda yMdAeua, 
Y Bcfexi* na pynaxb wpanuHbt* . tCnuMa* ct> ce6n eoAocu, ocmpu- 
mcb, cnop6H o H'feacHO jhoChmuxt, cuHax-b tbohxt>; pacwupb H3^-sa 
mx% Atacuuy* , nHinerb npop . Maxeft. IIo cjioBaMi, ^yniana, (J>hhh- 
KiniiEcu B'b BHBjrfc, onjiaKHBan eaccroxHO CMepTb A^OHiica, oScmputaAu 



Digitized by 



APEBHE-APlflCKIE H APEBHE-CKMHTCKIE 9JIEMEHTU CJIABJiflt. 27 



ce6t floret*; TO-»e caMoe A*«aaan h eranTHHicH, no cjyqaio caiepTH 
6oHcecTB6HHaro 6uKa Annca. IIo ernneTCKOMy cKa3aflijo, H3HAa, 
y3HaBi> o mfiejiH 03Hpwca, omptb3aAa npxd* eoAOCb ct> rojOBW CBoeft 
h o6jekjiac& wh Tpaypnoe OA'fctfHie. 0 npHHoniemH, bt> qecTb yaop- 
muxt } Ha Moriuiy hxt> eoAOCb, npaKTHKOBaBiueMca Ha ocTpoB-fc J[ejio- 
<rfe, ynoMHHaerb repoAOTb. . HTaici> > nownwibBue o6paAH cjawiirb 

OHflTb [ipCJCTdB JIfl K)TB TtCHyiO CBB3S CT> TdKOBhlMH-iKe 06pH^aMH Ha- 

poAOBt ApeBHHro Mipa. 



IIoBceM'bcTHO pacnpocTpaHeHHuft bi> EBponfc oSuqaft pxdumbcx } 
HM6HH0 Ha CBHTKaXX h Ha Macjuraiin-fe, a paBHo u bo BpeMfl Mafi- 
^Karo (BeceuHnro) npas^uHKa, KopeHHTca Tame bt» rjiySoKofi Apeu- 

HOCTII. npa3AHHK(I CBflTOKT* II MaCJIflHHUbl, H 00 Bp6M6HH OTflpaBJie- 

nisiy h no xapaKTepy CBoeny, npeACTaBJiaioT'b necoMHBHHoe poactbo 
ct> coupHaceHHUMH cb nepepHotcueaninMu ace npasAHuicaMH HHBapcKHx-b 
KajieHAT> h JinfiepaJiift (bt> Maprfc) apobhhxi> pHMJiaH'b h Majiaro h 
sejiHKaro JI.ioHHCOBwxt Top»ecTBT> ApeBHHX'b rpeKOB-b (oTnpasjiaB- 
maxca wh Aeicafipt h Maprfc); npa3AHecTBa sth, HaxoAacb wh rfecHoft, 
Hepa3puBHoft cbh3h ci> KyjibTOMt cooTB*feTCTByio^Hxi> 6oroBi> (flHyca, 
JTafiepa, JUoHHca), hm^jih peAuiio3no~o6pAdntxu xapaKTepy. 

He CBH3aHa-JH ocnoBHaa Mhicib nepepa&HBaHia MyamHH'b bt> aceH- 
ciria njaTbfl h HceHmHirb bt> Myaccitia Cb peJiHrio3HbiM r b B033ptHieMT> 
Hapo,a;oBT> ccMHTCKiix'b, soo6me 0Ka3biBaBuinxx HeMaJioe BJiiflHie na 
KyjibTypy eBponeflcKux-b apieB-b? Bb cpe^t ceMMTCKnx'b HapoAOBi* 

B03HHKJI0 OpOACTaBJieHie 0 COCAHHeHM BT» odHOMb 602KeCTBeHHOM'b JII- 

ivfc CBoficTB-b noAOdz, cJOBOMt — o repM&(j)poAHTtt3M'i>. TaKi>, Hanp., 
bt> Cnpin Acmapma h BaaAb CwiHJiHCb Bb oaho deynoAoe 6oacecTPO; 
bt» KHHrt ToBHTa ynoMHHaeTCH o npHHomeHiu acepTBH <BaaAy iohu- 
wm»; bt> nacfrocb BbicoKHM-b yBaacenieM-b nojb30Bajiacb cTaTya 6opo- 
damoii Afppodumu. Bi> Cnpin, bt> H3B"fccTHbie TopxcecTBeHHbie ahh bi 
iecTb Baaja, otcpeim h noK/iounuKu dtsyno iaxo 6oia jibjjlihcl bt> Kpa- 
GHOBaTuxi> npospa^Hbix-b otcencKuuh copomcaxh a npo46Mi> otcencKOMb 
odtbHuiu, MeacAy T r hMT> KaK b MeniquHu OA'feBajiHCb bt> Myotccnoe ntambe 
h BOopyacajHCb mchumu u KomsMu. Ha ocTpoBt Koct, no CBHAt- 
TejbCTBy HjiyTapxa, otcpem TepanAa npHHOcmn* Cory CBoeMy atep- 
By, o6je qeHHuS bt> o/cmcnoe odthnnie h ct> noeH3mu.ua xoAoerb. 



6. I1EPEPMKHBAHIH. 



Digitized by 




28 



3TH0rPA<*HqECK0E 0603P15HIE. 



06uKH0BeHie nepopawMBaTsca nopauajiocb yae bt> Knaraxt BeTxaro 
aae-bTa. *Ha menu^unvb hg aojikho 6wti» mxjmckou odeoicdu, qHTaearb 

BT> KHHr'fe BTOp03aKOHiH, — H MyOfCHUHd He aOJTWeirb OltBaTfcCH B'b 

ofcencKoe njtambe y n6o Mep30icb neper's FocnoAoarb BoroMi> tboh&tb, 
Bcaidft, A'feJiaiomift cie> . IloqTH rbMH-ace cjiOBaaui BwpaacaeTCH o nepe- 
pA^CHBaHia pyccKHXb IIoMOKaHOHi>, H3WHHbift bt> Kioe-b BT> 1624 r.: 
flluFrb xpHCTiaHCKin fl'bTH cie TBopflTi,: el odeotcdy otcencKyw Myoicbn 
ofijaqaiOTCtf h otcenta eh MyoiccKyio*. IlHCbMeHHHfl CBHAiTeJibCTBa o 
pyccKHXb Hapoj.Hwx'b MacKapa#axi> bocxoahtt, ao XII mh flame ao XI 
B bKa. Co BpeM6HGMT>, kt* oGuqaio B3aHMHaro nepepajKHBamji MyacqHHT* 
bt> aceHCKi^i n-iaTBH h aceHiuHHt bt> MyaccKin, ecTecTBeHHO, npacoe- 
Ahhhjiocb odjieqeHie bt> pa3nue xapaKTepHCTnqocirio koctiomu, CA'bJaB- 
miecH saT-feMi, THimqecKHMH. Kt> qacjiy nocjrbAHHx-b npHHaflJrcaarb, 
Menc^y npoqaarb, (jwrypu HapoflHaro Macicapafla, H3o6paacaiomte pas- 
Hbix-b ae-bpei: koh«h, MeflB-bAH, sojnca, K03y h t.} n., HMtBinnx'b 
BCTapHHy onpe^tjieHHoe MHeojioraiecicoe SHaqeme. 

7. nEPBUM CHOFTb. nOWBAHIE IMOAU. 

HanoAO otcameu BCiOfly cocTaBMerb npa3flHHicb arbcraaro Hace- 
jreniH. Bt> Maaoif Pycn npa3 ( HHHKT> HBaHa Kynajra BCTapimy ot- 
npaBjuuicH KaKij TopaeecTBO, coBna^aBnioe ct> cHaqaaoM-b jkhhb , b». 
Bt> JtHTB-b h bo MHoraxi, arbcTax-b Poccia npHAaiorb ocoficHHO Baac- 
Hoe SHaqeHie nepeoMy cxc&TOiiy Ha hhb* cnony. Ha PycH CHOirb 
9tott> Ha3WBaeTCJi uMenuHHUKOMh. Xo3flflKa npuHOCHTTi ero B'b H36y 
h CTaBHT'b B-b nepcuHOMT. yrjiy, y Gomhuw*. Ho ofibwaio, npinwrroMy 
BT> HtKOTOpUXTj MajiopyccKHXT> MtCTaxi, 3<zoicum fli-iaeTCH cesttjeH- 
HUKOMb. B'b JlHTB-fe (h BtaopyeciH) nepBaa acHHija, yKpanieHHaa mrb- 
TaMH, HeceT-b nepeenm cxcamebt, BnepeflH BcbxT> hchhut>, Ha ffapcniu 
deop*, ixfc oMCH^aerb pafioTHnm, yromeme. CaoBOM-b, HaqaJio acaTBH 
cocTaBji^erb BbiAaiomeecH TopraecTBo, h nepeuu mom nojrb3ye*rcH 
ocofieHHHBfb nonemoMh. CooTBtTCTBeHHo aTOMy qexn, npn neqeHiH 
xxbfia H3^ uoeou p&eu, fipocaiorb bt> oroHb, T.-e. acepTByioT'b 60- 
acecTBy orHH^ nycoia mtbcma. Bi> sanoH* Movcea HaxoAHWb i^ijiiiift 
pn.K'b npeflnncaHift^ KacaiomHxca Haqajia ataTBH. B'b qucjrb oaBH-bft- 
urax'b, BecbMa HeMHoroqHCJieHHux'b HapoAHwx r b npa3AH«K0B b, Ha8BaHi> 
3fl-bcb cnpa3AHHK'b nanamKoeb otcametAummmu*. IIpuKasajrb Tocnoflb 
Movceio ooiflBHTb Hapo^y HtepanjieBy cxb^yiomie 3aKonu: cHafijiioflaft 



Digitized by 



AFEBHE-APlftOKIE H APBB HI-CEMHTCKIE 9J1EMEHTLI CJEABJUTL. 29 

h npaadnuKb oicameu nepeitxb nxodoab TpyM TBoero, Baicie th ctfljrb 
na nojrfc... Hanamnu nxodosh seMJia TBoeft npunocu eb doMb rocnoda, 
Bora TBoero>. Bt» ipyroMi irbcrb HHTaoMt: cKorAa fiyneuib »aTb 
Ha Hctt (Ha ofi-feTOBaHHoft 3eiurfc) aaTey, to npHHeciiTe nepeuu cnom 
acaTBbi Bauieft ica cenmenHUKy. Oht» BOSHececerb celt cHont nepeAi* 
TocaoAOM-b, wio6u Barn* npiofipicTH 6iaroBOJieHie> . 

Bt> 3aKOH-fe-*e MovceeBOM'b Haxoflarb ce6fc o(fr>flCHeHie 3anacaH- 
Haa rHJib^epAHHroM'b CTapHHHaa ccpficicaa nocJOBima: <npoKjrara 
HHBa, Ha Kojej Kjrac He ocTaje>. «Kor*a 6yAeuib acaTb Ha nojrfc tbo- 
eirb— npeAnHcajn> Tocno.^b tbpaHJiio — h 3a6ydeiub cnom na noAtb, to 
hc eoaepau^aucH B3flTb ero; nycTb oht> ocTaHeTCH npHiuejimy (mime- 
My), ciiporb h b^ob*, *ito6h TocnoAb, Borb tboA, OjiarocJiOBH.Tb 
Te6n bo Bctxi> A'fejax'b py*n> tbohxt,. Kor^a Sy^euib ofiHBaTb Ma- 
CJHHy cbok), to ne nepeeMampueau 3a coSow etbmeeu; nycTb ocTaeT- 
ch npHmejiLijy, CHporfc h BtfOBt... Koraa 6yAeaib CHHBtaTb hjioah bti 
BHHorpaAHHKt TBoearb, ne o6upau ocmantKoeb 3a co6ow\ nycTb ocTaeT- 
ch npamejibuy, cnporfe n B^OBt>. OpotUflTie cep6cK0X) noaiOBHijeio 

HHBbI, Ha KOTOpOft H6 OCTaJTOCb HH OflHOrO KOJIOCa, HeCOMH-feHHO, OCHO- 

BaHO Ha Toarb-we Hawfe: ocTaBJieHHue Ha hhb% kojiocbh AOJiaciibi 
HOCTynHTb B*b noJib3y no ( &6HpaiomHX'b hxt, HeaaiymHx^, baobt, h ch- 
poTi>. OrcK>Aa-ace o6T>jiCHHeTCH qemcicoe o6uKHOB6Hie — Ha bjtoaobux^ 

AOpOBbilX'b OCTaBJHTb HG CHJITUMT*, HO RpallHCfi BTfept, HO 0£HOM> 

naoay; wb npoTiiBHOM-b cjiyqat aepeBO, no Hapo*HOMy BtpoBaHiw, B^ 
cjrfe < a.yK>m,eM , b ne npHnecorb hh o*Horo njio^a. 



Bt> pasHbucb M-fecTaxi Hexin ao chxt> nopT> co6jnoaaeTCH cirfcjy- 
iomift CBoeo6pa3Hiait ofibmii: 25 uojih, bt> aeHb cb. flKOBa, npa co- 
BepuieHiH H3BtcTHhixi uepeMOHifl, nu36ep%aemcH cb i^epKOBHofi 6amHH, 
hjih cb Apyroro B03BuineH oaro MicTa, oicepmeeHHuu K03eAh ct> noso- 
J046HHMMH poraMH, y6paHHbiu wthtnaMu. KpoBb aToro KHBOTHaro co- 
6npaeTCH h xpaHHTca, icaifb AtftcrBHTOJibHoe wMfiHoe cpe^cTBO. — 
06uqaft aTorb coBepiueHHo HanoMHHaeT'b .apeBHift rpe^ecicift o6phat> 
yMHjocTHBHTCJibHaro HxepTBOupHHonieHin, coBcpniaBniarocH bt> jibTaee 
ae BpeMH (xoth H-fecKOJbKO paHbuie, HMeHHO bt> kohi;^ Haniero Man) 
bi> qocTb Anojjiofla: ABoe npHroBopeHHuxi> kt> CMepra Myotcnum, hjih 
MyotcHuna u Menmuna, yGpauHue n<wdaMU u uen>maMu> nadytuewtue 



8. HM3BEPWEHIE WEPTBbl CT> BblCOTbl. 



Digitized by 




drnorPA+mecEOE obo3pshie. 



6Mtv*oKH*AMu mpaeiMu, vh Eaqecrat jMiuocTiiBirreJbHoi zeprsu, 
mmepuumch eo cxaju. QpHHOCHMue Tamurb o6pa3om> bt» zeprsj 
xx>XB Ba3usajHCb AtvKapcmKHHHMu, u*jumejH*a*Mu; cuepn. Hrb 
jiojixna 6tua ofeiaeqfiBaTb 3iopoBbe rfecraaro Hacejetjui, orBpamarb 
on» aero aapaau h xpyrin HeB3nttbi- 

Bt> IlepanojHct o*5peqeHHuxi> Ha zepTBonpHHOoieiiie acHeomxux* 
Opoccuu cb sworn**, npH qeirb ohh yfoBaxHCb jo cuoprra. HtKoro- 
pwe, no CBR^-feTejbCTBy -lyKiaHa, Taum ze cdoco6omi> hphhochjh 
n» xepTBy drwnea cbohxt,, 3&UH>qHB~b hxt>, OABaico, npejBapHTejbHO 
bi» irfcrnoirb. Huseepuui hxi» bt» nponacTb, upon3eocnjH 3aKJmie y 
*to 3to He x*feTH, a TeJHTa. TepoAorb ynonneaen> o cxoxhomt, o6h- 
m& y TaepHqecKHXi» ckhoobt,: ohb uphhochjdi ceoefi 6ornfffe n 
xepTBy qyxe3enaem,, norepirbBfflHXT* Kopa6jeKpymeHie h nonajaa- 
mHxcff hhi> bt» pjtch; raioBti xepm ohh 0Tpy6ajm, mttja xe nu3- 
eeptfuu cb ebtcomt* ckoma, rxb ctohjo CRHTHjrame 6orHHH. 



He MeH-fee xapaKTepHCTHqeffb h cjrtiyioiiuft qemcsift ofonafi: Ha- 
KaHyH-fe PoacxecTua, Cb KOToparo bt> cTapHHy HaqHHaJca b-e *IexiH 
menu t<xh 9 &o chxt> nopi> bt> H-fcKOTopwx'b arfccTaxb o6icypu8aiom* 
noposhUMb naeo30Mb h onpucKueatomb nopoebeu mohcu ckothhA xsopi., 
c% atjibio uzwaniH aTHin, cnoco6oMt> HeqHCToft chjjh h3t> ABopa, t. e. 
onwuenin jjiopa.— Bt> ABecrfc oqumeme orb oxHoro v&b caMbix-b 

CHJblJUX'b OCKBepHCHift, a HMeHHO OTT> DpHKOCHOBeflifl Kb MepTBOMy 

rfcjiy, npoH3B0j,HTca nocpe^CTBOM-b KopoBbefi MoqH: „OTB-feqM'b Arypa- 
Ma3Aa... Ecjih MepTBoe rfcjio pee ofirjioxaHo xHmHbiirb ncOTb hjih 
nTHfieft, to nycTb (ocKBcpHHBmiftcfl n p hboch o Be Hie mt> Kb Hesiy) oMoemt 
eeoe mtbAo nopoebeu Moneu, TpHjaaTb pa3i> nycTb oht. OMoeTca, Tpnjt- 
naTb pa3T> nycTb noTperb pyicn, nycTb 0M0eTT> bt> To-ace Bpena h 
roJiOBy. Ecjih «c MepTBoe rbjio cme He ofirjioxaHo xniuHbiarb hcomt, 

HJIH nTimCK), TO nyCTb OHT> MOeTCH HHTbieCHTb pa3T> H HflTb^eCHTb pa3T> 

nycTb noTperb cetf-fe pyKH a . TaKolt o6biqaff naxo^HTCH bt> rfecHtftineftcBH- 
3H cb BtpoBaHieMi* ApeBHHxi> apieBT> wh cenmocmb Gwm u nopoeu. ^peB- 
HieHH.tycu, wnoHuuteHixnoHBu, ocTaBJrnjiH Ha oqHmaeMOBTb M-fecrb na 

HOHh K0p09b\ nOJTb BT» ^OMaXTj OMMW,dACH y HHXT> KOpOSbUMZ HO80- 

30Mh, TKaHH if njraTbH— Kopoebeu mohbu. H HHH-fe erne bt> Hhaih, npn 
OTnpaBJieHiM TopaecTBa, cooTB'bTCTByiomaro HauieMy BecenneMy npa3A- 



9. KOPOBIH HAB03b, KAKT> OHNCTHTLflbHOE CPEACTBO. 




APEBHE-APlfiCKIE H JPEBHE-CEMHTCKIE 3JEMEHTW CJABflHT>. 31 

HHKy (hjih npa3AHHKy homiio toda), hmcsho bt> HOBOJiyHbe ceHTaCpa, 
t. e. nocit OKOHqama AoayuHBoii nopu, aom& yKpamaiOTCtf n,B*feTaMii 
h ofiMaBHBaiOTCH KopoehuMi mdoaoMb. CaBnaaeme qemciearo o6uqaa 
cb HHAiftcKHMT> r KopG hh hxhmch bt> ApeBHMniHX'b npeaaHiax'b apift- 
ckhxt>, AOKa3biBaerB HecoMHtHHyio rjryfioKyio ero ApeBHOCTb. B-fepo- 
atho, H3i Toro ace HcroqHHica hcxo^htb ofiwqafi Kypcnuxt nocejtf H-b 
HaicaHyHt Poac^ecTBa h BoroflBjieHiH coraaraTb Kaw^ cpean ABopa, 

XOTfl, HO HUHtmHeMy HapOJHOMy TOJIKOBaHilO, 3T0TB o6pa,nHufi cbh- 
TOlHUtt OrOHb CJiySKHTB KT> TOMy, MTOfiW pOflHTeJIH Ha TOMT> CBl>Tt 

corpijrocb. 



10. HEPTbl KWIbTA EMTIMCKMXl C/IABHH1* - B3UHHMK0BI. 



Tpynna CJraBHHCKHxi> HapoflOB-b, bt, cTapHHy 3aceJLHBinnx , B ' 6a;r- 
TiflcKoe nodepeacbe (huh1>iiihk)K) ctBepHyio repMamio), H3B r fccTHbix , b 

DO At OfimHM'b HMeHeafb 6aJITilfCKHX'b CJfaBHHt, BO MHOrHXT> OT- 

HomeHijix'B npeACTaBJiflerb oco6ghhocth, pb3KO OTjinqaiomiH ee orb 
npoqaxt cji&B a hckhxT) HapoaoB'b. Bi> to BpeMH, k&ki> cjiaB^He Boofime 

OTJIH^aiOTCfl HpaBOMl> MflpOJIK)6HBbIM'b H KpOTKHML, SaJFTifiCKlO CJia- 

BflHe, no cjiOBaMt coBpeMeHHuxi* Barb cpeAHeBi>KOB£ixi> nncaTejieft, 

6WJH BOHHCTBeHHU H Xpa6pH, CBHptnbl H KpOBOHCaAHbl, OJIHTHH BT. 

BofiH* Ha Mopt h Ha cynrfc, npHBMKJTH jkhtb rpafiesKoarb h ao6h- 
qeH),—BT>oco6eHHocTH oTjraqajracb 3thmh KaqecTBaMH JIioth^h (BejieThi), 
KOTopwwb, BnpoqeMii, Maoio ycTynajro PyaHe (acHTejm oct- 
poBa PyaHH), EoapnqH, Barpw, HoMopHHe. Bt> to BpeMH, icaicb 6o.ib- 
niHHCTBO cjiaBAHi. noqHTa^n 6oroBi> cbohxt> 6e3i> h^ojiofb h xpaMOBt 
aaaee 6e3i> acpenpB'b, M-bcTO KOTopiix'b o6mkhob6hho sacTynajrb CTap- 
uiift bt> post, y fiaJiTificKHi-b cuaBHH'b BCTptqaiOTca noBcewrfecTHo mho- 
roqHc^enHbie HCTyicaH&i fioroB-b coBepraeHHO cBoeo6pa3Hoft (J>opMH, 
xpaMbi, OTjraqaiouuecn CBoeo6pa3nofi apxHTOKTypoft h yKpamemtfMH, 
KpeuH, OTnpaBJiaiomie onpea-bjreHHbie 6orocJiyace6Hue o6pHAbi. Bee 

3T0 CBHA'feTe^bCTByeT'b 0 KaKHXTb-TO OC06eHHHXT> 06CT0flTeJIbCTBax , b, 
0 KaKHXt-TO, BtpOflTHO, HH03eMHHXT> BJliflHLHX'b, npH KOTOpWXt, BT> 

OTJinqie orb npoqHxi, conjreMeHHHKOB-b, cjioauuiacb 3KH3Hb rhx-b OTpa- 
cjietf cjiaBjmcKaro njieMeHH, KOTopbia, npn paacejieniH nocJi^AHHro, 
HanpaBHJTHCb Kb 6cperaMi> 9jib6bi h Ba^TincKaro Mopa h 3aHajfu 
fiaJiTiiicKoe nofiepeacbe h HtKOTopHe h3t> cocfe^HHX'b ocTpoBOB'b. 




O Ton, no a Kacurb oGpaaoab »n» Bjim n» junon oucil 
■a eaoeotipasaoe pasrarcie span ■ ayj&Ton ypoa aayrim . aapojon. 
aeropiz yvajwaaerb; 00 npa 6oxfce Branarejuon xavbh neoo 
apejyeron p&nrioaaaro ayjbTa im, o^BapyxEBajDrc* saaia-T0 3a- 
rajMwa aapaxieja cb coonfarrrariomBm npejuferan syjbTa aa- 
pojpn eeavrannrb, a parao a rtaoTopfctrb aapoion aajoaaar- 
aam>, Taaaee Btfurrasinara aa cefrfc eewrrcaia aiiaaia. Boa- 
XjepXBBSLncb nam* on. BucsaauBama aaaara jh6o joruon o 
ron, aaaairb nyrea-b xorjH upohhmttb bt, jahbto cTxueHHyio 
whenoeih yuoaaajrua ariaHia, orpaaavycb cnepsa junib ycasameai* 
aa <paianm. 

A. Xpaioa. 

a. Ooutiu tuuiHb. 

Xpaxu ftuTificaax'b cjiasawb o6ukhob6hho ctohoh Bayrpa oapy- 
xem&ro jiepeaaaaoi otpodou srfccra, t. e. deopa hjh t#p<x*i (oropo- 
aceaaaro npocTpaacTBaj, cjyxHBmaro atcTovb BapoABbix*b co6paaii: 
aoja aapw'b exo^iucH o6mecTBeHBuxi> mojhtbt> h zeprBonpo- 
HomeBifl, rajaaiff a napoB-b, jja oficyzjeaia oomecTBeafluxt 
*Bjn>* Caauft xpaa-b, bh y TpcaHocio aoToparo aejtocrynaa 6iua npo- 
cruyb caepTHWMT>, npejcra&ia-rb oropoatcBsoe crfcaaaa a noapuToe 
Kptuuex) opocTpaHCTBO, 3aKJK>qaBinee bt> ce6t cexmuAuvte, t. e. u««- 
mpajthxyto naemb, rjt noatmajiocb H3o6pa^eaie 6ora (b.ih HtcKOJb- 
kbxt> fioroB-bj, omdnufidtuytocx orb ocrajbHOfi qacra xpaaa «#ym- 
penuuMu 3asrbcaMu. Bt> B-feKOTopHxi* cjyqajix*b h HapyzHfaia erfcau 
xpaaa 6mjih ue CBJionraua, a 3aa^nuuiHCb koaohhomu, 3a6n>tuawtuMu 
ntKOHbfo m aiyxHBinnMB onopoio ,xm apunin. *) 

Taaoft njiaH^ xpaaoBi> rbcHO cfiaHsaeTca <n> luaHoa-b xpaaoB-b 
cexuTCKHXi> aapo^oai, 3an*crB0BaflBum> umh h3t> ErnnTa a ochob- 
hljmt> THnoa-b KOTopux-b uovMTb cjyxHTb ckmbIh eBpeeBt. Ckbhw, 
aabatuaa 4>opay oapajuejiorpaMa, oapyateaa 6uja deopoM, orpaja 
aoToparo, raa* k&ki. coopyaceaie 6ujio boxojboo, npeACTaBjaja He 
CBJiouiHyiO crbay, a pwb koaohh*, 3aemuaHHtAxz> b^b'bthok) mnanhfo. 
IlapyxcHvui cmrbHu ckhhIh, m,xh KOTopuMH B03Bhimajiacb Kpbtiua B3i> 

UBtTHUXl* nOKpWBa.1T>, BOKpHTUX^ B^-feTHHMH Xe K02K&MH, CAtjiaBLI 

*) IIoApo6Hoe oaHcame xpaM0Bi> 6aiTiftcKHXT» cjaBHHi» en. bt. Moeft KsnrH 
m Bon. ip. cjiaB." I, CTp. 20 h cj. 



Digitized by 



APEBHE-APlfiCKLE H JU'EBHE-CEMHTCKIE 9.1EMEHTU CJABHHl. 33 



6buh H3ii AepeBijHHhixt 6pycbeBi>, a Mtcro, rat noM-femajrca KOB^ert 
3aBbTa, QTxbjiHJiocb euympenneto 3aeftcoio. 

IIpoBexei^ eme napajure-ib Bie»Ay onHcameM-b „ropoAa a , bt> ko- 
TopoMi noMtmajiCH PeTpcKift xpaan> h onncameM'B ABopa H^eajitHaro 
xpaMa TocnoAHH bt> OTKphreme mch npopoiey Ie3CKiHJiy BH^tmH. ropoA'b 
peAapetf, PeTpa, no CBHAtiejibCTBy THTMapa Mep3e6yprcBaro (XI b.), 
6ujn> CHa6aceHT> mpeMx eopomaMu. J(eou H3i> 3thxt> Bopon docmynuu 
6huw KOJicdoMy, TpeTBH ace, Ha eocmoHuou CTopont, ofipameHH 6ujih 
Kb Mopio. H3T. TaKoro npoTHBonojoaceBia bocto^hux^ Boporb Apy- 
rHMi> mojkho bubocth 3aKJiK)<ieHie, hto eocmoHHHH eqpoma 6hjih ««- 
docmynnu uapody. Y anixt BopoTi> CTOHJTb raBicTHufi PeTpcirifi 
xpaiTB.— IIpop. Ie3eiciHjn>, KOTopoMy noBe.itHO 6ujio w B03B-fecTHTb 
AOMy H3pajuieBy a , ajh pyKOBOjCTBa bt> fiyAymeMi,, ycTpoflcTBO xpaMa 
TocnoAHtf, KaKT> oho npeACTaBHjiocb eMy bt> Bujsfbmu, Me»Ay nponHMT*, 
HHuieT^: n Bufb xpaMa cmn>na co Bcbxt cropoHt ero a . Bt> crbat 
mpow eqpoma: ctBepHHfl, ioxhha h boctoihuh. Sapody docmynnu 
TOJtKO (fow H3^ hhxt> (Kairb bt> orpaaii PeTpcKaro xpaMa)— cfeBep- 
nun h loacHbia, eocmoHHUH ace Bopora, hoctoahho 3anepTHfl, oTKpw- 
BaiOTCH jramb bt> cy66oTy h bo ahh HOBOMtcaiBH h uapody uedocmynnu 
(onflTi> Kam> bt> orpaA* PeTpcicaro xpaMa),— iepe3t hhx^ bxoahtl 

H BHXOAHTb MOaeT-b OAHHT* TOJIbKO KHfl3b. 

tf. yKpaxueni*. 

CrfeHH xpaMOBi* 6ajm'ftcKHX'B cJiaBHHx, HHor^a n BopoTa orpa^t 
Mxt, OTJHHajHCb peJibe^HUMH, p-fe3HUMH yKpamcHiaMH. Tau-b uapyofc- 
mah cmtbHu PeTpcicaro xpaMa ytcpatucuvi 6bumt qyAecHofi prb3*6ou y npea- 
GTasjiABmei H3o6paHceHLH pa3JiHqHbixi> 6o\ow> w 6oiuuh. Cmnuu IIlTe- 
thhckojK rjiaBHOH kohthhu (caameHHaro 3AaHia) euympu u cnapyo/cu 
noKpuTU 6hjih prbmuMu ii3o6paaceHiflMH Aiodeu, nmmz u smpeu. 
Bhmuhh* cmopoua ApKOHCKaro xpaMa, no Btipaacemio CaKcona rpaM- 
MaTHKa (XII b.), 6jncTaJia HCKycHo CAiJiaHHUMH ffapeAt&poMu pas- 
AUHHtAXb cfimyph. ButbtuHM cmopoua eopomb aepeBAHHOfi orpaAw CTa- 
porpaacicaro xpaMa, no cJiOBaM-b TejibMOjrbAa (XII b.), 6uja eejiuno- 
Atbnuo pasynpawena (kohgiho, TaKace pt3HUMH H3o6paaceHiaMH). 

Hcnempeeie crfeH^ 3AaHiil peAtecpniaMu moSpaotceuijiMu BCTp-fc- 
qaeMi* HeoAHOKpaTHO bt> npoH3BeAemHX'b apeBHaro BOCTO^Haro HCKyc- 
CTBa. Y BaBH.soHflH'b, accHpi^Hi>, KaKi> h y eniirraH'b, cmrbuu ABop- 
noBiy n xpaM0BT> ofitiKHOBeHHO noKpuBaJincb peAbe<paMu. H3o6paace- 

»THOrPA»DUCKOE OC03PHU1E XXVI. 3 



Digitized by 



u 



turn f&muHmamtKZiKZZ jmpai* yjfawi. ^rfwiniii. laMrnK- 
rr&se&y » ^^iirafr-ttauMercn. s; ^sriUiiJXBBK z j^aubul 
vrzpfiraet » 5(zatwi r Ciari. rBB?m r gaaaazfciLg ryrtmr 
^yyi *»?xa can. v*p*p* upaa^ z C Mgyg* ,— ^fr- 

iz, xa*usrv kwLzx^ cOT««n. prjMKjr^ bcd» sx^ne ck*, — 
* xrv em*** Ki:"jn,~ vm/mgrn m zmzs?M9 fsLzx pr—ri 

i^mui, z j tiroro xecyaam n jza :i» «jbb*- 
i>tx/& t fyy.*& moats. **. Prmiwmi xzzftnn ca^s>:*^ipm ■ 

H'axu u'M/tpam&tiAM* *Mt* u Mw*map*jR. m 3x&£b zzx&eiMMMeva* 
rv tai-rr^f eres*« *si?f*aaM xxa ua ^epn: y^oazirai 

j/JJMr »//wu< »«2 np&u&totxix mws&t.ukj. Ho in jpvrax* ikran 
0/-f* crtju rpacorb, o«iXTeJLCi3}iuzJe o Ton, «rro s aunt* 
t/r<poeHtM 6iun #*Kpawew*. Oixu k?*z*hc» b* rm*w*ur* 4#mmmsiA- 
^*xi, fy/iuHin, natxeau Penason. Ho ciosan Jioiopa, Ha crt- 
Hax^ jjfeopnoBb, Buaj/jeBBux-b aa feperaxb E&l-para, DG^paxemi 

p&MUH MP'pU, CHtHU B3b OApCKOH OlOTfal ■ T. IL 3BrfcpH 3TB 
6 i.TH W.UM HCKVCH0 pOCKpatUCHI*. 

I'/MAHBHWh tmxth Ha xpaxu oaJTiicKHXT, cxclbhhi*, npejcraaiiUD- 
h xrb <noirb OTHomeHiH qpeasuqaihary/D aHaJorio <rb xpaMan h 
xi/>pm*H mpowm jpemmro BocroKa. Eaptthefo*, Koropum a 6n- 
wauia* hhUuhha crtaa ApKOHCicaro xpaaa, 6h-ih, no eBHjtiejbCTBy 
r fiK<:OH&, „6e3oCpaano h rpy<5o pacxpauieHu* . 0 eudaiouiuxcx pna- 
uuxh WMfOpaauiHinx-h Jicaeit, dthut> h 3B&peft, KOToptum 6ujm yitpa- 
iuisttunuyipii h CHapyaca crfcHH nTreTHHCKoft rjaBHofi kohthhli, rep- 
6opjrL (XII Bj roj)opHn», qTO obh 6li«jh npeAcraBJeHu „cmib ecre- 
i/rwuHo h Btpno, «rro, icaaajrocb, ohh jjumarb h xHsyrb, ho, qxo 
pl^iiaj BcrptnacTCH, np«6aBJi«eTb TepCopi-b, Kparaw napyarHtw^ ujo- 
CpawMiU GTJiMqaviHCb ocoOeeHo npoqaocTbio: hh CHtrt, hh Aoay^ 

MI3 MOl'JIM I10TCMHHTL HJIH CMUTb HX'bj TdKOBO 6bIJ0 BCKyCCTBO 
tlontiCUMb*. JltofiOBL 6aJlTiftCKHX1> CJiaBHHl> kt> OKpaiuBBaHiio a^aBift, 

fioAOfiHo <JjHHHKMiH&Mi> m jiBKifiuaMi,, bi> ^pKie UB^Ta BtipaataeTCH 
m nil tom'Ij, qTO ApKOHCKil xpaM^ B'bHqaJic^, no cBH^tTejibCTBy CaK- 

JJOIIft, HpUCHOK) KpOBJICK). 



Digitized by 



APEBHE-APlfiCKIE H £P£BH£-CEMHTCKIE 9JUEMEHTU CJIABAH*b* 35 



e. XpaMoeux 6ommcmea. XpoMoeax ymeaph. 



XpaMEJ CaJITiflCKHXTj CJIdiBHH'B O&iajJUH 60JTbfflHMH 6oraTCTBaMH. 

CaKcoet TpaMMaTHKi) roBopHTb ofi-b orpoBiflOMi> KOjiaqecTBt jo^oma h 
flpyrax-b coKpoeuufb) coxpaHaBuioxca bi» cyfiAyKaxt bi> Apkohckomi> 
xpaarfe, a paBHO h o MHoacecmb o6mecTBeHHbix-b u qacTHwxt dapoei, 
acepTBOBaBuiHxca Ha nojitay xpaHa no o6tTaMT>. IIo ciOBaMT> Tejib- 
MOjnyja, pyaHe noorfe noS^u noaarajiH qacTt HarpafaeflHaro soAoma 
h cepeSpa bt> coKpoBumHHijy GBHTOBHTa ApKOHCKaro. IIo CBH^Tejib- 
CTBy CKdH^H HaBCKaro CKa3aHia (Knytlingasaga) bt> Kanumaxb Kope- 
HHDiKHX'b xpaHHjrocb MH03K6CTBO denei*, 30Aoma y cepe6pa, tueAKy, 6y- 
MoowHMXb mKaneu ftpacnaio wwma u rmaneu nypnypoeuzb, uiAemvb, 
Meueu, Aamb n Bcaicaro opyotcin. TnTMap-b ynoMHHaerb o dapaxt, 
KOTopue npHHOduracb B-fcpyiomHMH b*b PeTpcicifl xpasrb., no B03Bpa- 
meHiH H3i> noxoaa. IIo CBHAiTeJibCTBy repOopaa, noMopane, „no cma- 

pOMy 06ifiH(m npe(fa0tf& a ,npHHOCHJIH B^ HlTGTHHCRift XpaMT> HSBtCTHyK) 

AOjik) Harpa6jieBHuxi 6oraTCTB?>, opyacia h bchkoA ^ofiw^H; Taarb c6e- 
"peraJiHCB 30Aomue u cepeCpmue cocydt* u nawu, orpoMHbie poxa 
TypoBt, yxpanieHHue no30Aomou u dpatoarbmbiMu kcimhxmu, pota 
npncnoco<5jreHHbie m My3unn>, KunoicaAtA, nootcu n Bcaicaa dpaiow>H- 
nan ymeaph. 

Cna6aceHie xpanfOBi> coKpoBHinaMit, npHTGicaBUTHMH bt> hhx-b no 06*- 
TaMT, ^acTHux'b jibi^t> hjih npe^CTaBJiaBraHMH H3B-fecTHyio flojrio na- 
rpa6jrenB0ft j;o<5hto hjih xofipoBOjrbHua noaepTBOBama B'fcpyiomHX'L,— 
aBJieme o6mee y Bctxt HapoflOB-b, B03ABHraBnmx r b 6oraMt cbohmt, 
xpami. EBpea, no B3aTin IepnxoHa, ropo;n> coKrjrn, ^tojibko cepeffpo 
h cocydu MfbdHue u oiceAib3Ht*e OT^aJiH bt> coKpoBH^HHiny iOMa To- 
cno^Ha tt (T.-e. ckhhIh), KOToputf bt» to BpeMH yace o6jaAajn> 3Ha- 

MHT6JIbHbTMT> KOJTHHOCTBOM'b 30AOM0U ymeapu. AaBHA'b, nofi-fe^HBT* CyB- 

CKaro uapa Aapan3apa, B3HJTb y pa6oBi> ero 30Aomue utumu } bt» 
ropo^axT, AApaHsapOBUXt OH-b B3ajn» BecbMa MHoro Mttdu, kt> 3to^ 
Io6MTb npHcoeiHHHJiHCb eme cocydu cepeffpsum^ 30Aonme u Mn>dHt*e } 
npHHGceHHHe ilaBH^y wh japi uapeM-B Haia(J)a Ooewb. Bcfe 3th npea- 
MeTbi, a TaKace cepelfpo u 30Aomo f oTHaToe HMt y ^pyrnxT> Hapo^OBi 
(cnpaHTb, MoaBHTaH^, aMMOBHTaHT> h ap.), n nocBHTHJTb ^apb .HaBH^T, 
rocnoay* 4 . Bcfe cofipaHnua hmt» CoraTCTBa AaBHAT. nepeAajn, Cojio- 
MOHy, saBtn^aBt eMy nocTpoHTb xpaMi> bt> IepycajrHMt h yKpacHTE 
ero 3THMH coKpoBnmaMH, qio h 6ujio HcaojmeHo Cojomohomtb, koto- 



Digitized by 




36 



dTHOrPA*HTOCKOE 0B03FUHIE* 



pwft eme 3HaqHTGJibH0 yeeAunuA* xpaMoeua fotarncmea a yKpaciun> 
AOMi* TocnoAeHb ct> fiacHOCJOBHOio pocKouibio. Beet xpa*n> BHyTpn 
h cTOABmie bi> h6mi> AepeBaBHBie xepyBHMbi 6ujui o6AootceHt* soAomoM, 
aepTBeuHBKi> 6mrb 30Aomou, bch xpamoBaa yTBapb — zoxoman. 
Bt> nepeiHcnemH uocjrfeAHefi noHMeHOBbraaiOTca rfc ace, npH6jm- 
3ht6Jibho } npeAMeTH, KaKt h vb IIItbthhckom'b xpaarfe: 6AK>da y HO0ICU> 
nauiu, AootCKu h np. XpaMt CupificKoM 6ovmu bt> TiepaaojiHct, no 
CBHA^TeJiLCTBy JlyKiaHa, o6ja v a;aJi , B Mpe3BLiqafiBBiMn GotamcmaaMu: 
cio^a npn6uBaJiH MHoroqacjieuHbie Aapu h3t> ApaBia, ^huhiuh, B&bh- 
JOHifl, KannaAOKin, KujimciH h AccHpia. JlyjciaHt BHAtjn> cjK>»eHHHa 
bt> oco6omt> conpuTOMT* noM^meHiH xpaMa dpaKMKbHHblH odtbswiH a 
pa3Bhie apyrie npeAMeThi, h 3 roTOB jienHue H3t soAoma u cepe6pa. Ce- 
pe6pmuMu u soAomuMu qainaMH, KypjobBnuaMH, BtuKaiiH h apyrHMH 
dpaioutbHHUHu npedMemaMu, npHHOCHMHMH b* a&Pt> hjh no o6tTaii'b 
ort qacTHbixi, jHivb, H3o6njiOBajiH h rjiaBHbftniie xpaMU rpeqecitie 
h pHMcnie, Hanp. — xpaMU Anojutoua bt> JJejib^ax'b, 3eBeca OdiHMnift- 
CKaro bt> 9&nxb, KtaHTepa KannTOJiiftcicaro B*b Pmh h ap, H3t> Ta- 
khxt> aapOBT> Cb TeqemeMb bpbmqhh o6pa30BbiBajiHCb 6o%amrbutuis 
coKpoeuupiuw*, no BpeMenairb noABepraBmiaca pa3rpa6jieHiio a 3aTtMT> 

BHOBb B03CTaH0BJIBBniiflCii. 

MeatAy npe^MeTaMH xpaMOBoro o6axoAa y eBpeest Ha3MBaJ0TCH 
mpyfa) Kaicb bi> IIItcthhckomi> xpaarfc yjpoia mypoez, npHcnocoCtaeH- 
hug kt> My3UKt u . Tpyfiu y eBpeeBt ynoTpefijiajiHCb KaKi> npa 6oro- 
cjryaceHiH, Taieb h ^jih co3MBaBifl HapoAa n noAaqa 6My CHrHajiOB-b. 
TpyfiHjiH bt> Tpyfiu CBflmenHHiCH: „h bt> dent eeceAix Bamero h bt> 
npcaduuKu BaniH h bt> noeoMKbcswiH BaniH mpy6ume mpyffaMu npa 
ececootcotceninxb Banmx'b h npa Mupntaxb oicepmeax** , npeAnHCbiBaJi'b 
TocnoAB 6BpeBMi>. riepeneceflie KOBqera rocnoAHa h3t> AOMa Abga- 
AapoBa bt> ropoA'b JlaBHAOB-b nponcxoAHJio BOCKJiun.aHiflMH h mpy6- 
HtAMu 3eyKOMu. — ynoMaHyTbie Bunie poia mypo&h wh IIlTeTHHCKOM*b 
xpaaife HM-fejiH, BtpoaTBo, boao6ho6 ace pojiHrio3BO-o6pflAHoe saaqeHie; 
0 hhxi> roBopHTca HMeHHo, qTO ohu 6biJiH npucnoco6Aenu Kb MysuKfb, 
xoth npoMoro yKasaHin na to, ^to nrpa 11a hux^ BxoAHjia bt» co- 
CTaBT> dorocjyaeain, mu He HM*feeMT>. 3aTO OTHocnTOJibHO 6mmA- 
mux-h coctAelt fiajiTificKHxt cjraaHH'b — HapoAOB^ jiHTOBCKaro njieaieHH — 
cy^ecTByert AOCTOB^pHoe cbha'^tg jibct bo oC'b oSpBAHOJirb ynoTpefijre- 
sie hmh AyxoBbix-b My3bncajibHbixT> opy^ifi btj duu napoduato eeceAtn, 
wb npaadnuKu, a hmchho bo BpeMa OTnpaB^enia hmh rjaBHtfimHxi> 




flPEBHE-APlfiCKIB H flPEBHE-CEMHTCKlE 3JIEMEHTbI CJIABJUTB. 37 

xodoeuxi peAmio3HtAXi mopotcecnm: B6C6HH Jiro — bt> qecrb 6ora Ilep- 
rpytfia, h oceHHuro— -bo CJiasy 6ora 3eMeHHHica; bt> o6ohx , b cjryqaax'B, 
no cjOBaarb CTpuftKOBCicaro, (XV Ib ), n irkJiH ntcHH h uipa/iu na 
dMiHHtaxi mpy6ax* u . 



Kt> qHCJiy mvi6ojvbe xapaKTepHCTHqecKHXT> npe#MeTOBT>, CBoit- 
ctbchhuxt> xpaaiaMi, 6ajm'ftcKHxi> oaaBHB-b, npMHa^excarB HrpaBmia 
bt> hhxt> BaanyFo pojib nypnypoevw mnanu. — Hsb^ctho, hto bt> oco- 
fieHHOCTH bt> 3anaAHO-a3iaTCKHXT> rocy,napcTBax*b 6bijth bt> Gojibhiomti 
ynoTpefijeHiH h bmcoko ufcEMECb nypnypom* mnanu. DpHroTOBjre- 
BieMi> nypnypoBOff KpacKH h nypnypoBbixt TKaHeft cJiaBnjracb (J>hhh- 
KiflBe, a H3i> hhxt> bt> oco6eHHOCTH THpflHe. BocToqHue uapii, a 
Bcarfcfl'B 3a hhmh h npoqin SHaTHHH oco(5u, a paBHO h «penj>i, ofijie- 
KajHGB bt> nypnypoeux odrbanix, K&Kb npH3HaKT> BUCOKaro nponcxow- 
leHia. IIo noBeJitHiio BajiTacapa, w o6jieKJiH ^aninjia bt> 6aipnnuuy... 
h npoBOBivracHJiH ero mpemtuM* 6AacmeAunom> bt» wpcTB*". ApTa- 
KcepKCT>, acejiaa ofcasaTB ocofieHHyio noqecTb Mapaoxeio, npHKasaxb 
ofijreqb ero bt> uapcicyio oaeamy, bosjicwkhtb na Hero BucoHHyio h 
nypnypoeyto Manmiio. IoHa^aHi (cuht* Iy^u MaKKaBea), bt> 3HaicB 
oco6eHHoff noqecrn, OA-ferb 6ujrB napeart AjreKcaHflpoarB (cuhomt* 
AHTioxa 9nw(J)aHa) Bt nopfiupy. BaBHJiOHCKie, accnpificKie h. no bxt> 
npHMtpy, nepcM^CKie h .up. iiapn MaccaMH cicjraiHBajiH bt» cbohxt> 
^Bopitax-b nypnypoeux mnanu. IIo CBH^feTOJibCTBy IIjiyTapxa, Ajie- 
KcaH l j;p'b Haniejn» bt» Cya* sanacB nypnypomxh mnaneu, ivbHOio b*b 
5000 TajraHTOBib. Iy*a MaKKaBeft, nofitjuiBimft TopriH, HamejrB b'b 
CTaffb ero „MHoro 30JOTa h cepefipa, riaijHHTOBux'B h Caipanuxh 
odeoHsih n BeJHKoe 6oraTCTBO u . ftpeBHie FurHBonncHHa HaanHCH yno- 
MBHarorb o6t> yKpatueniu udoAOtt b'b xaweftCKO-accHpiftcKHX'B leyjfB- 

TaXT, 30JIOTB1MH H Cepe6pJIHBIMH OjfcamSiMl, CBOpXT, KOTOpblX'b Han-fe- 

BaJHCb ojew^bi H3T» mnaneu. IIpop. Iepeiria no^TBep^aerB 3to H3Bt- 
crie, roBopn o6t> odeoicdaxb Hd'b nypnypa u nepeAeuuw*, yKpamaBniHX'b 
BaBHJioHCKHxij HCTyKaHOBi>. Bo xpaiffe CHpiftcKoft 6ohphh bt» Fiepa- 
nojHct B36HpaBmificH eaerowo BepxoBHMft acpeifb, no CBHA*TejBCTBy 
JlyniaHa, o^hht> tojbko oSjreKajiCH B'B nypnypoeyto Manmiio. TepTyji- 
jiiaHi> ynouHHaeTB o npacnwcb odrbxnijian, xcpeuoB'B Baajia bt» Kap- 
earent. Bo ABopuaxi, h bt> maTpaxT> SHaTsuxT* oco6t>, a paBHO n 



i. IlypnypoetAH 3aerbc\A u odeoicdu. 



Digitized by 




39 



aTBOrPA+HISCKOE 0B03PSHIE. 



bo xpanaxt boctotoiutb BapojOB-b, nypnypoet*M msaxu cjyujfl 
noepaMu u 3aefbcaMu. Bb maTp* Oj<xf>opB& naTHHyTa 6tua 3aen*a, 
yKpamenBafl nypnypoMb 9 sojotomt. h ^roufceHUMH umbhmh. 3astca 
H3i» rojyCofi, nypnypoeou u nepexenou uiepcmu aazpuB&ia Kb cra- 
nia „K0Bqen> OTKpoBeBifl" . 60 xpairt CoJOMOBoaoirb wmerh no- 
utmajc* 3* 3aen>coio, cjrkiaBBOio „h3t> *xcumoeou> nypnypoeou 11 tiatp*- 
wtf mxoHu". IlypnypoBUfl trash b3b-bctbh 6iuh yme bt> ipeaaerb Erea- 
rfe B orryja, b%pobtbo, pacapocTpuBJBCb bt> nepejcavK) Asiio. Cbb- 
lueBBiui xbbotbhb bt> erHneTCKHx-b xpa*axT>, no CBHjcfcTOJbCTBy Rsn- 
M6BT& AjeKcarupificKaro, noKOBJBCb Ha b6jhkoj1>iibo yKparaeHHuxt, 
i:OKpuTHxi» nypnypoetunu nucaujiMu Joscaxi^BSotipaxeHie noaoxoienHoI 
uopoBfai, BByTpa KOTopofi eranercicift qapb MBKepaa-b cxopoBHjrb rtjo 
yaepmefi jnotiflMofi AOiepa cBoeft, nosptiBaJOCb, no cjOBara repo- 
AOTa, nypnypoeou Manmieu. HaoGpaseaie OaHpHca, no CBBA*TeJbCTBy 
ILiyrapxa, 6uo o6jeieHO bi» oineHHO-MetMnHyio, ohbbbaho, nypny- 
poeyto Aumtniw. 

BecBHa cxojbhb mxema noBTopaioTCJi b y 6ajrriticKHXT> ciabhhi>. 
BflyTpeBHBB orpaia ApROHCKaro xpaisa, no ciOBairb CaBCoaa rpaa- 
MaTBKa, „cocTOJua est, qerupex'b Kp-BUKHxt kojiobht,, KOTopua, ne 
eoexBBBBCb TBepxoio crfeBOio, yenmoHbi 6vuu xoepoMu'^ spout Toro, 
Beet xpaiB Cbbtobbt5 yenmauh foui nypnypoeow mnaHbio, 9 npexpac- 
hoA, bo y*e HCTjrbBinefl a . IIo cJiOBara Toro se aBTopa, Barn, ca- 
Mufi xpaMT> PyieBBTa, HaxojnBmiflcfl bt> KopeaHirfc, Ha ocTpoB-fc 
PyBHt, TaKT> b CTOBBmee bt> nepexBeft qacra ero K&neme (cbhtb jsn^e) , 
Be HMta CT-bHX, saetbiuaHt* Gbuu nypnypoeoto mxatthto. 3a btoH 
TKasbio CKpuBajiCH haojtb PyieBBTa, KaK-b KOBqerb saBtTa vh ckb- 
bib, a BnocjrbACTBiB — bt> IepycajiBMCKOMT, xpasrb; .Korja copBaau 
fitUH 06a nonpoea, roBoparb CaKC0HT>, to xy6oBufi baojtb PyieBBTa 
fiesofipaaflo pacKpujca co Bcbx*B CTopoBB". HcTyicaffb PajeracTa 
m> PeTpcKOMi xpaMt, no cjiOBam, A^aMa BpeBieacicaro, 6uxb sojo- 
Toft, a joace ero B3B nypnypoeou mmnu. Bt qacji-b coBpOBam, 
xpaflBBmaxcii fl KopeBBUKBX'b Ka^B^^ax^ l k&kt> mu bba^jb Bume, 
6wm nypnypoeux mmnu; bb cyBAyKaxi, bb cBBTHjramt ftw- 
TOBBTa ApKOBCKaro, no CBHAtTejbCTBy CaKCOBa, coxpaHHjiocb 
»mhoio nypnypoeux* odeoicdh (cm. Bunie CBJia^u b aanacw nypnypo- 
buxt> TKaHeft y bocto^buxi* uapefi), otb botxoctb raBJuxT* h xy- 
Xuxi M . IIocjitAHee 8aM*qaHie noKasuBaeTb, ^to o^eamM 3th, 
a paaao h HCT^tBmaB nypnypoBaa saBtca bt> caiiOMB xpaMt, yxce 




gPEBHE-APlftOKIE H JPEBHE-CEMHTCKIE 3JIEMEHTU OttABflffb. 39 

He bo3o6hobjihjihcb bt> anoxy CaKCORa, a cocTaBJfljra xpaMOBoe ao- 
CToame, yHacjitaoBaHHoe ct> wbhhx'b BpeMenb. Ha HcryKaHt Cbh- 
TOBHTa ApKOHCKaro 6ujsa ^Bepxmn odeotcda u 9 cnycKaBmaaca ro 6ep- 
novb. Moaerb 6utb 7 h 3Ta oaesaa, o aBtrfe h KaiecTBaxi* KOTopoft 
CaBCOHt yMajiqHBaerB, 6ajia cxbJiaHa h3t> nypnypoBOfi TKaHn, Kant 
Ha HAOJiaxt eraneTCKux-b h accHpiftcKO-BaB&ioHCKHx-b. 3aarfeqy eme, 
mo npe^ame o CajrriftcKO-c.iaBHHCKOM'b, saiio^oaptHHOM-b bt> noAJioac- 
hocth, 6orfc OjiHHcb (Flyns) npeiCTaBjaeTb ero OA'fcThiMT) bt> npacnyfo 
Maumiw. Bobchkom^ CJiyqat BaaHaapojib, KOTopyio, oqeBHflno, nrpajre 
nypnypoBUH tk&hh bi> aeKopaitfH xpaMOBi, oraacni h haojiobt, 6aji- 
riUcKHxt cjiaBAHi> ; h coBnaaeHie dToft qpe3BbiqaftHO xapafiTepHCTHie- 

CKOft, 6AHHCTB6HHOft BT> CB08MT> pOflt, qepTH CB TOHWCCTBeHHHMH 

flBjeniffMH Ha ApeBHOMi boctok+» aacjiyacHBaiorb nojrnaro bhhm&hLh. 



MHorie apeBHie Hapoati nepsoHaqajBHO uoKJiOHajecb fioraM-b cbo- 
hmt> tfes* udoAoeb. 06-b oTcyTCTBin hao-iobt> y nejiacroBt, y nepcoBT> 
CBH^tTeJiBCTByeTi TepoAOTT*, y apeBHMxt HTajHiKOB-b— BappoHT>. y 

KWKHHX'b CJl&BHWh BOBC0 He BHflHO CJ'fcAOB'L HOqHTaHifl HAOJIOB'b, y 

boctoihuxi — fioroTBopeme HCTyKaHOBt BCTp-fcqaeTCfl tojibko bt> h*- 
KOTopuxt iieHTpaxi EtHBHJiH3aipH (KieB-fc, HoBropojcfe, PoCTOBt), 
npH qeMT> BejufKOxbrraue, no ToraauiHeMy BKycy, HCTyKaHu, nocTaB- 
jeHHue BjiaAHMipoMT, Ha KieBCKOM> xojrat, B-fepoaTHO, sanMCTBOBaHu 

6fcIJIH OTb CaJITiflCKHX'B CJiaBHHT> *). 

HaOJIOHOKJIOHCTBO B006me, B*pOHTHO, npOH30fflJIO H3T> noqmraHia 

H3o6paHcemft 6oroTBopHMuxi> yMepraHxt npeflKOB'b h pojmqeft, po.no- 
buxx reHieBTb, To-ecTb neHaTOBi hjth AOMOBHX'b 6oroBT>. Bt> btobtb 
CMHCjrfc pa3cy3K^aeT-b y«e Cojiomoh-b: w BuMHCjn> h^ojiob^ — Haqaoio 
6jryaa a , roBoparb oht>, „h H30(5paaceHie hxt>— pacTjrfeme »h3hh. He 
6tAAo uxb eHcmaMb, h He bo b^kh ohh eynyrb. Oreirb, Tep3aio- 
nUftca ropbKOK) cicopfiiio o paHo yjiepraeMB cuh*, cdfbAoe* u3o6pa- 
otceHte, KdKb yotce Mepmeato ueAoetbKa, saT^Mt CTajrb nouumamb eu> f 
mKb 6oia u . Bt> Apyroarb Mtcrb Tortae aBTopt roBOpHTt o xy,noa- 
HHKfc, KOTopuft, yno.nofiHB'b ApeBecHuft cyici* o6pa3y qeoiOB'feKa hjih 
acHBOTHaro, ^ycTpoHB-b jwn Hero ^ocTofinoe ero M-fecTO, noetbcuAb ero 
na cmtbHtb, yKp*nHBi> acejrfe30MT» a . IIocjrbAHiH cjOBa CojroMOHa orr- 

*) Cp. Bom. AP- cub. I, 76. 89. 



E. Mao jiii. 




40 



3TH0rPA*HqECK0E 0B03P*BB1E. 



HOCHTCH, OHeBHAHO, Kh 6o%6CTBftHT>, IIOHRT&BIIIH MC& AOMaUIBUMT, KJfJIL- 

tomx (Ha 3to yKa3EJBaerb npHKp-fcnjeme h*ojiobt> kt> crfeHfe xhjui- 
ma), TO-ecTt kt> doMoeviMi 6o%aMb bt> o6pa3t qejiOBtica, kt> koto- 
puMt npucoeAHHAcoTCH y»e h H3o6pa»ceHia SoroTBopHMuxt 3Bfcpeft, 

BtpOHTHO, CJiymHBfflHX'b CHMBOJIttMH H3B*feCTHHXT> 6o»eCTB'b. JJOMOBHM H 
603KKaMH CblJIH, OieBHABO, Tfc 30JOTU6 HJOJIbl, KOTOpbie PaXHJTb HOXH- 

THJia y oTaa csoero JIaBaHa (aieconoTaMua), ckpubt> hxt» hoat> Bep- 
6juoxb6 c-feflJio, Ha KOTopoc caMa cfejia. Hkojih 3th cocTaBJuura He 
o6mecTBeHHyio cbatuhk), a npHHaweffaJiH HCKJiioqHTeJibHO AOMy JIa- 
BaHa, 6bi.hi e\o 6o%aMu 9 TO-ecTb doMoeuMu Goicimu. Bt> Xopcafiaa- 
ckomt> ABopirfe, noA'B noporamn ABepelf, Baff^eHU HeCojibmia tjihha- 
hhh cmamysmm, H3o6paaaiomia pa3nux^ 6oroBV. Bnjia — bt> ynpa- 
nieHHOtf fiuqaqbHMH poraMH Tiap-fc, Heprajia — cb jibbithoU rojOBofi h 
Ap. ^peBHia HaanHCH od'bACHHiorB HaBHaweHie 3thxt> (jmrypoirb, pa3- 
CTaBJiaBniHxca bi pa3flux^ qacraxi* aoMa: oa-fe aojhkhh 6hjih nonpo- 
eumeAt>cmeoeamt> doMy, ycTpaHATB orb Hero BparoBt h Bcaitoe 3JO. 

0 cynjecTBOB^HiH aomobhxi GoroBT* y fiajrrificKHX'b cjaRHHi> h 
qexoBi> HeojiHOKpaTHO CBHitTe-iBCTByioT^ cpeAHeB^KOBbie nncaTeJin: 
TnTMap'b roBopHTT* o JKepTBonpnHomeHLflXT> , npeiJiaraBmifxcH doMo- 
sum* GoiOMh. Ilo CJiOBaMi> reJiBMO^b^a, nenamoMu (aomobhmh 6o- 
raMH) h H^ojiaMB 6um npeHcnojiHeHa CTpaHa CTaporpajcicafl. Ko3B- 
ma IIpaaccKifl roBopHTi, o newama#&, npHHeceHHHX'b ^exoarB, o ca- 
MOfl'bJibHfcix'b iicTyicaHaxi (BtpoaTHO, Taicace cjryacHBniHxi> aomobhmh 
6oraMB), KOTopuM'B eme bt> ero BpeMH (XII b.) noKJOBHjiHCb qexH. 
BfciTb Moacerb, bt> KaqecTBt neHaTOBi> ace noqiiTajiacb h ntKOTopua 
H3i> cmamysmoKb^ aoGutb^ npH pacKomeax-b Ha GaJiTitfcKOM-b no- 
tfepeatb-fe (btj BarpiH, IIlTpajii>3yH ( n'b ) BepxHcfl JTyxcHut, Heft-Orpe- 
jiHirfc) h bt> K^HHrcrpeuKOM'b oicpyrfe bt> EoreMin. Yhikh h BiJCTynH na 
HiKOTopux-b H3T> hhxt> CBHAtTejrbCTByiorb o TOBn>, qTO offb npa- 
KpiojuuiHCb kt> qeMy-To: B-fepoaTHo— kt> crfcHaBrb KOMHaT'b, bi Kaqe- 
CTBt AOMOBbix-b 6o»kobi>. Bt> 3e&uit Pe^apefi BafoeHBi h Ma- 
AeuhKui u3o6paotceHtH 6uko^, KOTopun, 6wTb Moacerb, TaiUKe cJiyacnjiH 
npejpeTaMH lOMamHaro KyjibTa. 

IlepexoA^, 3aT-feMT>, ki> o6utecmeeHHMMi udoMMb, CTo^BraHM-b y 6aJ- 
TiftcKHxii cjiaBHHi> bt> pomaxT>, Ha ropaxT>, xoamajcb, njomaABxi* h 
bt> xpaMax-b, onaib BCTpbqaeMT> Heo6uKHOBeHHbui, HeoacHAaHHwa aHa- 

JIOriH CT> HapOA&MH a3iaTCKHMH. ABTOptl KBHTb BeTXarO 3aBtTaB6Cb- 

iia qacTO ynoMHHaiOTx o6i> HAOJiax'b HapoAOBi> > xcnBrnnxi* no coc*a- 



Digitized by 



I 



APEBHE-APlfiCKIB H APEBHE- CEMHTCKIE 3JIEMEHTBI CJIABflH'b. 41 

CTBy ct. HapaHJieMt; h3t> ojiobt> hxt> bhaho, ^to h^ojtbi 3th 6buin 

AOpeBilHHfalO HJIH rJIHHflHhlG, ofijOaKeHHLie M^AbK), CepefipOMT, HJIH 30- 

jiotomt>, HHor.ua KaMeHflue, qacTo jhtu6 h3t> MeTajuia, npeaMyme- 
ctbghho H3t cepe6pa hjih 30jroTa. n Emoe* AumtAXh ne fltJiaifTe 
cefrb", roBopHJTB rocnoju> Moreen). OcTaBjieHHue $HjiHCTHMJiflHaMH 

HCTyKaHH 6bIJIH C0XUK6HU ^aBHflOM'b, CJltflOBaTeJIbHO, ohh 6hjih (te- 

peesHHhie. To<ra6 Taicb h Iyft camera bt> CaMapin CTaTyn, buhccchhwh 
m3t> xpaMa BaaJOBa, a Iocift coKpynrajn> r prb3nueu Aumtte KyMHpw", 
aocTaBjeHHHe bt> IepycajiHMt BnaBxnnM'b bt> jreuiecTBO Hapo^OMt. 
aHnoJia ewiueaerm xyaoraHHifb, h 30jiothji&iiihki> no*pwtfaew& ero 
jo40woac^ h npH^juBaerb cepeCptiwvin urbtiouKu" , roBOpHTB npopoifb 
Hcaia. nBupyfiaiOTT* (fepeeo bt> jriscy^nHnierb npopoito lepearia, „o6- 
AtjiBiBaiOT'b ero pyKaMH njiOTHHKa npn noiionur Tonopa, noKpiaeawmi 
cepeffpoMb u 30AomoMb 9 npHKp-fcnjjfltGn> rBosaflMH h mojiotomi>, hto6u 
ne inaTajiocb". HaByxoAOHOcop'b ca.'fcjiajrb 30Aomou HCTyKaH'b, bhhjh- 
hok) bt> mecTbAectfTt jioKTeft, niBpHHoio bt> niecTB jioKTeff. BajiTa- 
capT» h ero BejtMOHtu, no cJiosaMt npopona JlamHjra, „nHjiH bhho h 
CJiaBMH 6oroBT> 30Aorm*ccb, cepedpjtntaxz, Mrbdnwxi, otceAfb3huxi 9 de- 
peemnvixb u mMeHHtaxb*. 0 BaBHJOflCKOMt HflOJrfc Biua (BiJu, Bel) 
tott> ace npopoicb BHpa»aeTca Tant: „oht> BHyTpn iauhci, a CHapy- 

&H JIW>dt>". TepOAOTB H JI.iOAOp'b pa3CKa3MBaK)T1» 0 30A0muXb HCTy- 

Kanaxi> 6oroBT> bt> BaBmroHCKOMi> xpaMt Bnjra. JlyiciaH'b ynoMHHa- 
e*n> o cToaBiiiHX'b bt> riepanojraccKoarb xpaarfe 30Aomuxb H ( a,ojax r b 
<5ora h 6ornHH, KOTopuxT, oht> Ha3biBaerb HMeHaMH 3eBeca m Tepu. 
EBpen, uc pa3*b Bna^aBuiie wh HflOJionoiciOHCTBo, coopyacajm ce6t 
hoao6huxt> ae 6oroBT> bt» o6pa3t neAoerbna hjih w^t»^a. JI,ioAopT> 
ynoMHHaeTB o Mndnom Hflojrfc KpoHa (Baajia) bi> Kapearefffe. ITo 
cnoBaBfb AnniaHa, KO^occajiBHuit HCTyKaHi, KoeoHcnaro (Ha ctBep- 
homt> fiepery A^phkh) xpaMa 6hjit> emoAOHenb. JpeBHie rpeKH h 
3TpycKH Tame B03^BHrajin tforaM'b cbohmt>, no npnM'fepy asiaTCKHxi> 
HapoAOBi*, 30A0Henue hjih 6oraTO ynpawmuw 30AomoMz HCTyKamj. 

Uaojiu 6ajiTiftcKHXi CJnaBJiHT* 6ujih TaKHce qacTBK) depeeswHue, 
lacTbio MeTaoiviH^ecKie, jo^omt4« h ^bdwwe (o KaMeHHwxt HCTyica- 
Haxt CTapHHHUH cBHitTejitCTBa y MaJiH h saiOTB) . IlepBbie Hept^Ko 
6mjih KOAOCcaAbHoit eeAUHunvt h ynpamenu MemaAAunecnttMu ammpu- 
GymaMu. Haojim bt> TocTbROBt OTJiH^aJiHCb HeB-fepoHTHburb, no cjio- 
Baarb 96oHa (XII b.), maiqecmsoMb omdrbAm h 6ujih ctojil y^HBH- 
TejibHoft eeAUHunu, qTO H'bcKOJibKO napi> 6hfk^ e^sa Morjin cabh- 




42 



3T fl OrP A* H qflCKOE OB03PBBIE. 



HyTL hxt> ct> MtcTa. KyMnp* CBHTOBRTa ApKOHCKaro npeeocxodwi* 
pocrm neAoetbm. Hjotb PyieBHTa, no CBHatTeJibCTBy CaKCOHa, mo*- 
tquHOfo npeBoexoAHJTB lejoBtiecitoe rfejo, a eucoKb 6bun> Taicb, 
hto ACcojoht*, npHHHMaBnrift yqacrie bt> paapyuiemH ero cBHTHJHma, 
6yayqH caurb oqenb BBicoKaro pocTa, e*Ba mn AOCTaTb ero nojfio- 
poAOKt pyqHUMT» cbohkb TonopoMi>. HcTyKaH*B CBHTOBHTa ApKOH- 
CKaro Aepaajb bt> pyicfe port, cjfbJiaHHufi h3t> pa3HuxT> MemaAMm\ 
H08HU h qepem* orpoMHaro Meqa ero, Kpoarfe KpacHBuxt pfeHux-L 
(J)Hrypi>, 6ujih yKpamenu otjihrhok) cepe6pmm orndfuucoio; numb 
HpoBHTa BojieracTCicaro 6bun> o6TaHyn> 3(U0m<Mf&. lfaojrb, CTOABmift 
B*b o,\HOin> H3i ropoAOBi> BarpiH, ynoMHHaeMHfi Bh^khhaomT) no*** 
HMenoMi, CaTypna, 6wn> wkjiwb wb Mtbdu\ h^ojh* TpHrjaBa bt> 
Bojilihh fitixb 30JU*mou, apyria He6ojn>mifl H3BaaHia bojhhckhx'b flo- 
rae 6biJiH yKpameHu cepe6pom u 30AomoMb\ ncTyKaH7> PaaeracTa 
bt> PexpcKOMT. xpaarfc (5bun> 30Aomou; haojht> TpurjuaBa bt» UlTera- 
Ht Hwrb-Tb uoKpuBaBuiyio Tpn jraija ero 30Aomyw uQBasKy; HCTyjcafli* 
HepHorjaaa (Ha o<yrpoBt PyaHt) H3o6pa*eH-b 6mjtl cepeffpjMUMu 
ycaMH; y HAOJia bt> o^padt CTapma, onacaaHaro MacyAH, rojOBa 6ujia 

SOAOmCM. 

rjiaBHBiMH aTTpH6yTaMH 6oroBi» 6aJiTiftcKHXT> cjiaBBETB cjryaa^H 
Mem, (y CBHTOBHTa ApKOHCKaro, PyieBHTa Kopeaaitfcaro), ctbKupa 
(y PaAeracTa Coapaqeit), aaKOHeDTb, mum* (y JIpoBHTa BojeracTCKa- 
ro). — aHM-fcerb M&ib bt> npaBOft pyKt a ctbnupy", roBopan, npopoKt 
Iepenia o fioraxx Basa jiohckhxi> . 

„Bh yBH^HTe bt> BaBUJioHt doroB-b cepefipaHux-b, 30jotuxt» h 
AepeBHHHHX'b, nocuMHXb na nAenaxb u ... saarfeqaerL totb ae npopoirb, 
n 6o3Horie, omi nocnmcn na nfienaxb". KapTany apeBHe-accapillcKOft 
pcJiHrio3Hoff npottecciu cb ucmymuaMu 6oxoeb mokho bh^tb y Jla- 
apja (Laoard: The mouum. of Niaev.). TaMt ace B3o6paaceaa booh- 
naa citeHa B3flTia ropo^a raTypMOMt. Bi> oahomt> H3i> yrjiOBi Kap- 
thhu bohhu, oqaBH^Ho, H3T> qHCJia ocaiKAaiomaxi* Henpia r rejibCKiit 
ropoAi>, necymb na nAenaxh un>cKOAhKO udoAoe*. 06t> o6paABOMi> ho- 
tueniu u3o6pao/ceHiu (knoeb bt> Fiepanojuict, wh Capia, ynOMHHaerb 
JlyKiaHi. 

BaJiTittcKie cJiaBHHe Taicxce hocuau u3o6paotceniH ffoweb cbohxi* 

nOpGAT* BOftCKOMTj, OTIipaBJIHBCb Bl> nOXOAT>. JIlOTHqH, nO CBHAtTejlb- 

CTBy THTMapa, w cjbAOBaJH 3a cbohmh 6oiomu, KOTOpue hmt> nped- 
vtecmeoeaiu" . Uo c.iOBaarb Toro rce aBTopa, cJiaBafie, bt» qnoa-fe 30 



Digitized by 



APKBHE-APlfl CKIK H APEBBE-CEJdHTCKIE 3J1EMEHTBI CJLXBHWb. 43 

toctbk) ntraaxi., toctbio kohhhx , b otphaob'b, paspyramiH nenpia- 
TeJBCKoe HMymecTBO, npu homou^u ceouxb 6o%oe%. H bth caoBa CJit- 
AyeTi> noHHMaTB Tain>, nro HaSBaaHue boh h hi ihjih bt> fiofl, wc* 
6000*0 ceouxh 6o\o*b. 

Bl> TO BpGMfl KaKt BCt AO CHXT> OOP'S paBCMOTptBHBIJl qep™ 
HAOJIOBT. (S XpaMOBt) 6aJITiftCKBX^ CJiaBflH'B T'tiCHO c6jIH3RaX)Tl> HX1> 
CB COOTB-feTCTByiOmHMH npe^MOTaUH KyjIbTa ApOBHHX'b BOCTOIHblX'B Bar- 
POAOBT* CCMHTCKHX'B BJIH nOflqHHeHHfcIXT> CCMHTCKOMy BjiAHUO, BT> HHXt 

npoaBJweT6fl owa BecBMa xapaKTepHCTOTecKaa ?epTa apeBHe-apifi- 
citaa, a hmghho — MHOrifl 6ajmftcK0-cjaBAHCKiH (JoacecTBa H3o6paaca- 
jHOb o HfbCKOAMcuxb tOAoeaxb mm Auwon: TpHi\naBT> Hirisji'b mpu to- 
AoetA hjhh mpu Auw, Cbhtobhtb — nemttpe waosm, PyieBHTt — ceMB 
jihut>, [IopGBHTT> — n htb rojioBi, nopeHyrb nemupe Awa,a (h namoe Ha 
rpyAH). MuoioiMieie 6oroB , B mokct'b Cbitb npocjrfcKeHo y MHornxi> 
Hapo^OBTi apiftcicaro ujreiieHH. 

Oahh-b H3i jipeBHtftiuHx-B 6oroBT> , ynoMHHaQMux'B b*b Be^axi*, 6h.tb 

TpMAOffb (TpHCHpOCT>). Tp€XtOA06UMU flBJUHOTCfl y flpeBHHX'B rpOKOB*B 

nejacrificirift 6on> TepMecb n epaKiftcicaa 6ornHH TeKaTa; y KeJb- 
tobx— Cernunnos; y 6ajrriftoKHX'B <*iaB arb — TpH rJiaBi> . IIoApo6Hte 
0 TpexiuaBax'B h TpoftcTBeHHHX'B 6oraxT» a roBopto bt> apyroirB 
oqepiri*: »KTo6BurB TpoaHT> n t. jl. u ? lemepexAuuHMu npeACTaBJHMca 
BapyHa bt> Be^axi., no3«e H3o6pajKajHCB Bpaiia, BauiHy, Pasa y 
nHAiftiieB'B; uembipexAuwAMb (noaace AByjiHiujirB) npe^CTaBJuuicH h 
H3o6paacaJica flHyct y ^peBHnxi> HTaJFHKOB-B, uemupexioAoeuMz,— 
Cbhtobhtb y tfajniftcKHX'B cJiaBflH'B, HM^Binift xpaMH bo mhoi'hx'b 
irbcTaxt. ITpocTpaHHoe pascyacaeHie 0 Cbbtobht* noMtmeHo wt Moefi 
KHurt: ^Boac. ap. cjiaB. a I, 126—139. HarpoifoiWHie bt> B3o6paace- 

HIHXT> 60HCeCTBT> rOJIOBT* HJtH JIHip> (lCaKT> Bl> Hh^M, KpOM* TOrO, GID(6 

HarpoMOMt^eHie pyicB, hofb) hm fcjio, HecoMH-fcHHO, aJureropmecKoe 3Ha- 
qeaie. 



Hai> CB^THJinnrB 6aJiTiftcKnxx cJiaBHHi> HaH(5ojiBraHMi nowroirB h 

H3BtCTHOCTBK) n0JIB80BaJI0CB CBHTRJIHHI6 CBBTOBHTa ApKOHCKaFO Ha 

ocTpoBb Py^Ht. OHOCjpcH.Tio rjiaBnuM-B, nepBOHCTBy lomiiMT) pej[nrio3- 
hbimtj E^eHTpOM*B BcfexT> fiajrriftcKHx-b cjiaBBHi.atpeu.'B ApKOHCKaro xpaiia, 
no CBH&i> Te JBCTBy GaKCOHa rpaMMaTHKa, eonpenu otibucHoeenito cmpauta, 
ne cmpuvb uu toAoeu, nu 6opodw. Owb witjiOBajix bt> aaHHOM'B cjiynat, 



B. BepxoBHBifi aspeivB. 




44 



aTHorpA*nqECKOE obobpctie. 



HecoMHtHHO, xpeBHefi TpaAHitfH, o KOTopott ynoMHHaeTCB yace b*b 3a- 
koh* MovceeBOMii, npejnncbiBaiomeM'B naaapcflirB ne oCcTpnraTB 
bojiocb: w ecJiH MyxequHa hjih wenmHHa pIsmnTca wtb ofrfcrb Ha3a- 
peScTBa, qTotfBi hocbhthtb cetfa bt> HaaapeH rocnoay, to... bo bc* 
ash o6-feTa Ha3apeficTBa ero ffpumea ne doAOfcna KocambC* %OAoeu 
e%o.. } doAMem patmumh soaocu Ha rojOB* CBoefl tt . 

Torb we oicpeu*, no CBBj'fcTe.JBCTBy rejiBMOJiB^ nonumaAcn na- 
podoMb statue hum* — 8to ohhtb xapaKTepHCTHqecicaa qepia, BCTp-fc- 
qaiomaaca y HapoAOBt ^peBHaro BOCTOKa. ^-bra CojrfceMN npuCorH- 
waeMcn k*b CHpiHH IlepciH", saarfeqaerB Mopn, ^rfcM'B 6ojrfcenpoaB- 
jineTcn npeotfjrajame eeoKpaTHqeeicoft (fropMH npaBjemfl. Bepxoentau 
otcpew bi» KyjibTaxi. MHoroqHCJieHBbix'B 6oMcecTB*B BOCTowaro npo- 
HcxoacieHia HBtfaeTOH Bjfbcrb cb •rbM'B h lAaaao cmpaniA*. TaicB Hanp., 
acpeirB AHaBTu wb Hojrb (IIoHTiftcKOft npoBHHDin) b*b jipoBHOCTH o6.ua- 
^ajn> 3Khcb eepxoenuMh aemopumemoMb-, acpeflty 6orHHH Ma b*b KoMani 
(bt> Kanna^OKiH) xcnTejiH noeunoeoAucb 6oAfbe, q*MT> ynpaBJurameMy 
bmh uiapio; bt> MapuMeH* (bt» Kanna^OKw ace) apeunb 6ora, Ba3H- 
BaBmarocii rpeicaMH 3eBecoarB, nrpajrB noont acpena KOMancKaro 
nepeyw poAt bt> aaHHofi npoBHHitfH.— Bbicoicoe, nepBencTByiomee 3na- 
qenie BepxoBHaro atpeua Pyam* ohhtb jnumercji, CJrb.noBaTejrBHO, ocho- 

BaHBUM-B Ha ipeBHHX'B BOCTOqHHX'B npeflaHiflxTi. 



0311 Bcero BKiraeH3Ji03KeHHaro HeJiB3n He bhbocth 3aKJnoqeBia, <rro 
CBoeo6pa3HHfi H3biqecKift kyjtbtb <5ajrriftcKHX , B ctobbh-b, ctojib pfeito 
OTjrHqaiomiftcii bo MHornx'B OTHomeHiax'B ott, KyjiBTOBT* npo i iHxi> cjra- 
Bxwh, 3aKJnoqaeTi> bt> ce6-k mhoskcctbo 3jreueHTOBi> ceMHTCKHX'B h 
oTqacTH MajroasitfcKHXT,, npoHHicmHX'B cio^a nyraMH, bobcg eme He 

R3CJTfcaOBaHHbIMH, HO OTpHUaTB KOTOpMO HeB03MO»HO, BT> BH^y He- 
COMHtHHbTXT*, AOCTOB'fcpHHX'B (fraKTOB'B, 33 IIHCft H HfcJX T> COBpeMeHHblMH 

jitTonncuaMH, KOTopue He Moryrb 6htb noio3p*BaeMu bt> coo6meBiw 
npa3^Hux r B H3MbiniJieHifi o npeiMeTaxi, h HBJieHiflX'B, hmh bh^hhbix'b 
h TmaTejibHO oTMtqeHHBix-B. BajiTiftCKO-CJaB«HCKie xpaMu, KaKi> mm 
Bia-fejiH, h no njiany GBoefl nocTpofiRH, h no yKpameHiHM'B crbm> n 
Bopon>, h no 3aK.iK>qaBniHMCfl b*b hhxT) coKpoBBBxaifB, naKOHeEfB, no 
yKparaaBniHM'B hxt, nypnypoBMMT, 3aBtcaarb h CKJiaaaMi nypnypo- 
BbJXT> o^ewb, npe.^cTaBjiflK)T r b nopa3HTeJBHoe cxoactbo cb xpaMaMH 



r. 3araAOHH£ia napajuiejiH. 



Digitized by 




APEBHE-APlfiCfCIE H ^PEBHE-CEMHTCKIE 3JIEilEHTbl aHABflHT,. 45 



(HABOpiULMil)HapOAOB'b Oep6JDlH6ft H Muoi A3iB. H^OJlM6aJlTiftCKlIXl> CJia- 
BjUTb, H63&B11CHM0 OTT> UIHpKO P&8BHT&TO Bt HHX'b .UpCBHOapifiCKftTO UpHH- 

n,nna MHororjaBia, npeACTaBjuuorb He Mefffee yAHBHTejibHOe cxoactbo 
cb H^jaMH rfcxb *ae asiaTCKExt HapoAOB*. To-ace 3aMtqeHO 6buo 
u 0TH0CRT6JEBH0 Baacnaro aumema BopxoBHaro acpeija. 

OcTaHOBJifocb eme Ha HtKOTopuxt, He MeHte HHTepecHHX'b na- 
paueju^xii. Ilpn paacMOTptHiH 3aaieHia Cexnweuma Apjcoucmto (Boa. 
Ap. cjias. I, 126 h cji.) a apoBejrb napajLnejib MeacAy 3thmt> fioroMt 
h rpoKO-piiMCKHM'b ropaKJioM'B -repKyjecoirb. IIo TOfi po-aH, KOTopyio 
oht> iirpajit bi> npa6ajiTiftcKOft o6jiacTH, Cbhtobhti* ApKOHCitifl c6jih- 
auieToa h ct> 4)HHHKificKHin> repaiuoMt — MeAmpmoMz, SHaMeHHTbia 
CBflTHJLHn^a KOToparo HaxoAHJincb bt> Tap-fe, rajmpb (KaAHKct) h AP- 
MtcTaxt. KaKb CBHTmiHme MejiKapTa bt> ra^apt nojit30Bajiocb bt> 

CBOeJTb paiOHt rpOMKOK) H3B*CTHOCTbIO, CJiyaCHJIO EfklbK) naJEOMHH- 

qecTsa h3t> AaJieKHXT> M-fccrb, npeAMeTOM'b noqaTania h Apyrax-b Ha- 

pOAOBT>, TaiCb H ApKOHCKift Xp&Wb Ha OCTpOBt PyHHt CJiyatHJl'b He 

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h cpe^H flpyrHX'b napoAOB'b: Kyunpy CBHTOBHTa ApKOHCKaro, no cjio- 
BaMi> CaKcoHa rpaarMaTHKa, AaBajin AaHb ho mabuo bch aaaBflHcicaa 
3eMjiH (pasyMteTCH, npnfiajrriiicKafl), ho j&wlq coct^Hie rocyAapa no- 
cujajua easy noAapKH, w npeAnoraTaa nyacyio B-fcpy oBoeft". 

BHAyKHH^b BHA^'b BT> OAHOM'b H3*b rOpOAOBT) Barpifl MtbdhtAU 

ucmymm Gamypna (KpoHa). — IIo CBHA^TejibCTBy JUoftopa, bt> 
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46 



8TH0rPA*a^BCK0E 0B03POTIE. 



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coBnaxeaie aobojlho HHiepecHoe. 

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ujih flpoeumoMb, noTOTaBinHMca bt> F&BejibCeprfc a Bojieracrfc. IIoao6ho 
repMaHCKHMT> MCjeBWMi> fioraarb, a flpoBarb c^BTajica 6o%om* eotiubt; 
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APEBHE-APlfiCKIE B £PEBHB-CEM HTCK1E 3JIEMEHTN CJiABRWb, 47 

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HaKi> h ApTeMH^a 3<j)eccKafl, ci» MHoouecmeoMh cocKoeh Ha rpy^e. 
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orb HMeHH Ifum. 

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(KpoH'B-Baajrb), qaoTBK) cb jiejiero-KapiftCKHMH: Paterae™ (3ob6ct> 
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hto 6ajiTiitcKie cjaBiine pa3BHJiHCb m khjth npH coBepuieHHO hhuxt* 
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H3T» BGtX'b CJiaBHHT, COXpaHUJIH, npaKTHqeCKH HpHM'bHHJlH H pa3BHJIH 



Digitized by 




48 



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HT> BORPOCy O flPOHCXOHlAEHIM KHPrM3CKArO hapoaa. 



BonpOCt 0 np0HCX0»A6HiH KHprHBOB'B, 3TOrO nOqTH HCKJH0<1H- 

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nHTepeci» Ha CTOJrfiijax'B npeiraymecTBeHHO nepiOAHqecKofi ne^ara. 

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HapOAHOCTH. 

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du Caucase. Paris, 1829) npeAnoaaraerB, hto oGffraTejiaMH KaaaKia (KoHCTae- 

THHa) <5l»IJIH KaCOrH) KOTOpHXTi, BtpOHTHO, BMTBCHHJTb McTHCJaB*b. 

»THOrPA««C*OK OBOBFMM XXVI, 4 



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8BBJCR, npocTO XaifAepb-Mapsa, poxaxca Bb 905 (1499—1500) r. Oab oqeab 




ki> Bonpocy o npoHOxottjEHiH KHPrascKAro hapom- 



51 



KOTOpHfl Jt&eTb 3TOTB aBTOpt, COBepmeHHO HOBH H BB BHCHieft CTe- 
UeHH HHTepeCHU. BOTB <ITO M03KHO H8BJie% H3T> 6rO COIHHeHUl 0 

npoHCxoamemH KasaKOBB (t.-o. coBpeaieHHHXB KeprraoBB). 

Bb to BpeMfl Korw bb Hewi-b-Uvrnwh, saHaTOirB BceijiJio 
y36eKaMH, xaHOMt <5ujn> ACyjiB-XaifpB, to ABoe hbb cyjuaHOBB 
pow ftacyqn-xaHa, no HMean J^aHB6eKi» h THpefl, onacaacs npe- 
cjrfeaoBaHift co ctopohh A6yjfB - XaSpa, 6±xam hbb .Henna bb 
MorojiHCTaHB, npn6 ji hshtcjibho bb 1456 r. (860 xejacpH). Hca- V 
6yra-xaHB, BjiacTBOBaBmift Tor^a bb MoroucTavb, hphhhjib hxi» 

OXOTHO H OTB6J1B HMB 36MJIH Ha 3ana;dk MorOJMCTaHa, a HM6HH0 BB 

^acy h Ko3u6anjH. Kor.ua A6yiB-Xatpi>-xaH , B yMepB, to bb Y36eic- 
ckom-b yjrycfe hoahhjihcb cvym h Hey&OBO jibctblh ; 6ojn>moe kojh- 
qecTBO Hapo.ua oTKoqeBajo kb rapeio h ,H»aHH<5eKy, TaKB hto bb 
CKopoMi» BpemeHH BOKpyrB hhxb co6paJOCB jsfl 200000 qaiOB-bicB, 
a y36eKCKift yjycB npHine^'B bt» yna^ORB. TaKi» KaKB rapeft n 
AxcannfieKB caMH, a hotobtb h (5ojH>niaa qacrB codpaBmaroca bo- 
KpyPB hhxb Hapo^a 6wm (vkraemj, CKHTaBmieca ntKOTopoe Bpena 
6e3B npiioTa, to hxb h nposBajra <Ka8anaxH> 1 ). 

paHO noTepajx oraa CBoerp Myxamfe^-b-XyceftHa, KOTopuft 6hxl yfiarb wb 
914 (1508) r. no npaKaaaaiio niefi68HB-xaaa. Do enepTH OTaa XafUept aajr* 
oabo Bpena (915=1509 go 918=1512 r.) y ABoropojHaro 6paTa cBoero 3empi>- 
eA-AHHT>-Ba6epa. SarBMT. bt» 918 (1512) r., TpaaaAnaTa j*tt> orb poAy, orb-Bxajrb 
oht. Kt spyroMy ABOiopoAaoiry 6paTy cBoeny CyjTaBi-Caajrb-xaBy; okojio 
ABaAaaTH jtbtt> ocTaaajcfl on% npn xaa*, <5ujrb aeaarB Ha ero poAHofi cecTp* 
h CTflsai'b npx H6VB cjasy ynHaro coBfeTHBRa h no,raoBOAu,a. BcKop* docjtb 
roh«irhh CyjiTaHi»-CaHAi>-xaHa, MyxaMMeA'b-Xafiflep'b, onacaacb A6j-yp-paniHRii- 
xaBa, yxajiuca bt» JEaropi. kt> cuHy Ba6epa KaMpaBt-Maps*. Oti> aero bho- 
cj*ffCTBiH oht» nepemexb rt> 6paTy ero ryuaioBy. Kara KaapaHt, Tail m Ty- 
MaioHt bmcoho ABHHJM ero xocTOBHCTBa. Hep eat h/bckoabko BpeneHH rynaioHT>, 
pa86a*uft Ulap-b-xaHOMt, OTDpaBBJi-B MyxaMMeA'b-XaJAepaB'B KauiMBpi. Orpaaa 
8Ta yse 6twa paa-b y aero b% pyBaxt bt> 939 (1533) r., Kor^a obi. cjyxajrb 
qme CyiTaHTb-GaHAi»-xaBy. Xaftxepi* OBJiajrBxi> bckop* Beeio cTpaHOW h Tani> 
oeBOsajTb cBoe npe6uBame b*b KanecTB* doith BeaaBHCHMaro npaBHTejEfl. Ki> 
cbohmi» BJiagrBHiflMt oht> npncoeAHHajn. h TH6en». JLHto mpewb xecaTb nocxB 
aaaaTia BaniMHpa MyxaMMeAi»-XaflAepT» 6bui> j6wrh, 

J ) KaK-b H3BBCTB0, 60JIbniHHCTBOMT. BBTOpOBt CJ0B0 «Ka8aKT»> TOJIRyeTCfl 

HHeHBO B*b 8tomt> cmhcji**, Tart, BanpHM'Bp'b, Ban6epH nepeBOAHrb bto cjiobo 
kbet* cTpaBHHK-b hjih 6poAflra. IIpOHCxosAeBie «KaaaKa» (HHpnisa) on> BOjuaaro 
crenHoro nejOBtKa bhaho HesAy npo?HMi>, KaK-b KaseTca Ham, a h3t> BBace- 
cjrBAyK>n^aro npexaHin RBprB80Bi» o uxt npoacxoaJAeHia. Hbkto Kajraa-EaAMp-b, 
oflHH-b Hat BOeHaqajtbHaKOB-b ooeBbixi. j»Aefi, npoxoAHBmaxi» ct. saRHMH- to 




52 3HT0FP A4>H M ECKOE OB03P15H1E. 

{ 

Haiajo rocno^CTBa KaaaKOBi* othochtt> MyxaMMea'b-Xaff.nep'b 
npn6jiH3HTejibHO Kb 1465 (-6) roay (870 xe^acpu). H3T> AByx^ 
6paTf>eBi> h ocHOBaTOje^ Ka3aijKaro Hapo.ua FHpell 6ujh> CTapmifi; 
noairfc Hero xaHCKift npecTOj* yHacjrfcflOBajrb ero cuht> BypyHAyKb; 
nocjrfe BypyH^yKa cjrbAOoajrb chht> JJwaHH6eK;a KacHMi>. KacHarb, 
KaKi> MJiaji;uiift 6paTi> (co6ctb8hho ^BoiopoAHNft 6paTT>), cna^ajia 
noKopjuiGH BypyH^yKy, ho ct> TeqeHiearb BpeaieHH ero nonyjiapHOdb 
(BtpojiTHO, 6jraro^apH BoenHoft ao6,iecTH) cpe^H Hapoaa yBejiaiH- 
Bajiacb h aocrarjia, HaKOHen,T>, Toro, hto BypyHayic* ocTajrca bcJjmh 
noKHHyTHfi, 6hun> mwm'b, h npecTOJiOM-b 3&b whin* Kacaarb. IIpH 

BTOM'b yMHOMT> XaHt nOflHHJIOCb MOrymeCTBO Ka3aKOBT> TaKT>^ qTO 

ero ma HaBOAHJio CTpaxT> Ha cocfc;ie*, h MyxaMMea'b-Xaftaep'b Haxo- 

flHTb BOSMOKHfalATB rOBOpHTb, HTO HOCJlt ^HCyiH-XaHa HO 6fiIJIO CTOJb 

MorynxecTBOHHaro btb ^erarb-KHnqaK-fe, KaKt KacHMT>; owb yMep-b b«b 
1518 ro^y (929 xe^apw), h ct> ero cmepTbK) Ha BpeaiH fijieKHerb h 
CHjia h cjaBa Ka3aK0BT>. KacHMy HacataoBaxb ero cuirb MaMaurb, 
noarfc Mawiaraa xaHCTBOBajn> njieMHHHHK'b KacaMa Tarnp'b, a sarfeirb 
6pan» Hocjrfcflaaro Eyftaaarb, KOTopuft bt> 1533 (-4) roay (940 
xe^tpw) yMept.— XapaKTepnoTo, hto MorymecTso Ka3aicoBi>, CKOJbKO 
mokho noH^Tb H3t cjiobt* MyxaMMeA'b-Xaftflepa, ofiycjiOBJiHBajiocb 

npHT0K0MT> HOBbUTB KO^GB HHKOBt , TaKT> ace, Kftlfb H ynaflOICb HXT> 

b juacTH — y xo aomt> MHornxi, npHBGpHceHu.eBt : TaKT> 03aaqeHHbift aBTop-b 
rOBOpHTb nocjit Toro, Kaicb oht> ynoMHnaerb, hto y KacaMa 6buio 
fiojiie MHJuioHa noMaHHux'b, qTOBO BpeMH Byft^ann-xaHa Ka3afcoirc> 
6bijo He (Jojrfee ABawaTH Tuca i n>, a sarkarb, hto nocxb CMepTH 

saBoeBaTexflMH Hepes^ crenB, oTCTejn> on bobckb m yMapajrb otb roaoga h 
KafflRti, bo 6urb cnacem, cnyeTHBmelcfl ct> He6a <5*Jott rycueeft (kos ax). 
BcTynHBT> ct> btoh 6*Jioa rycuneH (jca3-ax) bt» <5pairb, Kajqa-Kajbipi. cffluaiCH 
poj(OBa^aJibHflsOMi> Ka8aKOBT>, T.-e. KBprn30Bi> (H. Ka3aaneB-b: OoHcaHie KHp- 
rHBt-KaffcaKt. GIIB. 1867 r.). EcTecTBesao, hto BOJiboue jroxh HCO^HOKpaTHO 

DOHBJIflJIHCB BO BpeMff pBSHMXt BepeBOpOTOB'b BTb CTenH, H RaBBKH (T.-6. n0J0£- 

nue ABBiuBifb Haiajo coBpeMeaHuxi* K^prnsaM-B), o KOTopuxi, vbi roBopnirb, 

KOHeiBO, He 6lJJB nepBLIMH El* HCTOpiH TR>pROB'b^ TBKt KaKTi TBROBblO; B'fcpOBTHO, 

cyn^ecTBOBBiH bt» pasJiHHHHB BpeMena b% ciibicA'b HeAOBOxbHhixt h 6trjiei^OBi> 
orb cymecTByH>maro CTpoa-, no ^pyrairb He y^ajiocb ocTaBHTb hocji* ce6a 
cjtbjobt, h o6pa30BaTb HapojiHOCTb, noAoCHyH) Ka3aKaM-b TflpeH h ]C(saHH6esa. 
Hto cjobo w Ka3aa'b* cj^AyeTb noHBMaTb nuenao bt> cmhcjtb BoibHsro, 6poxa- 
naro qeJioBljKa, noBBABtrovy, noATBepm^eTca h tbhi, ito b name KaaanecTBO, 
BoenpHHHB-b TiopKCKoe cjobo b, B*poaTHO, coxpanBB'b ero bt» ero nepBOHanajb- 
homi> cifucrB, hmchho npe^CTaBJiBJO CpoAs^ift BjeBenrb HesaBBCBHux'b iro^eft. 



Digitized by 



KT> BOIIPOCy O nPOHCXOaCABHIH KHPfH3CKAPO hap op A. 53 



Byftpani-b-xana ohh coBcfcarB ncqe3J!H. nocjrfcflHee, KOHewo, He cjrfc- 
jyerB noHHMaTL 6yKBajiBHo: Ka3aKH He HC^esaiorB, ho TepnioTCfl, 
Caaroflapa CBoeii MaJUHHCieHHOCTH; npo hhxt> H-fcKOTopoe Bpesin 
Majo cjiuhiho. 9Ta Gujia THraejraa roinna ajlh KasaKOB^, KOTopaa 
npo^ojiraajiacB jrfe , rc> ABa^aTB hot TpnwaTb nowrfc cmopth KacHMa; 
hmte> npnxoflHJiocB Aaace ao Toro naoxo, ^to ohh BUHya^eHbi 6blhh 
neo^HOKpaTHo HCKaTB yCtacHma y cbohxi BparoBi, Horaces!,, KaicB 
o6t> 3TOM-B nameT-B, Hanp., HoraflcKift khh3b CeftflflirB HBaHy IV; 

HO BT> flHH CHJTfcl, HaofiOpOTB, OHH TtCHHJTH HOraflljeB'B, HOA^HHHJIH 

KajMuKOBi). KoPAa co6cTBeHno HaqajiocB B03pojweHieKa3aKOB r B— cKa- 
saTB BnojiHt ToqHO o^eHB Tpyja,Ho; ho rhwb He MeHte cymecTByiorB 
ocHOBaHin, no3BOJUuonuJi npe^noJiaraTB, mo oho npoH3onwro ao 1570 
ro^a h hto rjaBHMM'B jumoM-B h nepBHM-B xknrejiewb no B03po»fleHiK) 
KasaKOBi, 6ujuh XaKi^-Hasap'B-xaH'B, TaicB kak-b Hanfiojrbe Baacmae 

(JtoKTH H3T> HCTOpiH Ka3aK0BT>, KaK*B, H&npHM'fcp'B, pawfcjeHie Ka3aK0B*B 

Ha TpH oppw, npHHHCUBaioTCfl emy*). 

^to Ka3aKH nocji-fe 1553 ro.ua, T.-e. nocjrfe cMepTH Byft^ani'B-xaHa 
(BonpeKH cjroBaM'B MyxaMMen , B-XaflAepa) > He ncqesjm, cymecTByioT'B 
BecBMa BtcKin HCTopHqecKin AaHHBiH, a hmghho: yae nocjrfe 1517 
rop;a (biuiotb #0 Haninx'B XHeit) ube hm^gmt, HenpepuBHUH CB*A*HiH 
o Ka3aKaxi> hs*b eBponeficKHx-b h Hamnxi pyccKHX'B hctotohkob'b . 
TaKi>, repfiepniTeilH'B, CuBmiS bt> MocKB-b bt> 1517 h 1526 rojiaiB, 
ynoMHHaerB o <Ka3a^Befi opA*>; flajrfee, hocojtb IoaHHa TposHaro 
JlaHHJia Fy6HHi>, 6uBmiff y HoraftijeB'B vl 1 534 roay, aoHocarB i;apio, 
^to <Ka3aKH, CKa3UBaiorB, Ao6po chjibhu h, CKasBiBaEOT'B, rocy,napB, 

TaiHKeHTB B06BaJIH>; SaT'fcM'B, /llKOHKHHCOHTt, 6BIBHlijl B7> Byxapt BTy 

1558 h 1559 roaax'B, nnnieTB, qTo TaimeeHTijBi Haxo^HJiHCB b* ero 
BpeMH bt> Bofiwk cb icasaicaMH. Bt> 1569 roiy, KaicB nrinierb CeMeHt 
MajiBueB-B (nocojn, IoaHHa IV y HoraffijeB-B), HanajiH Ha HoraitcKii 
yjiyc-B Kaaamrin opflH xana AKHa3apa (XaKKi>-Ha3apa), a bt> 1574 
ro^y iaHa 6Bua OporaHOBHM'B rpaMOTa Ha 6e3nonuiHHHyio ToproBjrK) 
Ka3an,K0K> opaoio. 

Mbi jhojhkhbi oTM-feTHTB bt> onHcamH MyxaMMeA^-Xafeepa 

HaHfiOJlte JIH)6onBITHBIH HHTH! 6^ O^HOft CTOpOHBI TO, «ITO Ka3aKH, T.- 

e. coBpeMeHHBie KfiprH3M hjiii, KaKi> hxt> Ha3BiBaiOTTb, Knprn3'B-KaftcaKH 



Ha ocHOBaHin BToro, noBHAHMOMy, XavKHb-Haaapa cj*flyen> oto&a€ctbhte> 
ct AKi.-Hia30iii». 



Digitized by 




54 



3TH0rPA*HqECK0E 0B03PUHIE. 



HJIH KHprHSt-KasaKH, HH^TO HH06 KftKt IIOJIHTHieCKH I^tJIbHOe, HO 

3TH0rpa<t>HqecKH a aHTponoJioreqecRii po3Hoe njeMJi, cocroamee mi* 
pa3HBixT> DJieMeHTOB'B,— acB ^pyroft cropoHhi, rto KHprH3u nojryqHJiH 
OBoe Haqajio ott» yafieKCBaro yjryca, h, cjrfcflOBaTejrLHO, Haci> ne MO»en> 
yjHBJiflTfc fijDBicoe cxo#ctbo— rfccHaa cbh3i>, Meatfly t*mh h jpyrHMH, 
KOTopoe BMpaacaeTca nepBUMt fl-fejoarb wb o6ii(hocth MHorHXTb poao- 

BHXTi HMeHT*, Kattt TO: KGbHlMA, HaUMdfto, Opit*/**, KatUmaMlOAtA , KtfH- 

ipamt, Kupeurm, mafiuuh, mama, KunnaKb., macb h *p.; HacKOJtbKO 
MyxaMMe^t-XaA ( a;ep , B cqHTaen> cbohxte> Ka3aK0Bi> y36eKCKaro nponc- 
xoa^eHia, BH.HHO yae H3t Toro, qTo owh hxt> Ha3MBaerb y36eicaMH- 
KasanaMH 1 ). 

HHTepecHO to, qro nponcxoacjeme KHprH30B*b H3T> cGpoAHHX'B, 
t&ki> cicasaTB cjryqaftHHXT», 3JieMeHT0BT> noaTBepHCflaeTCH hxt, co6ctb6h- 

HMMH npe^aHWMH. HO OAHHMT. H31» HHXT> KHprH3bI C^HTaiOTB C06fl BH- 

xowaMH H3i> TypKecTana, no ,npyrHMT> — h3t> KpwMa; hhha npe^aHifl 
nepeflarorB, 6yj»ro KHprasu npHnura EB<|>paTa, apyria npeaaHia 
yTBepayjarort, qTO KHprH3M cocTaBJwura Htsor^a ojho njieMa ct> ch- 
6HpcKEMH TaTapaMH-ajraTami. Ectb npeflama, coivracHO KOTopuiifc 
KnprH3bi npoH3onuiH orb Horaftn;eBT>, xhbiiihxi> Ha Bojirfe. KHprH3H 
ate TyprattcBolt ofijracTH cqaTaiorB cetfa npoHcmejtmHMH ott> Horaft- 
uewb; 6-feaaBraHXT, (npn npecjrfcAOBaHia BajMUKaMH) bt> YpaJibCKia 
ropu; OTb&ruYb noGJi , bAHHxi>HorafiiteBT>, roBOpnrt npeaame, npoH30- 
mm He tojtbko EHpraau, ho h ftanrttupu h KapasajrciaKH. 

Mh BBnne yKa3ajiH Ha ofimaocTt poaoblixi. hmght* y KHprnaoBt 
h ysCeKOBi; cjrfejyerL Boo6m,e sairfeTHTfc, qTO MHoria po^OBUH HMOHa 

nOBTOpillOTCH y pa3HMXl> TIOpKCKHXt IMBMOITb, K&KT>, Hftlip., y TypKMOETb, 

BapaEHprn30Bi> , ajrraficKHXT, tk>pkobt>, KapaKajinaKOB'B h 6araKHpT> (h 
KHprH30BT> cl y3(SeKaMH). Bt> nocjrfcflyK>meMT> H3JK>»eHiH mbi HeoflHO- 

KpaTHO 6yA6irb CTaiKHBaTBCa CT> pa3H006pa3HUMH HMBHaMH poaobx, 

KOTopjua BCTp'bqaiOTCA oflHOBpeMemo y paaHux-B coBpeMeHHtixt Ha- 



*) 3*feci> y MftcTa ycasaTb, no Kapranu-6yKeeBi^u HasuBarorb Horafti^eB*, 
cocTaejiaraix^m bt» HacToan^ee Bpeica KHprnacKilt poxi» b% ByxeeBCRoS erenw 
v Horaft-Rasarb a (cm. ^KHprnsu ByseeBcsoft opftu", b. I., CTp. 36). II o cJOBan 
H. H. rpoxevoBa (,KnprHtu h Kapa-SBprnsu Gup'b-^apbHHCRoft 06., f. I— 
K>pHABH6cidft 6Km» a . TaoiKeHTb 1889 r.), coBpeveHBue KHprHBu Cup-b-flaptHB- 
cxoft o6jacTH, BO-nepBMit, cavn ce6a npncBaiorfc ys6eRCRaro njenesH, a bo- 
BTOpwiT*, npeAaaie o tomt., hto ohh npoHdomJH B3i» qacTetf pasaux'b yatfeR- 
ckhtt, njeMeHT>, BHBen eme bt» yctaxt cospeMeHHaro aapo^a. 




Kb Bonpocy o npoHcxo»;yBHra KHproscKAro hapom. 55 



poiOBt. 9to qadoe noBTopeme po^OBHxt hmchtb n o^HOBpeMeBHflwi 

HXT> pa36pOCaHHOCTb Cpe^H pa3J!HqHWX'b TIOpKCKBX'B BJieMeHTb *) H03B0- 

jiAQTb Boofime aepacaTBca Toro MHtHia, hto apeBHie tk>pkh bt> to- 
qeme CBoeftMHoroBiicoBoS hch3hh Heo^HOKpaTHO apoShjtccb, saHocHMCB 
bt> caM&w pa3Hoo6pa3Hua CTpaHbi h, coeAHHaacL, BnocjitACTBiH o6pa- 

30BaJIH G0Bp6M6HH£Lfl rpyOOH, KOTOpfclfl BT> KOpH* HM'tlOTB DOfliaCB 

ecjm h He Toac^ecTBeHHoe, to BecBMa 6jih3K06 npoHexoameme, eoto- 
pufl reHeTHHecKH Bcfe dojite nora MeHte CB«3aHH Meatfly co6oft h aHTpo- 
nojiornqecKafl po3Hb icoToptixt oCycjioBjHBaeTca cb oahoS CTopoau 

pa3HhIMT> npOU;eHTHHM'B COflepacameaTB OTA'fejBHBlX'B 3J6M6HT0B r B, a CB 

apyroff BoenpHHHTieM'B pa3HuxT> qy*Abix , B dJieaieHTOB'B H3BH*fc, a bm6h- 

HO aJieMeHTOBl MOHrOJIBCKHX'B, <|)HHCKHX1>, IipaHCKHXt H ApyrHx-B. 

OcTaflaBJiHBaacB Ha po^axx tk>pkckhxi> njieMeH'B, mu hogtojihho craji- 

KHBaeMCH CB Di'fejIHM'B p^AOVB OAHHXT> H T'fcX'B »e, Cpe^H KOTOpblX'B 

HaH6oJi'fee qacTO Bcrp-feqaiOTCfl uauManb, Kup^u3^^ mamapz, 

ymyp* h Ap. He rosopa yace o towtb, hto neatly poaobhmh HMeaaMH 
KHprn30BT> h y36eK0Bi> (KairB, BopoHeM'B, yate 6bmo Bwrae yieasaHo) 
HMteTca MHoro oSmnxT), ho, Hanp., KHireairB BCTpiqaeTca m cpew 
6aniKnp'B, aajrfee b-b TaBpnqecKoii ryfiepHw: cpe.pi aepeBeHB T&BpH- 
qecKHxi* TaTapx nona^aiOTCH nept^KO TasoBua cb HMOHeirB KHoqaK-b, 
TaK*B) Hanp., bt> IlepeKoncKOM'B yts^t, EBnaTopii ckojtb (Kapa-KHnqaKi>, 
Kypyjry-KHiraaK'B, BejiBflays-B-KHOTairB h Eaft-orjiy-KHimaK'B) h Geoao- 
ciftcKOMT> ybafl-fc. 

He BAaBa&CB 3AtcB, BapoqcarB, bt> 3tjb ofinue Bonpocu, mh Bep- 

HOMCH OIIflTB KT> KHprH3&Ml>. 

JlepaacB MHtma o BecBMa HeaaBHeavB npoHCXoacjemH KflprH30B r b y 
KaK*B HapoAHofl rpynnti, h npniracuBaa et npoHOXoacaeme kohtjiom6- 

paTHOe, HaiTB npHXOAHTCH CT&TB p*fe3KO HpOTHBT* MHtHUI, BIJCttaSH- 

BaeMaro BaM6epH, o npoHCxoamemH HHTepecyiomeft HacB HapoAHOcra, 

a HM6HH0: 3T0TB aBTOpi» OTCTaBBaeTT> ApeBHOCTB KHprH30BT> H HXT» 

3THHqecKyio i^*jibhoctb. Ilpas^a, to, qro oht> roBopHTT> o i^jbhocth 



x ) He 6e3MHTepecHO otmHthtb, <ito b% TaBpHieexoft ctodh mh Heo^HospaTHo 
BCTpftqaean» TaTapciia cexeHia e% hm6h&iih Bam* UBfteTHUxrb tk>pkcrbxt> po- 
rob'b, a HueBBo: bt» IIepexoncKOBi> yss^B — Kunncun; cuuum^ yHmym ] Hatotcm%, 
xumaH (xbb ceaema) h xupeu; bt» EBnTaTopiftcKOMT>— Kapa-wnnoK*, Kypyty nun* 
yam, 6eA*daysh*Kuman, 6au-o%Ay-xunMaKb, ttapanauMam, mma&, Koupcmz (6ut& 
uomevb Toa^ecTBeHHO c«b xowpcmi), yriem m Kupiusi-Kaaam; bt> Beo^ocift ckomt> — 
Kunncun, matta, apit*n%, na**am b xumait; bt> CBM«eponoi&cxoirb^fiaBJMiM«. 



Digitized by 




56 



3TH0rPA«HqECK0E 0E03FBHIE. 



Hxt, KacaeTca npeHMymecTBOHHo oGuiaeB'B, odpaaoB-B, xapaKTepa h 
asHKa Hxt, h Bt 3tomt> cjiyqa* oh'b, noBHflHMOMy, npaBT>, a ero oiOBa 
0TH0CHT6JBH0 a3HKa noATBepacxaioTOH h B. PawoBtuffL *); ho BaM- 
6epn cKjiOHeHt npusHaTB h ofimift <J)H3OTecKift thitb RHprH30Bi> n 
ApeBHee npOHcxoameme hxt>, ct> t^m-b mh nojioacHTejLHO corjiacHTB- 
ca hg Moaearb h npoTHBt qero roBopaTB MHoro^HCJieHHue (}>aimi. 

CTapanct KOKa3aTB 9THHqecKyio h^jibhoctb h apeBHOCTB KHpra- 
bobi, BaMfiepH yKa3HBaeTi> tojilko Ha Tpa ocHOBama: BO-nepBuxt, 

Ha TO, TTO KOHCTaHTHHt IIop<{>HpOpOAHHfi BT> X B^R* ynoMHHaeTi* 

cjiobo „Ka3aKia a , bo-btophx'b, tto nncaTejib Onp^oycH b^XIb. ro- 

BOpHTt 0 „Ka3an,KHXT) xaHaXT> a , H B'B-TpeTBHX'B, 1T0 H3BUCB KHprn- 
30BT> HeceTb H'fcKOTOpua JTHHTBHCTHqeCKia OCOfieHHOCTH, CB0SCTB6H- 

Hua h MaAtapcKOMy a3UKy; sto, no MH-femio BaMfiepa, yKaa&iBaeT'B 
Ha cTOJKHOBeHie HasBaraHX'B flByx-B njieMeHt y»e bt> VIII b. KaK-B 
HSLWb Kaaceica na ocHOBamn nocxfe^Hnro AOBO^a BaMfiepn, mh, hh- 
crojibko ho yMaJiaa chjth jniHrBHCTHqecRHX'B bhboaobt., MoaeMT> cqo- 

TaTB, <ITO rfe ' OpBrHHaJKLHUH. 0OpMM BeHrepCRaTO H3WKa 5 Ha KOTOpMH 

ccujaeTCH no^TeHHtiS aBTopt, yKaSHBaroTB jrams Ha otfntfa ^epra 
Meac^y BeHrepcKHMt h hhhmh tk>pkckhmh HapiiiaMH, Chbihhmh bb 
VIII b. y •rhx'B njieMeHx, KOTopBra flaw Haqaao RHpnraaM'B, h ito 

TyTB KHprH3U, JHlKb HapO£B (B*B COBpeiieHHOlfB CMHCJTfe CJIOBa), HOJ0LO- 
atHTOJIBHO HH HpHIOM'B; 3T0 TbWb fiOJrfce HM6HH0 TaiCB, 1TO BT> VIII B. 

mh HHBaKHX'B CBtj-fcHitf o KHprn3axi> (tcasaKaxT,) He HMieM'B. *Ito ace 
KacaeTca cjiob'b $Hpaoycn (cm. Kep. EyK. opflH, bhh, I, dp. 272 e 
273) h IIop4>HpopoAHaro, KOTopne ynoMBnaiorB o Kasanaxb, to 3TO 
tojibko yKa3HBaerB Ha cymecTBOBame fipoflaiHXB ajeMeHTOB-B yace 
b*b ApeBHocTH, a othioab He Ha npeAROBT> cobpomohhmx'b KoprasoB-B *). 
CaMT> ace BaMfiepn 3 ) yKasuBaerB, BO-nepBBixT>, Ha SHaieme CJIOBa Ra- 

06pasn;u Hapoj. JHTep. nops. iuexeBi>, q. III., CHE. 1860 r. 

J ) Hame KasanecTBO, KOTopoe mu b*b esb^cthove cmjucj-b uomewb ci» noji- 
hhm*l npaBOM-B npHpaBHHTt wb ^pePHHMT, KasBEaifb CpeAHefi AsiH y o6pa80Bajocb 
npH pa3HLixi> ycJOBiaxi, h bt> passua speMeea: laaaRH 3anopoacKie, ^oHCKie, 
ypajbCKie, cn6wpcKie h Apyrie npeACTaBAHforb pasaufl rpyanu n&me othbcth bt. 
aHTponoaorHiecKOMt OTHomeHin, h HenpaBu 6ujh-6h mu^ ecJH-6u noaejtajui 
CBflsaTb 6ojrbe bobxhioio no CBoeicy o6pa80B8HiH) rpynny c% 6ox%e paHBe». Ha- 
ROHen/b, .KaaaK-b*, kbeii cjiobo, ecTb 8Byii» nycTofi: oho Morjio nepeHOCHTbca on. 
o^Horo nieneHH it. ^pyrony, ott, o^Hoft rpynnu ki> ffpyroil. 

3 ) Das Turkenvolk in seinen ethnologischen und ethnographischen Beziehun- 
gen. Leipzig. 1885. 




KT> BOnPOCF O HPOHCX03KAEHIH KHPrH3CKArO hapom. 75 

3aKi> — „6poAara tt (Vagabund); caai-B ae ohb OToacAecTBjraeT'B hjih 
cofiiCTBeHHO npnpaBHHBaeT> 3to cjtobo no ero 3HaqeHiio kt> nepcHA- 
CKOMy cjroBy ^ceprepj'B" (aCep-repAHAe— umgesturzten Hauptes", t. e. 
cjiOMfl rojioBy hjih „kopflos ^T.-e. copBH-rojiOBa) HTypeijKOMy 6amH- 
fiyayKt („6aniH-6y3yK^ — Haaptwiist", t. e. niajTBHaa rojioBa), t. e. 
Kb cjroBaMi>, He HM'fciomHMT> HHKaKoro 3THHqecKaro 3HaqeHm; caH^ ace 
oht> bt» rjiaBt o6i> y36eKaxt 2 ) roBopnT'B, qTO ^KasaKH*, nodjrk.no- 
BaBmie* Ha pajty ct> H-fcKOTopuMH njreMeHaMH sa IHeftfiaHieirB hpothbt* 

MOHFOJTOB'b, 0 VeWb TOBOpBTCH BT> 54 ntCHH IHeft6aHH-HaM3, H6 qTO 

HHoe, KaKi> BOJiLHJbie, HHKOMy ho no^HHeHHue cTenHue aorrejiH, ^Htwo 
bt> pofl-fe nepcHACKHxi> ceprep^oBt h TypemtHxt 6aniH-6y3yKOBT> a , h 
oh'l *e, kt> eameMy y^HBJieHiio, cqHTaen, coBpeMeHHKixi> BHprH30Bi» 

HOTOMKaMH ^peBHHX'b Ka3aK0BTE> H STHHqeCKH, a He HOJIHTHieCKH, irfejiB- 

HbiMH. ^ajrfee BaMfiepH He npaAaerB AOCTaToqnaro SHaqema HMeHaarB 

HOKOJrfcmft H pOAOBT> y KHprH30BTi H CHRT^QTb HX1> TOJKAOCTBeHHOCTB 

y pa3jin«iHiiixi> Hapo^OBi* cjiy^afiHOCTBM); mh ne Moacearb He yAHBJiaTB- 

CA TaKOMy CTpaHHOMy MH^HilO, BUCKa3aHH0My TaKBMT> 3BaT0K0MT> TH)pK- 

CKaro HJieMeHH, BOTopouy aojihcho 6htb h3b*ctho, qTO bch »h3hb 
TiopKOBi>, KaK'B ^peBHHX'L, TaKi> OTqacTH h coBp6MeHHbix r b Aa»e, 
oCycJiOBJieHa hx'b poaobhmh OTHoniemnMH. IIoqTeHHBifi aBTopi>, ho3bo~ 

JEHMT> Ce6"fe 3aM"feTHTb, CaSfb Ce6-fe Hp0THB0p*qHT-B BT> 3T0ATB, BO-nep- 
BUXt TbWb, qTO OHB, KaK'B HeOAHOKpaTHO HMT» BHCKaSHBaOTCH BT> 

coqHHeHinx'B (cb qiMT*, BnpoqeBfB, mh jihoib othochtojibho corjracHu), 
c^HTaerB, hto cpoAH tk>pkobt> bc* ABH»eHia h HanjiLiBH mohpojiob'b 

XIII CTOJltTifl OCTaBaJIHCB BT> TQWb OTHOHIOHiH AOBOJIBHO fieSCJltAHH, 

qTO OTA'feJBHBiH njieMeHa 0<yraBajiHCb KaKt h npeayie schtb hph(5jih3h- 
TejiBHo Ha cbohxi* CTapuxT* BrfecTax'B, TaKi» qTO Aa»e bosmojkhoctb 
HCOioqeHa, qTo6u poaobbih raena CJiyqaSao 3aH0CHjiHCB to kt> TypK- 
MOHaM'B, to kt> y36eKaMT>, KHpra3aMT>, KapaKHppHsaM'B , KapaK&jinaKaM'B 
h 6aniKHpaM'B; bo-btophx'b, cairB aBTopi> npHAaeTT> rpoMaAHoe 3Ha- 
qeme poaobbim'b HMeHaMi> y y36eKOBi>, Ha ocHOBaHin KOTopuxi oht> 
cquTaeT^ aocjitAHHxi» l t&ki> xce KaK'B h mu, KOHrjiOMepaTOMi; bt>- 

TpeTBHX'B, OHT>, CaMl> H6 OTpHU.aeTB, qTO BT> JIHEtt HtKOTOpUX^ HO- 

KOJrfcHift, KaK-B-TO nymparm h uauMam Kb KHprn30BT> Boraejn> hocto- 
poHHiii 3JieMeHTi>. IIoqeMy »e oht> cqaTaeT'B oaho h to «e HBjreme 

B03M03KHHMT> H A^jKO HeUpewfeHHO COBepmHBHIHMCH J r y36eKOBT>, a TO 3Ke 

ByKBajbHO: CesroJOBHi. 
2 ) Loc. cit., cTp. 349. 



Digitized by 



3TH0rPA*HqBCK0E OBOSPfcHIE. 



caMoe 6e3i> bchkhxt* ocaoBaaifi OTpanaerb y KHprH30Bi>? no^esiy oahh 
poAOBua HMOHa, no ero MH'feHiio, y KHprB30Bi> o6jiomkh pa3HHX'b nAe- 
Mea'B, aApyria jmmh cnyqailHO 3aHeceHH bt> hxt> cpeAy cyAttfoio? 

Ecjmi 6h mu nomejiaJiH pacqjieHHTb coBpeMeHHyio KHprn3cicyK> Ha- 
po^HOCTB Ha ea cocTaBHtia qacra, to dto 6mjio 6m Aaaeico He Tam> 
Tpyjtfio, KaKT> Moaerb noKaaaTEca CHaqaaa. Pa3;rfcjieHie Bcero KHp- 
rH3CKaro njieMeHH co6ctb6hho oieHb cTpoffao. Bca KHprHscKaa Ha- 
pojuHOCTb pa3^kjiaeTca Ha Tpn 6oju>mia rpynnu, HasbmaoMbia opAaMH: 
Bojibrayio opAy,CpeAHK>ioopAyH Moyio opAy (ByiceeBCKaa opAa ecTb 
iieqTOnuoe, KaicbiacTb Maaoil, cm. cKap. ByK. opAN» b. I, CTp. 17); 
KaacAaa opAa pa3A*JiaeTca Ha HepaBHoe KOjmqecTBO noicojrfeHifi, Kaac- 
Aoe noKOJi-feHie saKJiioqaerb B'b ce6t B-fccKOJbKo poaobte>, poAT* Apo- 
6nTca Ha OTA'fcJieHia, a OTA'fcJieHia Ha noAOTAtJieiria. MeacAy rhwb 
kwi> OTAfeJiemaM-b n noAOTAtJiemaM-b (aTaKace MHorHnn> pcnaMT*) hgjib- 
3h npnnHCbiBaTb ApeBHaro npoacxoacAeHia, a nanpoTHB-b, hxt> crfcAy- 
erb c^HTaTb npoHCxoHCAema Cojrfee hjih MeHte HCAaBHaro, noKOJiiaia 
h Aasce poAa, no Kpaftneft M'fept hs-b nooirfcAHHX'b oqenb amorfe, bo- 
AyTi CBoe nponcxoHCAeHie yaco H3AaBHa; Ha 3to, BO-nepBuxx, yita3H- 
Baiorb cBHflkTGJibCTBa ApeBHHXT> nHcaTejreft, a Bo-BTopbix , b, to o6croa- 
TejbCTBO, ito MHorie H3*b hhxtj BCTpfeqaioTOH ho TOJbKo cpeAH KHp- 
moB f b > ho h cpe^H ysfieKOB-b, KapaKnprH30BT», KapaKajmaKOB-b, Typ*> 
mghobt) h 6amKHpoBi>. IIpaBAa, h BTb qacirfc pOAOBTi MU HaflAeM-b He- 
Majoe KOJH^ecTBo, ApeBHOCTb npoHCxoacAema KOTopux^ coMHHTejibHa, 
hjih ate KOTopwe 6e3ycjioBHo HOB-fcftmaro npoHcxoawHia (Kaicb, Hanp., 
TejeHryTH h Horaw ByKeeBCKoft opw, cm. cKnp. ByK. opAti> b. I, 
CTp. 30 h 38), TfeMT> ho MeHte oqeHb MHorie, bo bchkomi cjiyqati 
npoHCxo»AOHia ApeBHaro. 

H. ApHCTOBi* *) roBopnrb, qTo po^a, fiyAy^n bt> nepBOHaqajbHo* 
ochob* CBoell pesyjibTaTOM'b ecTecTBeHHaro paSMHoaeaia jnoaeft B*b 
nepBHqHHX'b ofimecTBeHHHx-b rpynnax'b, BwrfcACTBie npoAOJiacaioiijarocH 
ecTecTBeHHaro HapoacAema hobhxt> qjieaoBi*, aojhkhh HOMHHyoMO Apo- 
6HTbca. Ha o6pa30Barae hobmx'b poaobuxt* qacTell, no MH-feaiio HasBaa- 
Haro aBTopa, Moryqee BJiiame hm^iotb h 3K0H0MHqecicie, h nojraraqe- 

!) „Ouutb BHacHeidfl BTHnnecKaro cocTaBa XHprE8%-Ba8aKOB% 6oJbmofi op^H 
b BBpa-Hnprfl80Bi» Ha ocHOBasiE poflocjOBHUx'b cKaaamtt b cBi^tHii o cy^ecTBy- 
jomvx'b poflOBtix-b ^*jieHiHXT» b o poAOBux-b TaMraxT., a Tasse hctophhcckhxt. 
^aBHMXT> b HaHHHaiomHxca aHTponojorHHecKHxi> BSCJTB^OBaHift* ( 9 2ELBBafl Ora- 
pHHa*, bud. Ill -IV, 1894 r.). 



Digitized by Google 



Kb BOHPOCy O HPOHCXOJKABHIH KHPrH8CKArO HAPOM- 59 

CKie $aKTOpu, KOTopue ofiyaiOBjrHBaiOT'b HOByio rpynnapoBicy po^OB^ 
h hxt> OTAtJibHHX'B qacTeit, BH3UBaa o6padOBaHie hobuxi> poaobkxi» 
e^HHHD,Tj h eox>36B'B. He MaJioe, no cjiOBaMt H. ApncTOBa, Bjiume 
Ha rpynnnpoBKy poaobt* hm^jih CHJbHhie n yaaqjiHBHe bokah, noxb 
BJiaCTLK) KOTOpHXt co6HpaiOTCH He TOJTbKO fiaHHcaSmie HXT> po^CTBeH- 

HBKH, HO H OTflaJieHHbJfl HO'KpOBH TOOTH pOflOB'b H Pfr'ilie HHOIIJieMGH- 

hhkh. cBosHHKaiomie TaidaMT> o6pa30M'b Ha pflfly ct> po^obumh xfeje- 
mam KpOBHaro npoHCxoameBia, a dotomt* h 3aMfeHflK)mie hx*l qacTiio, 

pOAOBUe COI03U HapO^HUOCb C03HaBieMT» HpHpaBHIiBaiOTCH Kb pOAOBL11> 

efljsmnjdLWb KpOBHaro npoHcxoac,neHiH, xoth bt» cocTaBi, hxt> bxoaatb 

Hept^KO ^aCTH pa3HHXT> pOAOBT» H ^a9R6 CGMBH VL TpyHHM HHOUJieMeH- 

hhrobt> > » Taifb KaKi> npoijeccbi o6pa30BaHia bobuxt> poaobuxi> e%a- 
Eum> h rpynirb, Hcie3HOBeHie hxt> h co3H^aeie hobhxt> cok>30b?>, 
KaKi> cnpaBe^JiHBo 3aM-fcqaerb t-btl ApncTOBi>, ^jihtch bcg BpeMH cy- 
mecTBOBaHifl tiopkckhxt* icoqeBHH kobt> , T.-e. THcaqejrfcTia, to cjrfcao- 
Bajio 6h acaaTb, hto y KHprH30Bi> po^w yTpaTHJiH BCHKyio Meamy co- 

60K> HCTHHHyK) KpOBHyK) CBH3B H COOTHOmeHie; HO BT> A'feSCTBHTeJIb- 
HOCTH pOALI H HXT> HOapaSAtjieHia y TropKOB^-KO^eBHHKOB'b HaXO- 

AHTCii Meraay coCok) bt» onpe^tJieHHHX'B, HMtionmx'b qacriio (|)hkthb- 
Hoe, qacriio hcthhhh4 KpoBHO-pojoBoS xapaKTepT>, cooTHonieHiflX'b. 

HpOHCXOflHTb 3T0, KOHeiHO, BCJrkflCTBie CHJbHarO BJUHHifl HeofiblKHO- 

BeHHO pasBHToro poAOBoro dura, coxpaHaiomaro h noHbinfe bt» snar 
TOTejbHoft cTeneHH csoe rpoMaanoe BHaieme. 

ThMt He MeH-fee cymecTByiorb aocTaTOimbw ecHOBamn cmotp%tb 
Ha MHorie po^a h hmchho po^a apeBHie, ^HrypHpoBaBmio H-feKor.ua 

CaMOCTO«TeJTbHUMH HJeMOHaMH, HO KaKTb Ha COI03H pO^CTBOHHBKOB'b, 

a KaKi> Ha ofimecTBeHHbie h nojra*raqecKie coiosu, npeacTaBJiaiomie 
bt> cbok) oqepe^t 3HaraTejrbHyio KOHMOMeparaocTb. H*ito aHajiorHq- 
Hoe npeacTaBJUHorb h KapaKaprH3H, ho y raxx, Kaici h y k)»ho-ch- 

CHpCKHXt l ) TIOpKOB'B, KpOMt pOAOBtlXl, (COtfCTBeHHO o6mOCTBeHHO- 

HOJiHTflqecKHxi) rpymn>, cymecTByiorL coiosu co6cTBeHHO pokctbch- 
hhkofb — Tam> HaauBaeMHH ticocmu* (ceom), nxew KOTopuxT> TBepao 
coxpaHHiOTi, co3Haflie o6t> o6m,em> kpobhomt* npoHCXo^eHin; y ajrTaft- 
^eB'b qjeHu oworo ceom He Moryrb BCTynait bt> 6paKi> Me«^y co- 
6ok) 9 HadbiBaioTB ce6a 6paTbHHH ho kocth. 



!) H. ApHCTOBi>. Ibid. cTp. 448. 



Digitized by 



60 



anraorPA+fPiECKOE 0503pbbip. 



Mil yaw sume rosopiufl o tomt», q-ro cymerreyim. ochob&hlh 
ty&KTUHecKia cwMTb H-fcKOTopue poja, oocrafljuioiiue eoBpeaeHHoe 
napraacKoe h y36eKCKoe (a Taicxe h 6anuwpcKoe, KapanprB3CKoe hjq>.) 
jucii ena 3a lueueHa, cyn^ecTBOBaBmin rtEoria caMOCTOjrrejfcHO. ^ti- 

CTBHTeJTLHO, He BCt pOM MOrjTT, fifclTb OTHCKaHH Cfc JerKOCTtD BT» 

jrivroflBcax-fe HCTopiM, rfein. He xeete npo scfc nosarfcHui KHpraoarb 

H n[)0 HtKOTOptie POM EXT. HaHT> JOCTOfffepHO H3B*CTB0, TTO O&H 

caMH cpaBHHTejbHO HeAABHO (J)nrypHpoBajH coBepmeHHO canocTOflTej&- 
ho h Aaxe, OTqacTB, h Tenept cocTaawiorB cbok> oeotfyio eapoj- 
HocTb, Kaic-b, Hanprnrfept, KHuqattH, o KOTopux-b mh, Bopoqeirb, esar 
xewb HCMHoro HH*e. 

OcTaHOBHMCH Tenepi* Ha noKoxfeHiflx-L h HtKOTopuxt popart rap- 
rH30B-b. IlMatecjitAywuuH meHa pojorb h nosojrbHifi xaera Han's A. 

JleBUIIIH'b 1 ). 

*) «Onacaflie nprHTb-iaSeaiinz'b opA* h ereneft*. GIIB. 1832 r. Btot* cob. 
cokti pOA08% othochtch wb 20-«i> rojavb, TtM-b Be Meafte, obi ae yTpaTui* 
csoero aBaneeifl. Ca«o co6oio paayafcerca, ito ct» 20-xt. roAOBi> nooroe hsm*- 
uujiocb, no HftCb, ecTecTBeBHo, ropaaAO 6ojfea HBTepeeyio-rb A&BBbia cTapwn. 
roAOB% f Twn» Bar& BOBftftniifl aaMfcaeaiB bt» a&bbomi> cjyqa* se Hrpaion* po*a. 
Bi> nacToaajee Bpeaa bt> paapoaaeBBoft jarepaTypfe o RRpraaaxi* mooho bctp»- 
TBTt BecbMa Mfloro HHTepecHhixt abbbuxi no OTAtieaiflirb poAoro, norymax*& 
ABTb AOBOJbflo nojBufi cnacoin, paa^B-ieBia KHp r aacaaro aapoia. Tenept, korAa 
npoaioui4H MBoro^HcieBBMH pa8Apo6aeHia KapraaoBt, ^ueio ae BesA* mobbo 

DOAB6CTB KXT> RT» BMUieapHBOABMOU CHCTeB*; BT> BTOMl Mbl KOTRQWh y6*AHTbCa f 

nanpHMftp'b, na 6yReeBB.axi» ( 9 Kap. Byx. opAbi", b. I, cTp. 25—48), ROTopwe, 

OTAHJtBBOIHCb OTb Maiotf OpAM, Cb OflHOl* CTOpOHbl H6 HM'BFOT'b B*i CBOeft Cpe** 

npejcTaBHTejefl bcbxt> pojOBT> btoA opAH, a cb Apyroff o6pa3oaajm aoBbie, 
kbrti cyjTaucaitt, xoAMBBCRift, TeiearyTOBi» a aorattcxifi (cm. ,Knp. Eya. opAbi*, 
b. I, CTp. 28, 20, 80 a 33). A. A. HBaHOBCKifi, saBBMaBniiftca HacjrtAOBBBiearb 
RBpruaoBii CpeAQea opAW bt> 3aftcaHCR0Mi> y*8A* CeMHnajaTHBCRoft o6jiacTa, 
coo6mHiT» bbmi» o cymecTBOBBBia TftMt 19 poaob* 6e3i> noKOi*Bitt (kbi npaao- 
ARM% hx% 8A*cb noTOMy, hto orb ae noBBifliBCb bt. neiaTH). IIo cB*A*aiaMT», 
coOpaRHKivb A. A. Hbehobckhmt^ aaltaafl'b B*b 3aficaHcaoirb ytaA* a**Rtcb aa 
lempe OTA^jenia (hjb, ecJH Baft warn, cnaTBTb, hto, aoBHAHvoay, 6ojriae Bftp- 
ho, aa HOROAftaie, to bb neTbipe poAa), a BMeaao: aK^-HaftMaai,, kiba, Maat- 
(J«Ai» a Tcprb-ayjn» (ARjprb-aByjn, JleBniHBa). TepT-b-ayjrb, bt. cboio OHepeAfcf 
A*jihtch hb TORaui, Torycb, A»aBH-6eRi» a Ty8arq«; ecJH bth naeBa cibtbtb 
aa Huena oTA'BicHifl, to aajKjoe u81> H rxi> paaA'BJtaeTCH aa aasecj i BATB)npa noA- 

OTA*AlQlliH. 

1) Tomm: Toa-Torycb, AByJi-RaflAapt* RyAoroib-ayTTyCait, ecearya-b, ecea6erb 
n Rapcajh-raK-b, 

2) Toiycv THfleil, cep-ropa, Rapa-TORa, n&yierb a yibAKame. 




kt> Bonpocy o iipohcxo*aehih KHprH3CKAro hapoaa. 



61 



1. Eo/ibiuafl opAa. 

1. UoKOjrfeHie Yumm. 

Po.ua: Bot6oS, ^HMHpt, ^McaHHCB hjih flHBnm>, Cine'L-aM'B, A6aaft- 
cyB&Hi>, Capu-cyjH, ^hu^-kujiu, KaHfuti hjh KaHjiu, Jl^cajranpi, 
h npoqie. 

2. IToKOJitHie Kompamz. 

Poaa: Bafljiap'B-.HacaH^Kap'B, YpatfL-rejibflH, KyjH>#Kera»n>, 
BowaH-B, Toicb-Cyjiarb, flMaHt-fiaft, Kypaicpca, 9thmj«ip'i>, 
Kyiom-L-KaHCiiaT). 

3) ^(NvafiM-^m: Asa-iay, 6aft-KyiHK*, Tacbi-6aft h vain. 

4) Tpaamu: TcpT-capw h Tyaarnbi. 

Bc-bxt. ate poAOB-b (hmh t noRoaiHift) bt> 3aSoaacKom> yhaA*, iart Guio cna- 
8aHO, 19*, obh crfcjyiomie: HaftMaHCHifi (4 OT^hjeHiH), rjaBHbift aprHHCRift (5 otr.)^ 
Taparb-THHCKift (2 otj.)» HaftMaHTb-RyHrpaTcaift (12 otaOi aprHHCRift (2 ota-)> c «- 
«HpOAn^i-HcaKi>-KHpeftcKiil (3 ota.)> aprHHRaHAacaroibicRift (1 otaO> RHHHaRCHift- 
(4 otj.)» KHpeficKifl (6 ota.), nypyBcaifi (5 ota.), TaHa6yra-RHnqaHCHift (6 otaOi 
Ky^eJiflB-KHnHaKcifi (4 ota.), GaftAStHrHTcraft (3 ota.), rapscarHTHHCRift (12 otaO> 
raRaaRcnift (5 ota.)> Typbi-aHrbipi-RHnaaRCHill (4 ota.), ysyH-RHHHaRCHift (6 ota^), 
GaraHaJHMHaftxaHCRift (13 ota.), ap r b h -Ta6 y rj hbcslS (2 ota.)« CpaBHrnaa btott* 
nepeneab po^OBt CpeAHeft opAU cl HveaaMH noaoxBHift ■ poAOB-b CpeAHeft opAbi 
h3t» cnHCKa A. JleBmHBa, ibi MOiem noaaTb, hto bt» HacTOBmee Bpeica, Bpexa 
Bee se CBJibBaro naAeaia poAOBoro ycTpoftcTBa, noaBBjacb nacca bobuxt* po- 
AOBi>; ct> ApyroM CTOpoBH, noBBAHMOMy, BHaaeHie noiojrBBia^ saRi» ofiteAHBaro- 
mefl rpynnu, yTpaaeno, apoxft toto kt» cocTaey CpeAHeft opAH npHMfcuiaiHCb 
BftKopwe poAa Bojbnioft h Maxoft opAbi. H Tar*, aaci» ae aoxkho yAHBJHTb, ecu 
B"b BacToam.ee BpeMH bo Maoraxi* nfccTaxi. cpe^a KHprH80Bi> ae yAaeTca BoacTa- 
HOBRTb CTapyio CBCTCMy poAOBoro cTpoH, h ecjia OHa H3M*HHjacb ao HeyaaaBae- 
hocth. CymecTByiorb h CoJbe ApeBHia CB-BgftHiH o poAaxi MprHaoBT., tbmt. a»h- 
Bbia A. JleBmnna; TaHOBbia, HanpHirBp'b, non-BmeHbi bt> „CH6apcKOirb B-bctbhr'b" 
(8a 1820 r. aac-rb IX: „ Ku prwb- Raft caxa Eojbmoft, CpeAHeft ■ Maioft opAbi"). 
ABTopii paaA'BJiaeTb opAU Ha poAbi, a poAbi Ha OTA*xema. Bt» Boxbnioft opA* — 
4 poAa, bi> CpeAHeft — 22 h bt» Maxoft— 41; SffBCb, n oBHAHMoay, c6htm noHaiia 
o noKOj-BHiaxi. h poAaxnb, ROTopbia TaKT» cTpoftao h HarxaAHO aaiOBreHbi y A. 
JeBDJHHa. Ci-BAyeTT. OTM*BTHTb, hto yae 9th cTapHHHbia CB*A*sia yaasbiBaiOTb 
aa paaApo6jieHHOCTb RHprascRBxii poAOBi h coeAHHeaie AByxi> poAOB'b bt» oahhi» 
o6mift (ABoi*Hoft), hto bx HacToamee BpeMa BbicTynaerb BHaqaTeJbHO p*8ae. H. 
ApncTOBT. onpeA'SJaerb bt» CBoem> HHTepecHOm> ^Onwrb BuacHema eTHHHecKaro 
cocTaBa RHpraa'b-KaaaKOB'b Bojibmoft opAbi tf , poactbo h CTeneab ero pasHbix'b po- 
AObt> tioibmoft opAw, a paBHO h CTeneHb nrb nepen*maHHOCTH Ha ocHOBaHin po- 
AOCJiOBHbiK'b npeAaaifi, Tann> h ypaHOBi> a npRXOAarb rt> oneHb BfcpHbiirb a 

HOBblVb BMBOABM'L, Hp02HBaK>D^HHl> CB*TT» Ha MfUO HO cie BpeMB H3CJrflA0BaHH0e 

poAOBoe yoTpoftcTBO EHprniOBi>. 



Digitized by 



9THOrPA*a<l£CK0E 0B03PSHS. 



II. CpeAHsn opAa. 



1. IIoKOTfeHie HauManh. 
Pom: An»-<Sypa f Byja™, KapaTHpefi, THpcb-miram, 
^Uoptv-aByxb, KyKT.-Axapjra, Hpm-Hfluu, CeKH3T»-6araHaJH, Cajmpt. 



Po»: Topbi-Aiiraqrb, Tywa, KbiTatiara, Eyjiynb, Kapa- 
Eajuirb, KyH^uflHi> 9 TaHa-Eyra, Yzywh % Kyin>-6opoin>. 

3. HoKOjrfeflie Yeaxb-Tupeu (hjh Kupcu). 
Poxa: YBaK-b, Tflpeft hjh Kapeft h Tapauu. 

4. TIoKOJrfeHie Aptum. 
Poja: fiapa-KBCHKT*, Kapaey-ib-KHCJurB, ^ap-b-xaanron., J^RaH- 
jcapT>, HaiKaKt, Aioprb-aByjb, Ararat, Axrai, TefiHTb, TaGasju, 
Bopqa, Kapmurb, EacaHTieffb, Arunrb-KajucaMaffB, RaHxxHnun, 
Ko3»raHT», KyK^-man. 



1. IIoKOJrfeme A^umy***. 

' Poxa: Kapa-caicajib, Kapa-KHCflirb, Khth, ^ropraapa, ^yifeset 

H HHKJH. 

2. IToKOJrtHie Eauyjiu. 

Poxa: A waft, AxanaacB hjb ^eonacb, Ajara, SaitiasTH, Mac- 
icapb, Bepm-b, Taaiapi> hjh Ta3i>, HcceHTenHpt, Hepsecb, Taaa, 
Ku3UJKypn,, Hlaxj^rt. 

3. HoKOJtHie flotcumu-ypyih (Joeempy) . 

Po»: TaeuHi., TaMa, KepxepH, ^^KarajifiajtjM, Kepefirb, Tn(e)- 
jwy, PaMoxaH-b. 

XlepeAaB-b 3totl nepe^eab noKOjrfcwft u pojOBi* KHprHdcxaro 

n-lOSieHH, MU OCTaHOBRMCH Ha H%K0T0pHX'b H3T> HHXT>, W06H ytfCHHTL 

cefit o6pa30BaHie KHpmcicaro Hapoaa. Mu bhahmi, qTO Eoxbrnaa 
opja coctohtb M3T» jByxt noKOJifeHiJi: yucTOHh (ycnna) h Kompam*; 
H3i> hhxt> nocjrbABee, no aioBairb A. .TeBmuHa, npiraajjieaMuo npexje 
kt> CpejHeft opxb 0 Jwmb BnocjitjcTBiH bohijo bt> cocravb op*H 
Bojibraofi, KOTopan, B*b cboio oqepejb, bt> apbbhocth cocTOflja re* 
Tpex-b noKOjiimft: yuoom (hjh yctom), capxoMb h myxamau. Co- 

XpaHBJIOCb JIH HMfl HOCJltAHHrO HOKOJtmH HJH ffferb, HaMT> JOTHO He 

H3B-fecTHO, qTO ace KacaeTca ycwwa h nomparm (hjh KyHtpama), to 
ohh, paBHO KaKT> h poja capwutb (ceptaMz, ceptete) ko,hkma, dotca- 

MUpb H dyJLQMb, HtKOfXa COCTaBJflJIH CaMOCTOHTeXbHUfl iueMCHa, o 



2. IIoHarkHie KunnaKb. 



III. Ma/ian opAa. 




KTb Bonpooy o hpohcxo»aehih khpphsckapo hapoaa. 63 

KOTopuxi mh HMteafb, npaBA&, AOBoabHO otphbhctmh, rbwb ho mg- 
Hbe BecbMa HHTepeeHHH jh&hhhsi. H. Aphctob* Afters hhoc A'fcje- 
Hie Bojibnioft op^ti. CoraacHO ero usucKaHMurB, 3Ta opua Kbjmvca 
nail noKOJrfcmtf, kotophh bt> cbok) onepejub pawfejwnoTCfl Ha poAH h 
t. a. 9th noKOjrfeHifl cjit^yiomiH: (fyiama, adScwb, cyeam, Hanpaumt*, 
ucmu y ywawnu, capbt-yikyu*, dotcaAaup*, kohiaw, whuikauvi cejne- 
aw. 3to ^tjieme BojDbraoft op.au, ftpeacTaBJWHomee rayio cacTeMy, 
nim A^enie JIoBnunia, cocTaBjeHO H. Aphctobumi Ha ocflOBamH 
poAOCJiOBHOft ,HHKaM6afl-6aTHpH ycTHuxi, coo6m;eHifi <5ieBT> Eojibmoft 

OpAU H H^KOTOpUXTb JIHTepaTy pHBI XT> HCTO^HUKOBT,. XOTH HCTO^HHKT* 

poAOCJiOBHoft ^HKaMfian H. ApncTOBy h HeH3BtcTeHT», rfekt ue 
Menbe H-bn> ocHOBamn craTaTb npHBGAeHHoe A*JieHie BojEbmoft opAU 
npoHBBOJiBHUM'b. He noAJioacHTB, Bnpoqearb, coMHbHiio, *to, pascnpa- 
njHBaa pasHNxt KHprasoirb, qaeHOB'b pa3HHXi> poaobt*, ofiHTawmBXt 

paSHUH M*CTHOCTH, MOHCHO nOJIJ^HTB AOBOJbHO pa3H0piiTOBHH HOKa- 

saniH, Kacaiomincfl co6ctb6hho chctcmu pa3A*JieHia Toft hjeh hhoS 
opah h HCTopiu B03HHKH0BeHia AaHHaro xhaeniHy h h6JB3h He corjia- 
CHTbca Bandepa 1 ), KOTopuft roBOpHTB, ito HeMHoroe bt> 3tho- 
rpa^in tk>pkobt> npeACTaBJuierB 6dju>mia TpyAHOcra, vbwh to^hob 
BUHCHeme rjiaBHUx-b h nocjrfcAyK>njHXT> poaobuxt> ^b^emH. Ilpecxb- 
Ayn gboh saAara, HaufB h*tt> HyatAH BAaBaTbca 8a*cb bt> AeTajia 

pOAOBOrO A*JQHifl H BT> CpaBHHTejbHyK) OI^HRy TO* HJEH HHOft CH- 
CT6MM, HO HG H03K6M"B H6 yKa3aTB, TTO XOTH H. ApHCTOBt H He 

npHSHaeT'B, noBHUHMOMy, Kb&emn BoxBmoft opAH Ha Asa noKOJrbmfl — 
yuooHb h Kompami — h- Kaici. 6u yifajtHerB BHaneHie araxt AByxi> 

MeMeHHMXT, HM61TB, HO CB Apyroft CTOpOHbl, 0TM^ia6Tl> A^H HaCT> 

Becbua BawHbift (J)aKTB, <rro Bowman opAa KHprasoBT* HMeHyeTCH 
TaK»o ycynodCKoio hjih yucyH06CKoio,T.-e. h bi» AaHHOMt cjiy^at, 
KaKTb ny JleBiuHHa, HiieHH yitctom npHAaeTCH fioji-be aaaqeniH, TbMt 
hm6hh npoeToro poAa. Hto KacaeTCH nomparm, to hmh 8topo hoko- 

JTtBiH H. ApHCTOBMMT> COBCtMt H6 ynOMHHaeTCH, HH Vh Ka^ecTBt 

poAa, hh bt> KaqecTBt noKOJitHin; mojkho, KaKT> HaMi> KaaceTCH, cb 

AOCTaTOIHOK) BtpOHTHOCTbK) nOJiaraTb, 4T0 HHHt, 6CJIH He nOBCeMtCT- 
HO, TO tffeCTaMH, HMfl „K0HrpaT'B w , KaKT> HMH 06l>eAHHHK)mar0 fffeoKOJb- 

ko poAOBTi bt> OAHy ofimyio rpynny — noKOJrimH — KHprnsaMH aa6uT0. 



8 ) Das Tiirkenvolkin seinen ethaoi. und ethnogr. Beziehungeti, Leipzig, 
1885, p. 181. 



Digitized by 



3TH0rPA*mECS0E 0B03PSHS. 



Oho h Bnojfffc noasTHo: Tfcfb tioibme At-rarca 6ojuhui (rjUBHwi) 
poxoBtui rpynmi Ha jfriemsi 6oxfee xejacifl, to ohh n csoen 3Ha- 
tohui ycrynaiorb 3thmi> noc-rfc*HHjn>. Ho CnaccKoiiy 1 ), Bojunaa opjut 
eocTe&ia bt> raraurfe XIX b.: 1) h3t> BoqeBaBflraxi> no KHTaicKol 
rpaainrfe h pacnpocTpaHHBmHxcfl jo Capi- JaptH dyjumoecKaio poja 
h capbi-MyKb-ddicaAaupe%a\o\ 2) H3i> 3ammaBmaro seus Mesuy 
TypKecTaBOM-b, Capu-cy h Ain>-MeqeTbi) poja cepuua (ojn^jie), h 3) 
H3i> o6HTaBJB0xi> Ha Cup-b-Japb-fc m> TaraKeary pojOB-b jcommm h 

HaHWKAtfi. 

Po<h JfpKcuaupb. — Paara^-a^-AHffb 1 ) ouHcusaerb Axaiasp-b, Kara 
naeiui MHoroqacjieHHoe h cocTOHBraee h3t> Aecara «BtTBei» (6uTb 
Moxerb, po^OB-b); dio meim, no (U0Ban~b ynommyrapo aBTopa, 
BM-fecT-fe cn> oupamb h mamapz, npHHa^JiexaJO kt> Ttm> TypeqsHirb 
(TX>pKCKHMl>) HieM6HaHl> f KOTOpfairB „HHfffc tt HasuBaiorB mohtojuuih; 
^HapyxHOCTb h cjiobo hxt» noxoam Ha thitb h cjobo moktojob-b, 
noejiHicy bo Bpeiui oho MOHrojbcicafl B*TBb 6iua meMeH6Mi> usrb 
TJopKxjKHX'b iuexeHi>, a Hbmt no npHinrb nponB-feTaHifl, Bjiamfl h 
MorymecTBa mohtojiobi aro hmh ycBoeHO bc£mh jpyrHMH njeiieHaMH*. 
A6yjiradH 3 ) bt> cbok> o^epejb jihidb sparco noBTopaerb ciOBa Pa- 
mju-dA-AnHa h roBopirrb, tto dwaAaupb njeMH ApeBHee, ito oho 
6hjio BecbMa MBoro^HoieHHo h ito y Hero 6hjio HHoro pojOBi*. 
^lacTb nojuca, jaHHaro x lHHre3T»-xaH0MT> cuHy ^saraTaio, cocTOJua 
H3i> dwajuiupoeb, Taict KaKi> oahht, h3t> HaiajibHHKOB'b (MyKa-HoSoHT>) 
6nxb HueHHO inz-h 3Toro po*a. IIpH ABopt .HxaraTaa dxccuaupu 
Hrpa-iH Baacnyio pojib bt> ynpaBJiemH yjycoirb. TflMypi* OTjarb ^doKa- 
AaupoecKyw opdy u A6HJii>-maxy, cuay BerpaMT>-A«aJa«pa 4 ). H. Apn- 
ctobt>*) nojiaraerb, mto dotcaxauptA nepBOHaiajbHO He 6buraMHoro- 
qHCJieHHbi h tto cocTaBi> hxt> yBejiwqHJiCfl BuocjrkjCTBiH BOcapiHTieM'b 

BT> CBOK) Cpe^y pa3HUXT> pOAOBT> H3BH r B, AaBOTHXt OTOaCTH MaTepiaJI'b 

na o6pa30BaHie BnocjrfcflCTBiH KHprn3CK&ro Hapoxa, OT^acTH se sapa- 
K0prfl3CKaro h hhoto npoHcxoxcAeHin. 



!) Cm. H. ApHCTOBt, loc cit., CTp. 402. 

3 ) HepeBOAi. ct» npHn*HaHiHMH E. H. BepeaHHa (Tpy^H Boct. OTXftia Hmd. 
Apzeoj. 06n^„ h. V) Cn6. 1858 r. 

3 ) H. BepeaiiHt— Bn6jioTeKa boctohhmxt> hcto 4hhk obti, t. Ill 4. I. Hcropia 
A6yjii»-ra8H. KasaHb, 1854 r. 

4 ) HcTopia Hiraroai-xaHa BocmecTBia ero be npecToxi. (H. ApHCTOBt.) 

5 ) Loc. cit., CTp. 406 h 407. 




Kb BOUPOOy 0 nPOHCXOJK£EHIH KHPrHBOKArO bapoju. 



65 



Pod* KaHKAu (KanAu, Kanuu). — KaHiuui cym.ecTBOBa.iH, TavBse 

KflKt H dOKCLMXUpb, HtKOrja U&Kh CaM0CT0HT6JbH06 QJIOMH. HlfH 

«a««4w, no GJOBajto Panraj-8*-AHHa, nojyqnjH rfe H3*b tjopkckhxt* 
njieMeHi>, np ncoe ahbhbhihxch Kb Yrys^-xaHy (poAOHaqajrbHHKy Tiop- 

KOB-B), KOTOpUA BO Bp6MH erO tiopbfoj Cb pO^CTBeHHHKaMH XOCTa- 

bjimh ao6bray: „BarpyaajrH qeTBepoHorax'b, i^jwh co6cTBeHHLon, 
yMOM-b Tejitra— Tejrfera no-TypeijKH BaHrju". Adyjrasa nepejaerb 
cxfejuyiomyK) jrereB^y (sapiaHTb nepBoS) o npoHcxoajemH KaflEJw. 
yryd'b-xaH'B BoeBajrb ct> mamapaMU, no&bwjn> hxt> h Bafipaat 
ctojbko jio6biRH, hto BeJbsa 6ujo ee BaBbKWHTb Ha jomajefi, Torja 
BameJiCB oahht, qejiOBiKb, KOTopufi c^tjajrb Tearbry: 66 h&3b&jih 
KaBKi> (npeame ho 6hjio aToro cjioBa, TaBi> Kara He 6hjo Tejtrb), 
noTOMy qTO OHa cspBHtjia (»KaHKb, KaHKb*). H3o6p*TaTejui Tei-hra 
HadBaJiH KaHKJu, h Beet napojib cb dTHirb HMeseirb nponexo^HTb 
orb Hero. IIo MH-feHiio H. ApncTosa 1 ), no KBTaicrararb HCToqHBKairb 
nauHAu cymecTBOBajH yate sa no-rropa B-feKa ao Poawecraa XpscTO- 
Ba. Bi> 568 r. BH3aHTificKift nocojb 3Hnapxi> npotosajTb Ha nyTH 
CBoeMT> kt> TK)pKGKOny xaHy JIpsaByjiy qepesi* crpaHy naHKAoet. 0 

KaHKAOXb, KaiCb 0 CaMOCTOflTOJIbHOS HapOWOCTH, HM*K>TCH CB*A*Hia 
OTb XI H XII BB., HO, OOBHAHMOMy, BaB&ttl, KaKb CaHOCTOHTeJIb- 

Hoe njeMH, cymecrBOBaaH eme bi» cepewb XIII b. (h b*pohtho, 
eme no3*e); TaKb, HanpHMtpx, uu SHaeifb, hto Pyfipyraacb a ) no- 
cjrfcjoBajrb ci> HH30BbesT> Bojth B3T> JIarepa BaTua Ha $Lmi> (p. 
Ypajrb), a noTOMi> wb s&ubq KamuoBx. Bb 1220 rojy qHHbCKifi no- 
cojn> ByRycyHb ynoMHHaerb bt> qacjt BCTptaeflHbix'b hmt> Ha nyTH 
Kb x lHHrH3 f b-xaHy njieneHi tantAoez*). Ujlbmo KapnHBH nocjfe 36- 
ne-ib nojiOBUOB^ npocrbxoBajrb qepesi* 36mjio namumoe*. Bo Bpena 
Tnaiypa noHKAbt npoAOjrs&KH 3aHHMaTb npaBufi 6epen> Cupi-^apbH, 
ho qncjieHHOCTb hxt, 6ujia, no MHtmio H. ApacTOBa, He BOMKa: 
BHA'bJiB«a H3T> ce6a B*b npoAOJsenie BtaoB* SHaqnTejibHUH Maccu Ha 
K>ri> h aa 3ana^*b wb nojqHma ryHHOBi, neneHiroBi,, nojOBi^eB'b y ohh 
yneHbmaJiHCb b% ihoji6bbocth h yTpa^HBajiH npeodja^ame bt> hckoh- 

HHXT> CBOHX'b 361UaXl>. 



1) Loc. cit., CTp. 403. 

2 ) A. MamfecBt-HcTopHHecEift ofisopt TypiecTaHa ■ HacTynaTejkaoe rbh- 
aeeie Ha Hero pyccraxi*. Cn6. 1890 r. 

3 ) H. ApHcioBt. Loc. cit CTp. 403. 

8in)ITA«XnCB0B OBOSFSftU XXVI. 5 



Digitized by 




66 



3TttOrPA®HqECKOE 0B03l"BHIE. 



II. Tojiy6oBCKifl: *) npeanojraraeT'b, qTO neqeH-fcra nojryqHjni 3to 
CBoe HaHMeHOBame mmb nooai CBoero nepexoaa h3t> Asm bt> 
EBpooy, h qTO ohh, naxo;uicb no Ty cTopoHy p. Ypajia, Ha3UBajiHCb 
KanKAaMu h cocTaBjrajm qacrb 3Toro oSinapHaro nJieiueHH (hmh cneqe- 
FfcrH> h6H3b*ctho asiftTCKHMt cKasaniaMT* o TiopKCKHxt njeMeflaxt). 
Ecjih 3to npeflnojioaenio curraTb B-fepoaTHUM'b, to onaaeTca, tto 
iacT£» KOHKAoe* (T-.e. neqeHtrn) yae b-l IX b. »hjh Meaay BojiroS 
h ypajioMt. 

Pock ^yj«»mi. — Xora cstA^Hia o6t 3tomt> poA*, no MirfcmK) H. 
ApHCTOBa 3 ) rjaBHOBrb no qncjreHHOCTH bt> Bojbinoft op**, h He oco- 

66HH0 MHOrOIHCJieHHBI, HO OHH 3aCJiy»HBaK)T'B Cepi>e3HarO BHHM&HiH. 
EcTb OCHOBaifltf , K&KT> rOBOpHTt TOJlbKO 1TO ynOMHHyTblfi aBTOpi*, 

noJiaraTb, qTO po#b (hjih co6ctb6hho naeiiH) dyjvy cynjecTBOBajrb AO 
P. X . , TaKt Kant oht> yae bo II crojrlmH Hanieft 3pu oTKoqeBajn> 
BBrbcrfe ct» xyHHaMH ot> npe^tJOBT> KHTaa. nocjrfe pacnajeHia ijap- 
CTsa Atthjim, Boajn dyAy cra^H bo rjraB* Tofi qacra CoJirapt, ko- 
Topaa ocHOBaja AyHaficKoe (fojirapcKoe ijapcTBO. 06t> ocTaBnraxca 
bt> sanajHoS MoHrojrin ayjiy H3BtcTHO bt» V e VII bb. Ob VIII 
h no XII b. HirfeioTCtf Kpaftae otphboihuh cB-fe^tmH o dyMimax*, 
H3i» qero mosho saKJuoiHTB, tto ecin ohh h coxpannjiH H3BtcTHyK> 

nJIOHOHHyK) CaMOCTOOTeJIbHOCTb, TO BHflHOft pOJIH H6 HrpajiH. 

HoKOAnarie KoHtpamb.—Svo nokojrfcme TaKi> aco, Kaicb h Bbinieyno- 
MHHyTwe poja do/cajiaupz, naujuu h dyjiam*, H»rfeerb BecbMa jpeBaee 
nponcxosAOHie. 8to njreMH H3,naBHa KoqeBaao BB-fecrb Cb nauManoMu 
(oTqacTH h bt> HacToamee Bpewa Koqyerb BMtcrb) h 6ujio npn 
HacTynaTeJibHOM'b ABHaemH HHHrH3*-xaHa, Ha paay ct> uauMauaMu 
h oupamaMu, noKopeno oahhmt» h3t> nepBbixij 3 ). BaocjrfejCTBiH mi* 
BCTptqaeM'b nompamoeh bt> KaqecTB-fe cocTaBHoro 3JneMeHTa 3ojeoto# 
opffH. 

HoKOAtbuie y&cioHt. — IIoKOjrfeHie yUcioHh (hjih ycxws) mrfeeTb Tasae 
secbMa xpeBHee npoHCxoa^eme h npeacTaBJiaeT* 6ojibmoft HHTepecb . 
Xoth 6oJite hjih Meffbe no^poCaoe onncame ncTopin ApeBHHXi> 
njieMeH'b^ BomeAmHx^ bt> cocTaBT> KHprn30BT>, h He MoaeTT> bxoahte 
bi irfeJiH 3Tott Haraefi cTaTbn, T-feM'b He iieHte mu aojkhei ocTaao- 



1 ) IleieHtrH, oojiobah h toprh xo HanieeTBiH TaTapi. KieBt, 1884 r. 
*) Loc cit., CTp. 400. 

3) Ban6epH. HcTopia Bozapu. Cn6. 1873 r. 




KT> BOIIPOCy O HPOHCX03KABHIH KHPTH3CKArO hapoaa. 67 



BHTBCfl H*CKOJ!BKO Ha BeCBMa JIK)6onHTHOMX nJieMGHH yCK)H6ft, B03- 

6yayiaBraeM'b b*b neqara yae HeoAHOKpaTHO naTepecT>, h Ba»Hoe 

JPH HaCB TfeMT>, TTO OHO, KaiCB HJ6MH H6 MOHrOJIBCKOe H H6 TK)pK- 

citoe, BHecjio coBepmeHHO qy»AH& djieveurb bt> cpeAy khpitoobtb. 

yUcwnu (yflcymb, ycioHB, yciOHi*, ycyfft, y3yFB, yftmyHt, yciyHB, - 
yccyHt) cocTaBjHJiH fffcRorja caMocroHTeJiBHoe naeMa, acHBmee y 
ctBepo-sana^HOft rparaniH KHTaa; rtcHHMue cb BOCTOKa xynHaiiH, 
ohh ABHHyjncb Ha sanaA'B, bt> cbok) oiepeAB, crfecHHBT, npeacHHxt 
o6HTaT6Jre£ dypymoe* Ha loro-sanaAT*, s&uaxn 3a Asa B-fcKa ao P. 
X. HUHtmHifi HjriflcKift OKpyrt 1 ) toctb Bajncama h HcchiiCB-KyjiB'}. 
3a*cb ohh ocTaBajHCb ao VI b, no P. X,, AOcrarjiH anaiHTeJiBHaro 

MOrymeCTBa, H qHCJIO HXT>, HO KHTaftCKHM'B HCTO<IHHKaM , B, aoxoahjo AO 

630000 Aynit h 180000 BOftcica. Hxt raaBHHft ropoA"B HH-ry-qHHT, 
jieaajrB y osepa HccuirB-KyjiB (TeMypTy). HacToamee Bpeaa co- 
xpaHHJiHCb paaBajiHHBi APBBHaro ropoaa, saTOHyBinaro bt> osept y 

KOTOpU#,Ha OCHOBaHiH H'bKOTOpBIX'B AaHHMXT>, CHHTa6TCH yCK)HCKHM r b, 

xoth, BHpoqeMt, PflTTepi> 3 ) roBopHT'B, qTO oh-b JieaajrB JIUHIb 6jLBS'h 
osepa, a He Ha fiepery ero; BpBMefleMt Hcqe3HOBeHia dToro ropoAa 

MOKHO npHEHTB VI BtKT>. TaKT>, BT> HOpBOft nOJTOBHHfe VII B^Ka 4 ) 
Hun. 06m. *Hh>6. Ect., AHTp. h dTBorp. 1890 r. Bwn. Y). 

mhmo osepa Ha nyTH h3t> ropoAa Kyqa na p. ^yn h TojiacB npoxo- 
ahjtb KHTaftcfcift MHccioHep'B XjoaHB-IfeairB, ROTopuA o ropoA* ?H- 
ry-^HHt yae Haqero ne ynoMHHaerB; Aa-rfce cb VII ao XIII CTOJtrfma 
o6t> MccLiK'B-Kyji'6 w&vxb hhk&khxt> CBtA*Rift He HM-feeTca. 

HTaK-B, noBHAHMOMy, HaqaHaa cb VI stKa, CBt^femft o ropoA* 
ycnmeu ho HMieTca; H8i> 3Toro KOHeiHO, HejrB3a ca^jhitb saRJHo - 
qema, qTO caMH ymnu Hcqe3jra, Yae bt> I BtKi no P. X. yciOHH 
pacnaAaiOTca Ha ab* b^tbh, h3t> kotopbixt> oAHa 5 ) (Majnae yciOHH) 
ABHraeTca Ha sanaA'B kt> YpaJiy, a Apyraa (fiojitmie yciOHn) o6pa. 
3yeTi> Mory^ecTBeHHoe rocyAapcTBO. Pa3cejeme 3thxt> nocjrfeAHHX'B 
ycnmeu Ha^HHaeTca coCctbghho cb IV B'fcica, Korja qacTB hxt> ne- 
peuuia Ha flKcaprB h TpancoKeamio, Apyraa bt> HWH-feniHioK) Knp- 

l ) MoHaxt IoaEHH^i). — HcTopHiecKoe oCoaptme oftpaTOBT> hjh KajncuKOBt 
Cn6. 1834 r. 

*) CeneHOBT>.— 3eiueB*A*Hie Asin. Cn6. 1859 r. 

3 J C. Ritter. Die Erdkunde von Asien. B. 5. Berlin. 1837. 

*) A. HBaeoBCKiit.— 4epeaa hst» osepa HccMrb-Kyja. (flaeBB. AHTp. OT^Bja 
Hun. 06m. ^»6. Ect., AHTp. h 9th. 1890 r., bud. Y. 
Radloff. Ans Sibirien. Leipzig, 1884. 



5* 




68 



3TH0rPA*H1E0K0B 0B03MHIK. 



rHSCKyio CTGnt Ha HpTunit. Bi» VII b., a bmohho bt> 619 r. 1 ) ycw- 
nu noAiHHHJiHCb mnpKaxb (my-iciy) h CTajrs boctgiiohho cjHBaTbCfl 
cb hhmh; KHTafioidft nacaTejib VII b. Ulu-tiy 8 ) nnraerb, qTO vb 
TK>pKaxi> ci> roiry(5uMH rjiasara h pmatmra fiopoaaiiH cji'bjyerb bh- 

fl*Tb HOTOMKOBTj yCK)Heu\ HO, HOBHJHMOMy, M03KHO oxfenffb SaKJIO- 

ieHie, *to yciOHH ocTaBajracb eme HeciHBraeiocH h fioxbe hjih 

Mefffee CaM0CT0HT6Jn>H0K) HapO^HOCTblO XOBOJIbHO joaroe BpeMH. 

KirraficBde hctoihhkh nepe^aiorb naarb BecbM* HHTepecHbia cB-fexbiria 
o ^HSHqecKOMT. THnt yciOHeft, a hmghho, ito ohh 6hjih aobojbho 
BucoKaro pocTa h iacTbK> pyco h pumeBOJOCBi 3 ), c& rojytiuMH h 
86JieHbiHH rjrasaMH. IIo KHTaftcKHin> HCToiHHRaifb hsb^ctho eme irb- 
CKOJibKO naeMem,, &hbihhx'b bt> cocbxcrck cb yciOHaMH h HirbB- 

HIHX'b TaKb-ae, KaiCb H aTH y CBtTJOBOJOCllfi THITb 4 }: my-Ad hjh 

HUKb-iua, ny-m$, npeAHOJiaraeMaa OTpacJb tomoez, duHt-MMt uau munvb- 
Awm> KAHb-icyaHt hjih xaKaci — npeaaojiaraeMHe npaoTija napaxupiu- 
3o&>, h 9H*-yaU— -npeAnojaraeioie guom*. 

y<c*w« BOBtiyacxajH, 6jiarojapH csoeHy CBtuoBOJiocoMy rany, 
y»e xaBHO HHTepecb cpeje yqeHbixt, a hmchho bt» ^bohkomi m- 
npaBJemH: &b ojhoS ctopohh, Bcbxi HHTepeooB&io npoHcxoa^eme 
ycioHeft, a Cb apyroit— Bonpocb o coBpeMeHHuxi noTOMKarb 9Tot 
HapoxHocTH . ^to RacaeTC* npoHCxo«AeHiH hxt>, to MH*me yqeHmrb 
pasjiHWO: H-feKOTopue, h bto 6ojbmHHCTBO, cTOTaiorb ycionei apift- 
osaro npoHcxosAenifl, xpyrie ^HHCicaro, h BrbKOTopue, HaBOHen>, moh- 
rojibCBtaro. Kt» nocxkflHHirb othochtc* o. IoaKHH<|n>*); Mffbme woro 
aBTOpa, BtpoaTHO ocHOBaeo Ha ciOBaxi* Afiyjibrasn, KOTopufi roBO- 
pHT'b, qTO yciOHH (yftmynb) noKOJiieie MonrojibCKoe. 9to MBrfeme, no- 
BHAHHOHy, HH^ero 3a ce6a He Hirfeerb, Taicb kb&% hgbobmoxho cefi-fc 
npeACTaBHTb OTpacJib MOHrojiOBi cufrrjiOBOJOcaro THna; ycrora moimh 

6bITb MOHKUaMH HO CBOGft KyJIbTypt H HO H3fcIKy, HO HO no 4>K3H?e- 

CKOMy rany. 



Ccm6hobii. 3eiueBtAl&eie Asia. Ca6. 1859 r. 
3 ) MoHaii* IoatHH»T>. HcTopia Hapo^OBi,, o6nTaBiuHzi> Bt Cpe^Hett Atin Vb 
XpeBHiH Bpevens, h. III. Cn6. 1851 r. 

3 ) I. Klaproth.— Tableaux historiques de PAsie. Paris 1826. (Peuple de- 
race blonde, p. 163). 

4 ) C. Ritter.— Die Erdkunde von Asien. Berlin. 1837. 

*) HcTopaqecioe onEcaaie oftpaTOBt u BamuvoBi. CUB., 1834 r. 




K1> BOIIPOCy 0 HPOHCXOWEHIH KBPrH30KArO HAPOM- 



69 



HpoHcxoawHie apiScicoe npHnacHBaeTca, k&icb 6hjio tojbko tto 
CKasaso, 6ojo>mHHCTBOMi>; HtecoTopwe, ' hmohho HfcMeijKie aBTopa, 
niJiH TaKt AaJieKO, qTO chht8jih yciOHeft repuaHCKaro npoHcxoaweHia; 
ocHOBameMt duoro cjiyacajio Hassame yeiOHCKiixT> BJiacraTejieft 
„KyeHMO tf , KOTopoe OToacnecTBjwurocB CB cjiobomt> „KOHyHn> a ; hobh- 

^HMOMy, BT> dTOBTB npejnOJKMKemH HtTB HHKaKHXl> C6pbe3HMX'b OCHO- 

Baeifi. EcTecTBeHHo, tto boiipocb o tomt>, <f>HHeicaro jih nponcxo- 
s#eHiH yciOHH, turn apiflcicaro, mh pa3p-feraeHia Be$Baia TpyxeHt; rbwb 
6ojrfce TpyAeHt Bonpoct, ccjlh npHsnaTB hx'b sa apifiueBTb, repMaHHU 
jih ohh (roTia),njiH Bpaauu (ajiaHe); ho cjrfe#yeTB npn dvowb yny- 

CKaTB H3T> BH^y, 3T0 Wh TeopiflXT> 0 DpOHCXOaCAOHiH yCiOHefi tffcUO 

oaho CBtTjiOBOJiocoe njieMH saforro— cjiaBAHe . Yciohh, k&fcb pee <5bmo 
CKasaHO, B036yacAajra asbho HHTepecB; Ha ocHOBamn hx*b bh^idhocth 
6ujra jaaee nocTpoeHa Teopia o Tp6TB6Mi> THirfe — puaeBOJiocoMX h 
3ejieHorjia30M r B, KOTopufi, no MHtmto TonnHapa, pacnpocTpanajiCH 
Ha 3anaA*B, ocTaBHjn> cboh (wbw Ha <J>hhckhx'b Hapo^HOCTax*B h 
npoHHK'B aaace bt> BejiHKofipHTaHiK). 

HoBtflnrift HSGJi^AOBaTejiB aaHHaro Bonpoca H. Aphctobtb 1 ) aep- 
jkhtch ocotfaro MH-fcHia, KOTopoe, noBHflHMOMy, Bwk&rh 3a ce6a iraoroe. 
HasBaHHHft aBTopi curaero, ?to ycfom* co<yraBJUura jrainB qaCTB 

KOpeHHUX'B KbtpiM30ffb (T.-6. KapaKHprH30BT>), OT^tjIHBDiyiOCH OTB 

ocTaBmarocH Ha Eracet Hapoaa, KOTtfpuft BCKopt catjiajicfl hsb*- 

CTHHMT) KHTafil^aM'B UORh HaCTOHDXHM'B CBOHMT. HUOHOICB n KWprU3T> 0 ; 

ho ycmwmu napo#B b*b cpeAHeft MonroJiin coctohjit> He hs-b o.uhhx'b 
Ktap%i*30to, a npeACTaBJiHJi'b cotfoio cok)3t» tiopkckhxt, poaobt., bo 
rjiaB-fc KOToparo ctohjtb ycnmcKia OTA'feJi'B Kbtpiwsoe*. 06mie npejKH 
yenneu h eHHceflcKHX'B Kwptvuoez — apeBHie Ktapiww— npoHBonun 

H3T> CNTfemeHia TIOpKOB'B CT> dutUUHCLMU, KOTOpblO 6HJIB OflHBMt H3T» 

HJieneH'B ^peBHeft ciBepHo-a3iaTCKott ^HHHorojiOBoS h CB*TjiooKpa- 
meHHOft pacH. OcTaTKH woUl ^HHJiHHCKofl, coeepuieuHo ocoCou orm 
apiiicKou pacw hsb^cthh, no MHtmio H. ApHCTOBa 1 ), cb VII b. 
1101% HMOHeMi* ^ntraro u Hapo^a, Ha*AeHHaro pyccKHMH saBoeBaTejiaun 
CnfinpH na EHHcet noA'B HMOHefifB apuuoeb, accauoez h Kommoei, 
wh HacTOHmee ate BpeMH , 8npe l a;oTaBJiHioTCH jihuib BtmnpaiomHMH ghh- 
ceflcKHMH ocnutmMu; casfoe ace bocto^hoo h3t> njneiieH'B ^peBHefi 
AJiHHHoroJioBoft pacti yn.iji'fejio bt> bha* a6opHrenoB , B cbBepHoft 



Loc. cit., CTp. 451. 



Digitized by 




70 



dTHOrPAOIPIECKOE OBOSF'BHIE. 



qacra anoHCKaro apxHnejiara — aunoeh^ bt> KOTopuxt o6Hapy»HBaeTca 

COMGTaHie flJIHHHOrOJIOBOfi paCH CB MOHrOJIBCKOK). 

Hto KacaeTCH co6ctbghho Bonpoca o coBpeMeHHfcix'B noTOMKaxi, 
yciOHeft, to MHtnia paaHHxt jibivb 3Ha<iHTejiBH0 pacxojMiTCH: Taut 
ToimHap'B, HanpHwrfept, gkjiohbh'b BHflfeTB botomkob'b hx'b bt> coBpe- 
mohhbix'b ocrnxnaxb h uyeaiuaaa, H. SljipuEB^B-h 1 )— bt> afionuHCKuxb, 
6iucKuxb h KysHemcuxh TaTapaxi>, H. flBopcnifi 2 ) — bt> coBpeneHBUxt 
eapmoaa h madacwxaaa; 6ojtbdihhctbo ace aBTopoB'B, b*b tomt* HHCJrfc 

H MN, CKJJOHHH C^HTaTB 3a tAOSHUe OCTaTKH yCfOHCU TOCTB KHprH- 

30B-B, a hmbrho ycioHcicoe noKOjrfcHie BojiBinofi opjjbi, a Tanxce h 
KapaKHprnaoB'B, cpe^H KOTopbixt (T.-e. KapaKHprn30BT>) y oaepa 
HccHK'B-Kyjia h huh* KO^yeTB Heaiajio S.hobahhob'b h cpe^H koto- 
pux-B coxpaHHjica po^ y3ym-6ymb< MirfcHifl o coxpaneHiH yciOHCKaro 

IUI6M6HH CpeflH KHprH30BT> BoflBmoE OpAH, MG»^y HpO^HftTB, ^ep^CaTCH 

KjranporB, II. CeMeHOBT>, A. Bhjibkhhcb, A. HBaHOBCRifi h H. ApH- 
crbB'B. Ha 3to cyntecTBywrB, A*fiCTBHTejiBHO, bgcbm& B-fccKia AOKa3a- 
TeJiBCTBa. Bo-nepBBix , B, caMoe huh „ycx>Hi> tt coxpasHJiocB cpe^n 
KHprH30Bt, ofipaayiomHX'B irfejroe noicojrfcHie cb 3thktb HaraeHOBa- 

HieM-B; BO-BTOpBIX'B, COBpeMGHHOO HOKOJrfeHie ydOHTi icoiyeT'B npn- 
6jH3HTeJTBHO B*B T'feX'B HC6 M'bCTaX'B, r^t OfiHTaJH H ApeBHie yCfOHH; 
B'B-TpeTBHX'B, CpCAH KHprH30B*B H KapaKHprHSOB'B, JKHBymHX'B Ha 03. 

HccuK'B-Kyji'fe, cBtTjiOBOjiocHft h rojiy6orjia3wft thitb AajreKo He 

ptAOK'B, KaKT> 06l» 3T0BTB BHUieTB A. BfUBKHHCB H II. CeMeHOBT* H 

Ap. Haii-B H3BtcTH0 AaJi*e, hto cb VII Btna ycioHH HaiiraaiorB boa- 
qHHOTBca TiopKaMTb; KHTattcKiil ace nncaTejiB VII b. IEu-qy nnitteTB, 
vro bt> Tiopicax-B cb roJiyStiMH rjra3aMH h pwacHMH CopoAam cjrfc- 
AyeTB bha^tb hmghho yciOHeft. B-B npexamax'B caMHX'B KBprasoB'B 
yciOHtoaro noKOjrkma coxpannjiocB, no caoBaarB BajraxaHOBa 3 ), boc- 
noMHHaHie o tomtb, hto ohh hotomkh 6ojrBiuoro h CHJBHaro Hapoja. 
IIo ^pyrnMT* npe^aHiflMB *) KnprH30BT> BojBmott op^H ohh nponsonuiH 
otb pwuceeoAocato YccyHa, 6paTa poAOHaqajn>HHKa AByxi> ocTajiBHBix'B 

!) 06% H8CJ*A0BaninxT, H. H^pHHi^eBa. (IIpoT. AHTp. Ot^. cb 1881—1886 r. 
b. I, 1886 r. Hs. Hmh. 06u^. JL Ect., Aht. h 9t., t. XLIX) h w no*3AKa bt> 
CHfinpb", TWb ae, b. 3, 1890 r., cTp. 748. 

2 ) OnuTb neAHUHHCKoft reorpa»iH h cTaTncTHRH TypsecTasa, h. I. CIIB. 
1889 r. 

3 ) OqepKH ^ayHrapie. 

4 ) A. KpacHOBt. OnepKH 6nTa cemipftieHcsnx'b RHprH30Bi>. Us, H. P. T. 
0. 1887 r., ct P . 437-438. 



Digitized by 



kt> Bonpocy o npoHCxoa^EHiH KHPmcKAro hapoaa. 



71 



opxb. ITo MHtHijo H, ApHCTOBa a ), co6ctb6bho npaMue IIOTOMKH 
ycwueU He Kspmsu (ko3<iicu), a {mpaKupium) (Kt*pm3u). ^to ate 
KacaeTCA cotfcTBeHBO yciOHCKaro noKOjema Eojibmofi opAu, to no 
MHteiio Ba3BaHHaro aBTopa, ajreMearb ycioHCKii BomejrB bt> Barb 
nyTeMt OTA*JieHk qacra KapaKHpnraoB-b vb cpexy GojrbineopAHBijeB'b. 
Uo HOMeHKJiaTypt i^TBpyeuaro aBTopa ycwncnoe noKO^tme Bo Jibnioii 
op ah {tyUcioHh* JleBniHHa) HMeByeTaa capu-yucynz. 3a KwprwscKoe 
(T.-e., TaK*B CKa3aTb, KapaKBprascicoe) npoHcxoacAeme aaHHaro hoko- v 
jitBia roBoparb ejni^yiomie <t>aKTopw: 1) oTcyTCTBie bt> HMenax-b 
OT^tjieHift poAa capu yuaom TaieoBuxi, KOTopua uvfcju&Cb 6u y 
dyxamovb h muiAow, dth flea poAa c^HTaioTCfl H. Aphctobhmt>, t&ktj 
CKa3aTB, 3epH0MT> KHprascKaro napoAa h, cjrfeAOBaTejn>HO, capvt-yucynu 
bm^iotb oco6oe ott> hhxt> npoHcxostAGHie; 2) naxoaAeme Bt cocTa- 
B-fe capu-yucwneu OTA'taeaia Kpwtta hjih xw^, orb hmohh KOToparo 
B-bpoBTBO, npoe3omjio caMoe hma Kwpimoe* (icapaKHprH30B , b); 3) 
coBepmeBHoe oTJiHiie capu-yucyncnou TaMKH orb daarootfCKtm h 
nantioucKuxb h npHBa^eacBOCTb ea kt» TBny ^erapeyroJibBHKa, 
BCTp'fcqaiomaroca y nupeeeb nocmxKoeb h yicaaNBaiomaro mduuAun- 
cKoe ero nponcxoHAeBie; 4) capw-yiicyM y hmji BOKO-aeiria, BABOftFfe 
noATBepacAaerb, qT<j> oho aBjraeTca npaMHin* h KopeHHJbiarb hotom- 
komt> yucyneU, h6o ho tojibko hochtt> bmh ho eft npncTaB- 

koio kt» Heuy capw, T.-e. acejiTuft, yKasbreaiomeK) Ha OTjmqHTejibHyio 
qepTy if)H3BqecKaro Tana yftcyHeii, yHacjrfeAOBaBHiHX'b orb ApeBHnxi 

AHHJIHHOB'b CBtTJiyK) OKpaCKy BOJIOCb. 

KaKi> HaMij KaaceTCB, BcfcxT> BHmenpHBeaeHHbix'b aoboaobi 
AOCTaToqno, qTofiw AepacaTbca BsraiaAa, ito yciOHH ocTaBHjra cboh 
rjraBHHe chIsah bt> KHpmcKoarb BapoA* (h bt> KapaKHprH3axT>), a 

HM6HHO B*b EoJIbHIOft OpA*. IIpaBAft, CB*TJIOBOJH)CHfi THH1> BCTpt- 

qaeTca Be TOJbKO cpeAH KBprH30Bi» h KapaKHpra30BT>, ho h cpejH 6am- 
KBp^, BanpHMtp'b (xora 3A*cb fiojrfce Btpoarao BJiiaaie $hh- 
CKofiicpoBH pa3Huxi> cocfeAefi), AaJite cpe^H TypicaiesT), rajibqeE, TaA»H- 
kobT), capTOBi* h Ap. HJieMeHb; ho He cjrfeAyerb 3a6tiBaTb, qTO, 
Kpoarfc ycioHeil, cymecTBOBaJH h Apyria njeMeHa ct> cb^tjumh bojo- 
caMH, Y&wb o6t> 3tomt> 6hjio yate csasaHO Btrme. GjtbjkyeT-b Boo(5nxe 
sawfeTHTb, qTo CB*TJioBOJiocbifl THH'b Chjii H*KorAa ropa3AO Cojrfee 
pacnpocTpaHen'b h, noBHAnmoMy, nocTeneHBO ycTynajn> qepHOBOJioco- 

Loc. cit., CTp. 423 h 463. 



Digitized by 




72 



dTHOfP A 4>HqECK0E 0503PBHIE. 



My; 8to KacaeTGH He tojbko Aain, ho h EBponu: Tairb, mh bhahmt> 
BiftccoBBiA noABJtemfl 6pK)HeTOB'B cpesH oceTHHi>— njieiieHH, 6tiBraaro 
nepBOHaiaj&HO CBtTJiOBOJiocHM^; aajrfce, mbi bhahmt* BtrrfccHeme cb1>- 
TJOBOJiocaro Tuna qepHOBOJOCHMt cpean cjraBHH-b, Tasace OTqacra 
cpexH repnaffloieBi> h bo $paHitfH. Bee dTO nosBOJiaerb zymib, qro 
CBtTjoBOJiocufl thetb, ocjh h He Bcerja, to no Kpaitaeft Mtpt oqeHb 
?acTO, ABJifleTca uenbe y croifaHB bibtb , h wbrh HHqero yaHBHTejbHaro, 
ecJH oht> fb Asia npn pas.raqHBix'b nepejUBHHtemax'b, HurbBrnHXT. 
MtCTO Tarn, yTpawBaxb cboio caMocTOHTe jibho ctb h aBMca pacKH* 
HyTHMt cpe^H pa3jra<rauxi> HapoaoB'b. 

TaKHATB ofipaaoarb mu BHAHMT*, qTO Eojrbmaa opw, cocToamaa 
H3i> jByx'b noKoxfemft, cymocTBOBaBniHXTj Hitcorja k&kt> caMOCToa- 
TejiBHua njeiieHa h npn otobtb eme ho bt> OT^aJieHHOifb nponuoBTb, 

CB CBOeft CTOpOHH HO TOJIbKO H8 rOBOpHTT> 3a ApOBHOCTJb KHpmSCKarO 

HapoAa (bt> coBpeMeHHOin, cMBicjrfe aioBa, a He bt> CMHorfc cocTaB- 
Huxt ajieMOHTOB^), a HanpoTHBt Toro, yKa3hiBaeTi» jihhil Ha kohivio- 
MepaTHoe CTpoeme ero. Cjrb^yerb sairbTHTB, qTO Bee KHpra3CKoe 
njieMH cqeTaeTca npH6jiH3HTejn>HO bt» 2 1 /) — 3 MHAiioHa, h3t> koto- 
pHXT> npH6jra3HTejK»no 450000—550000 (no apyrHMi, whhum^ 
900000 — 1036266) npHxojuHTca Ha Bojibrayio op,ny, T.-e. 3Ta op#a 
cocTaBjraerE npa6jiH3HTejitHo Y a scero njeaieHH. 

Hto KacaeTca CpejHeH opw, KOTopaa no o^hhm-b jaHHHM'b qn- 
CjHhtt> 712000, a no Kpyiwb 900000 — 1000000 aynrb, to OHa co- 
ctohtb H3i> qerapex'b noKOJi-feHift: nauMam, nupeu, numaKb h 
apiuKb] ocTaHOBHifca Ha Kaa^OMt H3i» hhxt,. 

IIoKOMMiie HauMaKb.— HaiiMaHbi, KaKi> caMOCTOHTOJibHoe njieMa, 
H3B*hcTHu yace aaBHO, h PamH;n>-3*-flHH'b,npHqHCJLHH hxt> kt> rpynn* 
TK)pKCKHXT> naeMeH'b — Kepaumb, mcmymb, yuiypi, Kbipiwcz h Ap. — 
cqHTaerb hxt* oahhmt> h3t» ApeBHMraHx-b tk>pkckhx , b n.neMeH'b. IIo 

CJIOBaMt PafflHAT>-9A-JlHHa, HCbUMaHto COCTOaJIH H3T» H'feCKOJIBKHX'B 

poAOBi, KOTOpwe hhjih qacTbio wb ropaxT> h qacTtio bt> CTenn, a 
hmghho na BojbmoMTi AjTat, KapaKopyMfe h KyKt-Hpram-fc; y hhxt» 
6bum cboh cHJBHLie rocywpH, MHoroqacJieHHoe xopomee boScko; 
o6uqan h upHBuqKH nxt 6bUH no^ofiHbi MOHro jlckhmt> . A6yjira3H 
orb ce6a ^ofiasjiaeTb, qTo 3tott> j^peBHift Hapo^t msbm o6mnpHoe 
ckotobo^ctbo, ho zevuiGA'hJtieiA'h He 3aHHMajica. IIo cjiOBaM'b o. Ioa- 

KHH^a, HdUMdHHy npHCOe^HHHBT* KT> Ce6t BT> 1201 TO^y 3eMJlH 3a- 



Digitized by 




KT> BOlIPOCy O nPOHCXOK^EHlH KHPrH3CKArO HAPOflA. 



na^aaro KHH^KCKaro rjapcraa, s&BJi&xbjm Bvhm> TapfiaraTaearb. 
Bo BpeHeea ^Hnraaa hxt> xaHOMi> 6hjtb TinHPB, KOToparo SHawenH- 
Tufi 3aBOeBaT6JB nOKopnjrB OAHHBfb h3t> nepBHX'b. Ho eme bt> npo- 
^ojmceHie aciraro BpeMOHH 3to h-homa (fcBrypnpyeT'B caMOCTOHTejiBHo; 
TaKt, nanp., bt> IHe86aHH-HaM3 t ) Ha pa^y cb mamapb y Mamutm^ 
y&iypb h dypxam ynoHHHaiOTCH h nauMawA, KaiCB coyqacTHHKH no- 
xoaa DlefttfaHia. 

UoKOAtbHie Kupeil uau Kepeumb {Kepaumb).— dTO 'xiOKOJi'bme 
b*ctho eme no%b HMeH6MT> rnpeft hjth yBaKt-rapeft (bi> HacToamee 
BpOMH cb 3thmt> hm6H6mt> cymecrByerb, Kpoarfe ynoMHHaeaiaro HOKO- 
jrfcmH, eme po^ bt> Majioft opa* CeMHpoacicaro noKOjrfeBifl). Kepeum* 
hjih Kepaumb ecrb' hmh o^Horo hst» apeBfffcftnrax'B TiopKCKHXTb njre- 
moh'b; oho, no onoBa&rB PaniH,K'B-3a- ( a;HHa, npHHweacaJio kt> rpynnt 
rfcx r B TiopKCKHxt njeM6Hi> [nauMaHbj omyrm, mamytm, yuiypi, nup~ 

ttA3h 1 KapMJKb H KbtnHOKb\Y KOTOpblXTj H6 6blJI0 „H3;iHHIHflrO OTHO- 

mema poAcrea h OTHomeHia no cSjraaceHiK) anoxi> cb njreaieHaMH 
TiopKCKHMH datcaMnupb, otipamb h mamapb h cb njieMenaMH mohtojtb- 

CKHMH, XOTfl HO Tflny H H3UKy OBH 6JH3KH KT> HHU'B a . Bl> CBOe BpeMfl 

nepeumta 6um inorymecTBeHHHM'B njiOMeHearB, h totb-sco aBTopB 
nninerb, tto y hhxt> 6hjih „yBa»acMHe rocyaapn hs-b cbohxb njie- 

MeHT>, H BT> TO BpeMfl OHHf H*rf>JIH CHJUJ H MOrymeCTBa B'h TtX'b 

npeA'bJiax'B 6ojrfce Apyrnxii MOMeffB**. A6yjbra3H bt> cbok> oqepe^B 
nameT'BTO ace caMoe, ho jihhib bt> h^ckojtbko hhbix^ BupaaeHiHxi>: 
aro ApeBHift Hapox'B; oht> ctohjtb no.K'B ynpaBJieHiearB cbohxt, co6- 
CTBeHHHxi> rocyaapeft, npn kotophx'b He 6bwo Hapo.ua CMBHie 
Kepaumoob. IIo CJiOBaMi* A6yjra3H, hmh Kepaumb snwmrb qepHbift 
6apaHB (no BaMfiepn — cfepaa cofiaica); y oflHoro ^ejioirfeKa, nepeaaerB 
ohb, 6hjio 7 CHHOBeft, KOTopwe 6mjih Bcb qepmie, no^eMy hxt> h 
hxt> hotomkob'b npoSBajra Kepaumb. 

Yace bt> X. b. Kepaurrm ^oxoahjih ^hcjighhoctbio ao 900000 
^GJOB'bK'B 2 ); bt> na^ajit XI b. ohh hphhhjih xpncTiaHCTBO otb He- 

CTOpiaHCKHXli CBJJmeHHHKOB'B H COXpaHHJIH OrO B'B TeHCHie HtCKOJIb- 
KHXl CTOJltTifi (^0 XIV B.). 

KaKi> SHaKH tibiBmaro xpncTiaHCTBa, no cJiOBaM*B E. CMHpHOBa, 
KHprn3bi aToro noKOJrbmfl coxpaHHJiH TaairH m> BH^-b Kpecra. Rhfi- 
CTBHTejBHO, y Kupeumoeb CpejiHefi op^H 9Ta Taaira cTaBHTcn a 

1) DleftCsHiaAa nacana He pairfce 1510—1530 roffa. 

2) E. Cmhphobt.. Cupi>^apBBHCRafl oCxacTb. CIIB. 1887 roaa. 



Digitized by 




9TH0rPAfcHqECK0E OB03PUHD5. 



y Kupeumoeb Maoioft op^a ±. BnpoqeMi., TaMra bt> BHjt KpecTa' 
npHHa^JiexHTb He o^hhmt> KupeumaM*; Tain,, HanpHMip'b, KumuncKiu 
poAi> ByiceeBCKoft op.nu HM-feerb Taicace TaMry b*b BH**fc KpecTa*, X 
(no mOhm* HafijrioAemfltt'B) hjh -j-X (no HadwojeHiHirb H. Ka3aH- 
iieBa), Kumuuwa 3a Ypaji0Mi> bmIjioti* TaMry -j- (no HafijnoAernHMt 
Meftepa); aajrfce KyacoBo oTAkaeflie Horaftcicaro po,na ByieeeBCKoft 
opju HMten, TaMrn X hjih +5 3aTi>MT>, ajiTaffcirie KajMWKH HMtiorb 
cpe^H cbohxti TaMrL Ta.K»e +; HaKOHeirb, Panraa'b-3fl-;wH , b, no- 
pe^HCJiflH bhjkobt> Yryst-xana (po^OHaiajibHHKa tk>pkobi>) Hasu- 
BaeTT> Ajymapa, y KOToparo TaMra KaKi> y numuuveeh X> nKupu- 
Ka, TaMra KOToparo X; t&Kh q T0, na Hann> B3rjwiA , i>, nowesHTB 
KpafteeMy coMfffeHiio, HacKOJibico TaMra Kupeumoe* bt> bha* KpecTa 
Moryn> yica3aTb na cymecTBOBaBmee y hhxt> xpncTiaHCTBO, KOTopoe 
ohh aMcTBirrejibHo HcnoBi^uBajrH^ TaKi>, Vdjmxb-sjirj&wh nnraert, 
?to „HcnoB , fc,naHie Ineyca— Mnp'b CMy! — AOCTHrjo k*b hhm'b, h ohh 
npHHJun ero Btpy". H. ApncTOB-b 1 ), npH^aiomLft TaMraM-b KHpreaoBt 
rpoMaAHoe 3HaieHie, c^HTaa hxt* apeBHaro nponcxoacAema, ct> q^M-b, 
noBHAHMOHy, HejibSH ho corjiacHTbCH, cqnTaerb TaMry nupeeeb bt* bha* 

KpeCTa 0S.B0K) H3*b OCHOBHblX'b KHprHSCKHXT, (TOWfee TWpKCKHXTb) 
TflMITb, Kt> TaKHMt OCHOBHblM'B TaMraMX Ha3BaHHLlft aBTOpT> OTHO • 

chtt>, Kpoait Kupeeecnaio KpecTa: 1) TaMry m> BH^t Kpyra dyAamoeb, 

2) npflMyio qepTy h en npoH3BO^HbiH — TaMra Kawt-iOtfa n KunwKon> h 

3) TaMry - yrora uauManoeh. Ha ocHOBaHin TaMra h HapoflHUxt 
npe^aHift tott> ate aBTopi> npH3naeTi> 6jin3Koe poactbo Kupeee* Cb 
KttpibuaMu (Kapa-KHpm3aMH) h capu-yucynaMu. 

Bt» XIII b. y Kupeumoeb xaHOMi> 6arb OHn>-xaH^ 2 ) (YHrb-xaH'b 
Afiyjirasia), saMiqaTejrbHbift npoTHBHHicb *lHHrH3a, Hani* KOTopuMt 
nocjrfeAHifi 0Aepacajn> mrf-bxy bt> 1202 rojy (599 xefl»pu) 3 ) 

IIoKOJifbHieKunHaKb.-'OjiEo h3t> HHTepecH^ftniHxi noKOjrbaift hjih 
co6cTBeHHO njieMem, — sto Kurmaicu. Hmh Kunuam (KMnnaKb), KaKi> HaMfl 
6mjio cica3aH0 yme Bwme, BCTptqaeTca KpoMt KHprH30B r b erne cpejH 
fianiKHpx h y36eKOBT>, KpoM* Toro no cero BpeMeHH cym.ecTByeTt Ma- 
jieHbKoe, ho caMocTOHTe^bHoe njieMH 3Toro hmohh. Ilo ciOBaMi. 

!) Loc. cit., dp. 421 h 427. 

2 ) BaM6epa. — HcTopia Boxapw. CIIB. 1873 r. 

3 ) IIoKOjrfcHie Kupeu CpeAHeft opj^H HaauBaeTCH Taicse yeam-iupeu h co- 
ctohtt. H3i> Tpext po^OBTj: yearn*, %upeu h mapaxAW) bt» Majtott op^b noKOJTBHiH 
KUpeU n-fen, ho ecTb btoto se hmchh poA'b CeMHpoficKaro noKOJi'BHia. 




kt> Bonpoor o nponcxoacaEHiH RHprnscKAro hapom. 



75 



yfi(J)aj!BBH 5 Kunuam bohijih cBoeft H83HaqHTejn»Hofi qacrbio h B*b co- 

CTaB1> KapaKUpiU306b, 06pa30BaBTb H'feqTO BT> pOA* OTAtjIbHOft BiTBH 
HXT> CT> HaHM6HOBaBieMT> KUpiUZb-KUnnaKb. 

Ujibt&h Kutmatcb oaho h3t» apeBHMniHX'b tk>pkckhxt> njieMeHi>, h 
PamH^T>-8A-AHHT> npHqHCJWjera ero kt> rpynnt rfcxT* Tiopoicb, kt> ko- 
Topoft npHBa^jreataTt, no ero cjiOBaarb, xepaumu uauMauM, y&xypu, 
Kwpit*3tA, Kapjiynu h ,ip. Bo BpeMH bohhh (roBopnrB aBTopt) Yrys'b- 
xana (po^OHa^aJiLHHKa TiopKOB-b) ct> poacTBeHHHKaMH HanuiH bt> ayn- 
jrfc ^epeBa gepeMerayK) HceHmHHy, aiyacb KOTopoft OKa3ajiCH yfiHTHM^. 
yry3x-xaHi> ycuHOBHXb powBniarocn Majibqaica h aaxb eaiy hmh 
KfinqaK'b, con> cjroBa KHnqaicb — crHHBniee sepeBO, h bc* Kunnanu 

CyTL OTt 3Toro MaJTbTOKa*. 

A6yjira3H nepeaaerb cjitAywnda JiereHiapHHH noflpofiHocra o bos- 
HHKHOBenin KHnqaKOBT>: nocjii o^Horo cpaaeHia, wt> KOToposit Yry3i- 
xaHt 6bun> nofitacAeHt, eMy npHHeaan pefieHKa, po^HBmaroaa bt> 
^ynjit #epeBa ott> 6epeMeHHOfi aceHmnnH, b3htoh oahhmt> h3t> khh- 
3efl Yrysa ct> cofiofl h yicpuBnieftcH bt> ^ynjit ott> xojroaa. TaKt 
KaKt nycToe flepeBO Ha TjopKCKOirb Hap-feqin HasHBaeTca <KHnqaKTb>, 
to MajrtqHKi> titm uaSBaH'B kHnqaKOMT*. Kor^a 3totb MajbqHKt, 
BoenHTaHHuft YrysoMt, Bupocb, to HapoAU ypy<*>, aAMKh, nadotcaph 
h 6aw,KypMb B03My th jiHCb . yrys^-xaH'b nopyqajrb Kanqaicy MHoro 
Hapo^y h nocJiajTB ero Ha 6epera pfeicb JJoHa h Hthjlh (BoJira). 
Oht> BtapcTBOBajit bt, 3toS CTpafffe 300 jrfeTb,H Bee HapoAOHaceaeHie 
KHnqaKCKoe npoH3onuio orb Hero. Co wpsmwh Yry3*b-xaHa h io 
HHHnisx-xaHa, no cJioBaM'b A6yjira3ifl, Ha 6eperaxi> #0Ha, Hthjih h 
flHKa He 6hjio xpyroro Hapo^a Kpoari? KHnqaKOBT>, cKOTopue 3atcb 
hchjih okojo 4000 jrfcrb* 1 ). 



Cairo co6obo paayirbeTCfl, hto 8Toft na*p* He cjr*Ayen> npajaBaTL tfyx- 
BajEbHaro BHa^ema, rbir* He MeH*e cjftAyeTi otm*thtb n8B*CTBy» cTpaHHOCTt 
vh 8tomt> npeAaHia, KOTopoe npHnacBiBaerb Taioe orponHoe KOjanecTBO jbtb 
cymecTBOBamio KHHiaKOBt b-b cTena nea^y Bojiro© h ypaaoMT». II. TojiyCoB- 
ciift (IleHeffBrH, Topsa h hojobhu, KieBi> 1884 r.) o6T>HCHaeTi> (xasi hbmii 
■aneTCfl coBepmeBHO cnpaBe^JHBo) ©to npejaHie rBicb, hto bt» Hapo^HoiSl na- 

MflTH TIOpKCKHX'b 026116011 MOIMH COXpaHHTBCff BOCnOMEHaeifl 0 CO BepHIBBinHZCR 

yae HBAaBHa BucejeHiflXT> t»pkobt> hb-b Awh bt» Espony (Hanp. xaaapM, yrpw, 
neieHira, TopKH h e Hanaro), a Tas*b xaicb MOHroJbi HainjtH 3a Ypaioifb (T.-e* 
no ero cTopoay Hnsa) jlehib KaniaKOBi, to Jterxo 6mjo Hapo^HOMy Boofipaae- 
HiK) hxi> nepeceJHTB ciofla 8a h^choilko ^THCHHeji-BTift* ao HKHrns-b-xaHa. 



Digitized by 



76 



3TH0rPA*H1ECK0E 0B08POT1B. 



KanqaKCKoe noKOj-feme KHprn30Bt, oTHoenmeecH kt> CpejHeft 
opA*, pasflfejuieTCJi Ha bocomb poaobt>: mopbiauit*p* y myma, numa- 
6oKb, GyjMiyfib, Kapafiajwncb, KyndnMm, mana-fyxa, KyKb-6opoKb h 
y3ym.R0 nacb AomjiH, iieawy npoqairb, bmbh& ojHHHaOTara poaobt, 

^pOBHHXt KHEqaKOBl>, KOTOpHfl HaMT» nOpGAaiOTL £Ba aBTOpa: POK- 

HeMHHT>-Beft6apcB h M6H'B-XajiBayH'B 1 ); nepBHi HastiBaerB Hx^ TaKt- 
moKCoffa, ieim, 6ypdoico\Mfi, 6yp*M, naniyoiAbi hjih tfawtopouw, aw- 
dypyiz, napaffapotAta h Komxm . ConocTaBJwiJi HMOHa po^OBt 
KHpra3CKaro noKOjrfeHia poaaMH jpeBHHX'b KHnqaKOBx,, mbi ho 
Haxo^Han> o6mHXT> HMeHT> 3 ). HecMOTpji Ha OTcyTCTBie o(5h(hxt> po- 

AOBT>, MH flOJMKHH HpH3HaTB pOflCTBO MOKAy KIinqaKaMH y36eKOB*B, 
KHprH30BT>, 6afHKHpi> H nJIOMOHOATB COBpOMOHHUX'B KHHMaKOBT> CB 

o^Hoft CToponw, h apbbhomh KHn%KaMH ci> jpyrofl. Taicoe paacejieme 
nocjrfe^HHXTi moiuo nponsoftTH, BO-nepBHxt, nocjrfc noKopemn KHinaK- 
CKaro ijapcTBa MonrojiaMH, Kor^a ranqaKH h yBOAHJiHct wl iutbht^h 
Ctacajia caMH, a ct> apyrofi CTopoew, pascejienie Morjo npoH3o*TH 
bo BpeMH pacnaaeHia 3ojiOTOft opflH. KanqaKOB-b Boo6m,e cxBayerB 
cqHTaTt ^peBHHMt tk)pkckhmt> mieMeHearB, KOTopoe eme saaojiro 
H&inecTBia MOHro^OBt KoqeBajio meacAy Aohomt*, Bojrrojo h ypajroan> 3 ) 

*) B. TuseHrayBera. CdopaHR'b MaTepiaJOB*, OTHOcarnxjcca kt. Bcropia 3o- 
iotoK opAH. t. I. CIIB. 1884 r. 

3 ) y»6eKCKoe noKOJt*me KHanaKi* HasuBaeTca co6cTBenBO Kumau-Kunnam m 
paBA'BJiReTca Ha Kumau h Kunt«Mre; Kutn«tt HMfcerb cxBayromie pofla: capthKumafc, 
omopvu, xaHdcuMJiu, icoui-maMia, mapoKAU, 6omoau; a Kunnam pasAfeftaercfl 
TOJbKO Ha TpH po^a; mepmi-maMia, cupu-Kunvavb h maiyci 6a$, H6a?>-XaxbAyH'b 
nepeflaer* poAOBbia naeHa ApeBaxxT, RRn^asoBi> crBAywmHM* o6paaoM%: 1) 
moKCofa, 2) cewia, 3) Cypdotcouu^ 4) 9A*6yAu t 5) KamapaAU, 6) out*, 7) dypymi, 
6) KOAa6aajiu, 9) dacepca**, 10) mudamdupKAu m 11) Kynym. 3a*c& RaaercH 
yifBCTBUMi> yKaaaw*, hto pox% Kumafi, noBHARMOMy, ct» AocTaTo^Hoio cnpaBeftXH- 
BocTbio kokho ciHTaTt ocTaTROifb ApeBflflro nj6M chh *wdaH«a, rocy^apcTBO KOTO- 
purxi naio b* Ha^iaji* XIII b. (H. ApHCTOBi>, cTp. 432). 

3 ) BaepBue hoabjihiotch KuniaKH bx HaniHx* CTenaxi, bt» 1055 roxy (bx* 
nepBoe HanaAeaie Ha Pyct bt» 1061 r.)« Hst. Tpexx6jKsafimHX% npexnieerBeiHH- 
kob* Tajrb HaauBaenaro MoeroJO-TaTapcKaro aamecTBis KamaKH 6wjh nocjfeg- 
hhmh. ^BHsenie TiopKCKHxt njeaee-b no ch> cToposy p. Ypajia, Tant CKa3aTb, 
HenocpeACTBeHBo nepeAi> HamecTBiex-B XIII b. mio bt» cji-BAyiomeM-b nopBgRft: 
B7> IX b. nOBBiBJOTCfl bt» ct€iih xesxy Bojroio h ypaaom* neHeHtra, Koropue, 
noBHAHMOxy, cb oaho& cTOpoau CT*cHflH)Ti» r% K)ry TaTapi, a cb Apyroft n> 8a- 
naAy yrpOBi>; bi> 915 roAy nc4eH*rH BnepBue HanaAawrb aa Pycb (hxt. caxo- 
CTOflTejbHan A^RTexBHOCTb oRaHinBaeTCH bt» 1134 roAy, RorAa ohh npeTepn*JtH 
OROanaTeJibHoe nopaseaie orb pyccRaxi). floci* ne^ealiroBx noaBxaeTca no em 




kt> Bonpocy o HPOHOxoajEHia raprH3GKAro hapom. 



77 



bt> CTenaxx, KOTOpua nojyuum on hex's cboo HaHMeHOBanie Jenrrb- 
KnnqaKb, T.-e. CTenb fcnnqaKOB-b. 06% 3tomt> M-fecrfe hxi> atHTeJib- 
CTBa ynoMHHaeTB yae AsoBeftHH h PamiiA'B-dA-AiiH'L; uocjrkflirift 
naraerL, hto Kor^a noicopeHHoe Yrys^-xaHOMT, (poAOHaqajrbH0KOMT> 
TK>pKOBi») ujieua Hrb«6apaKi> BOSCTajo, to npoTHBi> hhxi> Yrysi* 
nocjiajit KHiraaKOB-b, KOTopue nocejwuHCb Meaay CTpanoK) Htt>- 
dapaKoiii h fljncoirb. 

IIoHHTie ^enirL-KHnqaKT> 6hjo Bnocjrfe^CTBiH cnjrbEO o<5o6m,eHO, 

TaKl> HTO DO^b E>THMT> HH6H6lfb QOAP&3yMtBajHOb H KpHMT>, B BCfe 

Bamn ioshua crenn, h cTeira no Ty CTopony p. Ypajia, Aa*e cb 
qacTbK) TypfcecT&Ha. IIo coBnajeHiio cofiuTift mojrho aorajaTbca, qTO 
noA*b KHawRaHH cjrfc^yerb noapaayMtBaTb nojrOBueB'b Hanrax'b jitTo- 
HHcefi, T.-e. KyMaHOBi> (BB3aHTiftueB^). paM6epn, bt> cboio oqepejcb, 
Bupaaaerb ySiameme, tto KHuqaKH— o^ho h3t> caMbcrb ApeBHHxi> 
njieM0HT> TiopKeKoft ceMbH; oht> Taote roBopnTb, yto b*b Haptqin 
coBpeMeHHbucB KHnqaKOB'b fffcrb hr Majiifiine* npHM-fccn nepcHACKHXT> 
bjih apa6cKHXT> c-aOBt, h qTO oho cocTaBJiaerb jiy^mift nepexo#b 
orb MOHTOJbcicaro kt» waraTaftcKOMy. Bo bchkobtb cjryqai He npaBT* 
TaMiiep'b 1 ), KOTopbrft cqHTaerb KHnqaKOB'b sa neqeHtroBi, acejraa 
npoHSBecTH nocjrfcflHee ojobo ott> nepBaro ( w ne i ieH'brH=neqeHifKH= 
KHnqaKH a ); Bnpoqeirb, 0 oht> ciHTaen* KHnqaKOB-b oftHHirb hst. apes- 

fffefimHX'b TIOpKCKHX'b iueMeH'b. 

HftM-b HSBtCTHO, HTO BT> XIII CTOJrferiH HmrHBT.-XaH'b, IIOKOpHBT> 

Aaiio, noc*ajn> boScro no cio cTopony p. Ypaja, KOTopoe h Hana- 
jio Ha cuanoiz h KUfmaaoei, o#ho h3t> caMuxt MHoroqncjieHHJUX'B 
TIOpKCKHX'b njieneH-b, KaKb roBoparb apa6crift racaTejcb H6HT>-ajib- 
AcnpT* 2 ); h rt,H jpyrie 6hjih OTBejieHH bi» Mtn-b, MHorie ho6hth. 
Ho B-b pedyjbTarfc oKasaaocb, qTO ne miibKo MHorie KHiraaKH ocTa- 

CTopoHy p. Ypaxa HOBoe Twpicsoe iueMa-8T0, noBHAHHOicy, jobo aeo MHpejpo- 
6HBwe, cKopo pasrtuuniieca ■ ne curpaBniie oco6eirao Baacuoft noiHTRqecaoft 
pojH— ysu hum 178H (Topaa Hamei **tobhch). Bt» Haqaxh IX b. ohh khjih 
cme aa Ypajioicb bt> aaiaTcxau cTenaxi, ho aarfcifb, nepemeAmH Sinn h 

BMTBCHHBTb BeieB^rOBli, OHH, DOBH^HMOKy, B% KOHI^* IX HJTH B*B BaHBJTB X B. 

aaaaj[ir eTeoa vesxy Bojroio ■ yp&ioin^ bt, X me b*k* ohh 8aBia«*Jn npasoft 
CTopoBoft ffioea, r^b ocTBBajHca b% He6oJu>moirb kojihhcctb^ etqe bt» XII b. B% 
cepe^BvaXI vbkb, HasoHeH>, noHBJtaiOTCfl no c» cTopoHy p. ypaia khqiski 

B1H KyHBHil (BH3aaTi*I^€BT») HJLH HOIOBQU (Hauieft J^TOHHCH). 

a ) Die Geschichte der Goldenen Horde. 

s ) H88e^HHii A6yjbxacaB7i» Ajh BJiB-^sesepH (TH8epray8eaT>). 




78 



9TH0rPA*H*IECK0E 0B03PUHIE. 



JTBCb Ha CBOHXT> M-feCTaX^, HO 1TO OHM ^a»6 CT8JIH CHJIBHO BJllRTb 

na npnni6jrLi^6B f B 9 h hmghho Toro 1 ), ito bhobs yqpe«AeHHoe rooy- 
AapcTBo coxpaHHjio GBoe crapoe HaHMeaoBame Jterarb-KHiiqaK'b. 
Bnpo^eMt, npH saBoesaTejibHOirb ABHaceHiH MOHrojOBi> cjiyiajiocB He 
pa3T>, ^to toht> aajaiomie 6ujlu ohh, ho bt> CKopoarbBpeMeHH, noarfe 
noKopeHia Toft hjh Apyrofi CTpaHH, BuiurHBajH Ha nepBuA njaHt 

TK)pKH, 3 aXBfl/ThlBaJI H BJIftCTB BT» CBOH pyKH H paCHpOCTpaHHJH Ha 

MOHrojrbCKOM'b 0CH0BaHin cbo6 TiopKCKoe BjiiaHie. TaBi> h wb RemTb- 
Kanqairfc, BnocjrisACTBiH 3ojioto& opAt: BO-nepBux'b, coxpaHHjocb 
TiopKCKoe BJiisiHie orb caaiaro Haqaja, aBo-BTopux^, BJiacTb aobojib- 
ho CKOpo nepenuia bt> pyKH tk>probi>. Ciobo #enrrb-KHnqaicb t&kt> 
CKopo yrBepAHJiocb bt> n;apGTBt ftywurzana (2J»yqifl), ito yate bt» 
XI Y cTOjrfcTin hhkto HHaqen He 3Bajn> 3ojroTyio opAy, KaKi> ljap- 

CTBOMt KHtl^aKCKHMt, a XaBOBl> — XaHaMH AeniTCKHMH, KH H laKCKKMH 

(hjih capaftcKHMH), h TOJibso Bnocjrfc actbIh , nocjrfe Bepice-xaHa, 
AeniT'B-KHnqaK'b cTajrc> Ha3WBaTbca ^emrb-BepKe. Eme nosace, a 
HMeHHo bt> Komrfe XIV h bt> XV CTOjrfeTiax'b, noBHAHMOMy, fterarb-KHn- 
qaicb Ha8biBa;icfl h cTpaHoio Y36eKa, no hmohh SHaMeHHTaro xaHa Ysfieica; 
Tawb, Hanp., apaCcKitt HHcaTeju> 9jn>-AcaAH a ) (1377 — 1446-48) 
hhuibtb, q-ro Jl,yjiyM6ifl-xaTyH& H3i» AOMa xaHa Y36eRa, npHfiuBmaa 
B3t 3eMCAb Ya6eKoetAXh m> 1320 roAy, Bunua saafyacb aa ernneT- 
CKaro cyjrrana Mejraie-aH-Hacapa. 

0 BJii^aiH KHiraaKOB'B Ha npHraeJibaeBt pa3CKa3UBaerb BecbMa 
BpacHoptqHBO apaficirifi nncaTeJib H6Hopa6jajiJiax'b djoiuapH 3 ) (?) cjrfc- 
Ayiomee: „3ojroTafl opAa 6mia npe»Ae CTpaHOX) KHnqaKOBi,, ho RorAa 
hmh 3aBjiaAtJiH TaTapu, to KHnqaRH CA^JiaJiHCb hxt> hoaa^hhuhh; 



*) 3A$CI» MOSHO Yb CZ0B7 OTTTBTHTb £0 HSBftCTBOlt CTeneHa aHajorBiHita' 
•am,, EacaiomiftcB khdh&bobii me: aarjiiScKift nyreuiecTBeBBHKT» XIV b. Mbh- 
XeBHJb, 6tiBiirift bt» Emnrfc, nepeAaert Ham,, vro nepeeeJHBuiieca bt» Eraae?* 
KHUH8KH saxBaTHJH BjacTb Bt cboh pyKH h nocTaBHJH csoero cyjrraaa MeJeita 
MaH^H6poHa, aoTopuft, no cjosaa'a Teoprifl IlaxaMepa, csynajra pa6oBi» hs-l 
KHnnaKOB-B, tto6h coflapaTb Bospyra ee6s cboo njeafl (II. roiy6oBcxift. — Ile- 
«ieB*rH, TopKH h noioBuu. KieBi>, 1884). EcTecTBeeao, hto njeMfl, cnocoCHoe 
aa TBBoe aapo^Boe cavocosBaBie a o6Hapy»HBaBmee Tanya) HpaBCTBeBHyro ca<iy, 
Morjio arpan secbaa be^bjk) poja bi> tojilko <ito BOBBaaaBmefi 3ojotoA op^* 
h no6«ABTeJtefi, ecn ae ncen^Ao, to othbctb accaaanpoBBTb ca co6olt. 

2 ) CaRaaajHHT, A6y6eapi» AxaeAt-BJa-AcH^Hj rtTonacb H6HT,-IHax6u (Ta- 
searaysea'a). 

3 ) IlyTa BiopoBt no rocyjapcTBaM* paaauzi. cTpaHi* (1299—1348—49). 




Kb BOIIPOCy O nPOHCXO»ABHM KHPTH3CKArO HAPOftA. 



79 



noTOM'b TaTapu carfemaJiHCb h nopowHjrHOb cb KHnqaKaMH, h sbmjih 
oaepacajia Bepxi> Haa'b npHpo^HUMH h pacOBHMH KaqecTBaMH TaTapT>:- 

BC* OHH GTaJEH TOHHO KHHqaKH, K&K'b 6y#TO OHH OJHOrO Cb HHMH 

pojia, oTToro qTO MOHrojru h TaTapu, nocejHBfliHCb Ha seiurfc khh- 
qaKOBT>, BCTynajiH bt> 6paKn cb hhmh h ocraB&jiHCb aciiTb bt> 3eM.1t 
HX'b. TaKHMt o(5pa30Mi> a , saKjrioq&eT'b aaTop-b, „aojiroe npefiwBame 
bt> KaKot-jHfio CTpaH'fe ii 3eMjrfc sacTaBJiaerb HaTypy qejOB-fcqecKyio 
ynoAofijiaTbca efl n H3arfcHHTb npnpoacAeHHUii qepTH corjiacHO en 
npHpoA* 44 . 

MHoro jih, BopoqeMX, ocTajiocb ftopennvixb KHiiqaKOBTb nocjrfe 3a- 
BoeBaHia cTpann MOHrojiaMH, cnasaTb oqeHb TpyxHo; mh TOJbKO 
3HaoMT>, qTo pascejieme hxt> 6hjo Becbosa 3HaqHT6JibHo; TaKi>, Ha- 
npHMtp'b, ecrb yKaaaHia BeHrepcKHX'b HCToqHHKOBT>, qTO n3BtcTHan 
qacTb KanqaKOB-b nepedpaJiacb btb BeHrpiio 1 ); aajrfce, apaficirift HHca- 
T6JIB H6H , b-ajib-AcHp'b a ) roBopHTi, qTO MOHrojiH, noicopHB'b icnnqa- 

KOBt, H36HJIH BC'feX'b TfeXT,, KOTOpHO COBpOTHBJIflJHiCb HMV, OCTaJIb- 

Hue 6-fcacajaH, noKHHyBT> 36MJ1K) cbok), kotopok) OBJiaAijiH TaTapu. 
.Hajrfee, qacTb KHnqaKOBt • noceJuaBmaaca wh KpwMCKOft CTenn, noanajra 
noA'b Bjoaaie xpmmaH'b-OBponefiiiieB'b h npHHajia xp Hcri&H ctbo 5 bho 
oafe^cTBia 3th KHnqaKH nocTeneHHO CAHBajiHCb cb eBponeftcKHMT> Ha- 
oejieHieM r b h, B-fcpoaTHO, flajra, B'b cboio oqepe^b, qacib TiopKCKaro 
dJieMeHTa fljia o6pa30BaHia HbiH-femHnx'b crenHBix'b n qacTbio khrho- 
6epe»Hux r b TaTapi> KpHMa. *Ito jKHBymie, Hanp., yCynana KanqaKH 

A^fiCTBHTeJIbHO BOCnpHHHMaJH XpHCTiaHOTBO, Ha 3TO, HO CJIOBaftTb 

B. CMBpHOBa 3 ), yKasuBaerb Macca HMeHi>, 3anncaHHUx f b bi> npnnH- 
CKt kt> rpeqecKCMy CnHaKcapio h Hecymax'b HecoMH-fcHHue cjrfcjuj 
TiopKCKaro HpoHcxoacAOHia; TaKia HMena npHHaAJneacarb He TOJibKO 
npocTKOfb MipaHaMT>, ho h jmn^Mt, npHHaweraaBmHirb ijepKOBHOMy 
KJinpy. -0 KHnqaKaxi> xpHcriaHCKaro B-feponcnoBtaaHia nHtnerb h 
H6fl*b-BaTyTa. Oht> nx'b BCTpiTHjrb B'b cTenn HenocpeacrBeHHO 3a 
Kepqbio, T.-e. na KpuMCKOM'b-ace aoayocTpoB-fe. KpoM* BbicejuiBfflHxca 
KHnqaKOBi, bt> BeHrpiio (rxh ohh TaKace hphehjih xpncTiaHCTBo) h 
BT> KpuMi>, HaMi> H3BtCTHO, qTO qacTb hxt> ynjjia B'b 3aKaBKa3te h 

H. B^jaeBi..— 0 c*Bep. 6ep. HepEaro Mopa. (3an. O^ec. 06.Hct. h3j)«b. 
t. 3. 1883 r.). 

2) H83eM«Hi» A6yjn>xacsHTi AjH-BJb-flaesepa (THBeHrayseB'b). 

3 ) KpuMCKoe zaHCTBO boat* BepxoB6HCTBOMi> Oto MftHCKoft nopTu ro Ba^ajia 
XVIII b. CnB. 1887 r. 



Digitized by 




80 



aTHOrPA*HHBCKOE 0503PBHIE. 



OBJiant-ia JlepfieHTOMi; Aajrbe, vro KHniaKH, xHBmie nex^y JJet- 
npoMi> h JtyHaearb, nopenura noejrfcjHifi, mnmcb Ha BaJKaHCKOjnb 
nojiyocTpoB-fe h 3aHJMH MaKeaoHiio. Kponrfe Toro, morie h3t» KHinia- 

KOBb, COBepnieHHO yTpaTHBT* CBOH) CaMOCTOflTeJIbHOCTb, nocTynsjH BO 

cnyateme kt> pyccKHirb Kwrabairb, o6pa3ya irfejuie OTpajH 1 ). Tojh>ko 
*ito upHBeAeHHtw cioBa apaficKaro nncaTaiw H6m>-a.ib-AcHpa o TOin», 
hto 6yj/ro Bcb HenoKopHBmieca TaTapam> RHniaKH 6hjh hsGhtm hjh 
6tKajiH caMH, ecTecTBeHHO, He cjit^yerB nonmiaTB bt> fiyKsajbHOMt 

CMMCJlt, T-felTB fiOJTfee *ITO HaBTL H3B^CTHO y 1TO OHH CHOBft nOHBJUHOTCH 

cpe^n TaTapt. 3xhcb *e GjrfeAyerb ynoiurayTb cjiOBa II-naHo Kapnn- 
hh, nyTeraecTBeHHHKa XIII b., KOTopuft roBopHTi>, q«ro MHOrie khh- 
qaKH 6hjh o6pameHU bt> pa6cTBO h qTo MHorie H3*b fitKaBDraxb 

B03BpaTHJIHCb. 

EbUH jih 6ojrfce hjih Meirfce HCTpe6jieHH HOHrojiaMH („TaTapaMH tt ) 
KHnqaKH, hjih Khn>, movo jib hxt, BucejHjroct— mh He 3eaein>; 

H&MT> H3BbCTH0 TOJIbKO TO, HTO OHH BCHJHBaiOTb BHOBb. Tfe JH Xe 

ohh, 9to npeayte 6hjih, uh 8to bospoahbhulhch napojnocTb — Harb 

HeH3BtCTHO; HO KaKT> 6u TO HH 6hWO, KHffqaRH OCT&BHJH HOC** COfifl 
CJliflfel BT> BH^* OTA'&JibHHX'b HOKOJltml H pOflOBt, 0 KOTOpHX'b Mbl 

y«e roBopHJTH Btune. Hawb HSBtcTHo, qTo Ha TeppHTopin coficTBeHHO 
Aemrb-KHnqaKa noairfc Btonrojio-TiopKCKaro HaraecTBia TOjnnuHcs 
pa3Hbie Hapo^w h oneMeHa, npeHMymecTBeHHO h jaace ho^th hcbjdd- 
HHTejbHO TiopKcraH; Taieb, H6ffB-Apa6niaxT» 2 ) roBopHTX, tto JeniTH- 
BepKe ecTb oCiacTb HCKJiioqHTejibHo TiopKCKaa, qxo 0Ha nepenojrae- 

Ha TIOpKCKHMH HJieueHaMH^ OHT. Aa«e HaSblBaOTTi HtCKOJIbKO H3T> 

hhxt>, KaKi> mmay, nympamb (nocjfe^Hee boimo bt» cocTas-b y3(Je- 

KOB'b H KHprB30B-b), HpH Heifb *06aB.IHeT'b, TTO y TK>pKOB'b pasHbia 

n^eMeHa h Haptqia, KaKi> h y apa6oBT>. 

Mh mohcomt* CA^JiaTb TaKmrb o6pa30M r b to npe^rrojroaceHie, ito 
no6-fe«AeHHiiie KnnqaKH, BO-nepBHxT>, He ciMHCb cb npmnejibijatfH, 

BO-BTOpHXT>, BjiHJUH Ha npHmeJIbt^eBl* H AO H3B*bCTHOft CTOHeHH accH- 
MHJIHpOBaJIH HXfc Cb C06oft H, BT>-TpeTbHXTb, *!TO OHH 06pa30B8JIH CBOe 

x ) II. Tojiy6oBCKift. — IleieffhrH, TopRB h dojobi^ij. KieBi> 1884 r. 

a ) IIlHxa6eMrai> Axmp^t., cmht. Myxamiexa; ero coHBHenie HaBHBaCTca: 
ff Hyxeca Hpe^onpe^BieaiR bi> cyffb6an TpMypa". ABTopi» poxuca bt» 1388 r., 
6»n najiojftTBHM'B B3ATT, Bi, njTBHt Bii CanapBaBj^B, HsyiHJnb nepcHAcrifl ■ 
MonrojbCKifl flsusn h bqocjtbactbIh boc*tbjt» 3ojOTyn op^y; yvep'b obi b^ 
1450 r. (TH8eBTay8eBT»). 




KT> BOHPOCy O nPOHCXOJKAEHIH KHPrHBCKArO hapoaa. 



81 



ocQfioe njeMfl, acHBraee Ha pa Ay ct> xpyrHMH tk>pkckhmh mreMeHaMii, 
a BUOCJit^GTBiH yrae^mee Ha o6paaoBamc 6aniKHp , b, qacTbio ace 
y36eKOBT>, ott> KOTopuxt, bt> cbok) oqepeAt, oTA'bJiHJiacb oco6a« 
^acTfc Ha o6pa30BaHie KHpraaoBt, a qaorb, 6utl Moacerb, ocTaaacb 

CaMOCTO HTCJfbHOft , n6p6C6JIBBUIHCb Ha BOCTOKT*. Bo BCHKOBTb CJiyiat 
BT» C0BpeM6HH0Ml> HJI6H6HH KHflqaKOB'b, RaKl> HepeWlOrb HtKOTOpBie 

aBTopti, MCHBeT-b eme co3Hame Toro, ito ohh 6hjih H-feKor^a Bja^t- 
tojihmh JHeinTt-KniraaKa. 

Haarb KaaeTca, q-ro BaMtfepa HanpacHO oroBapHBaeTca bt> 0AHQMt 
H3t CBOHx-b cowHemfi 1 ), nojarafl, 6yATo HMt CA^JiaHa onraCKa bt» 
HpeAtuymeM-b TpyA'fc'), rA* oht> npH3HaeTi> KHnqaKOBT* 3a OT^fejifr- 
Hyio Hapo^HOCTb, Toraa k&kt> ohh 6yATO hotto hhoc, KaKt ota^jib- 

HLlfi pOA'B KapaKHprH30BT>, H q«TO UXb CJTfcflOBaJIO 6u Ha3BaTt» „Kup- 

\u3b-KurmaKaMu* . [loBHAHMoaty, BaM6epn AonydtaeT-b omn(5y hmghho 
bt> CBoeft nocjrfcAHeft padorfc, Taicb Kaicb, HanpHMfcp'b, Yfl^ajibBH 3 ), 

Ha pHAy H3Mi3peHiHMH Kapa-KHprH30BTb H KHpni3'b-KHnqaK<5B'b, KO- 
TOpblX'b OWh C^HTaeT-b, KaKTj H KoCTeHKO 4 ), 3a OAHO IL36MJI, qacTb 
I^H^p'b H3MtpeHifi OTHOCHTb C06CTB6HHO Kb KHnqaKaMT>, H3b qerO 

mojkho CA'fc.aaTb bmboat*, qTO owl cqHTaerb nocjrbAHHX'b 3a oco6oe 
njieMa OTib KHprH3T>-KHnqaKOB , b, a cjrfeAOBaTeJibHO h Ka paKHprH3 obt> . 

PaAJiOBT> BT> CBOeft CHCTeMt TIOpKCKHX'b njieMBH'b COBCkBTb bo yA*- 

jiaerb M'bcTa KanqaicaM-b, k<ik b OTA^jibHoff HapoAHOCTH, a yKa3MBaerb 
jiiuib Ha y3(3eKCKift poAi> Kumau-KunnaKh*), KOTopbiif pasA^JweTCtf Ha 
Kumau h KunuaKb; owh rosopHTb, q r ro 9th ABa noicojrkHifl TaKb 
CBH3aHti Apyr^ ct> Apyroarb, qTO Ha Bonpocb o hxt> npoHcxoacAemn 
ohh BcerAa OTB-feqaiOTb ^umau-KunHam^. BnpoqeM'b, Torb-ace aBTopt 
roBOpnrb, ccbiiiaflCb Ha pa3CKa3H f qTO B*b KoKant Koqyiorb, a 
qacTbK) »HByrb octAJio MHoro KHnqaKOBT>. H. OcTpoyMOBT> 6 ) ae 
yKasHBaerb, qTO bt> 4>epraHCicoit otfjiacTK acHByrb ao 5000 KHnqa- 
kobt>. KocTeHKO h, ccbLnaacb Ha Hero, BacnjibeB-b 7 ) roBoparb, qTO 

a ) Das Turkenvolk in sein. ethnol. und ethnogr. Beziehungen. Leipzig. 
1885, p. 278. 

?) Reise nach Mittelasien. Leipzig. 1865, p. 304. 

3 ) Le Kohistan, le Ferganah et le Kuldja, p, 55. 

4 ) TypKecTaHCKifi Kpafl, I. p. 328. 1880 r. 

5 ) Ethnograph. Ueber. d. Tiirkstamme. Leipzig, 1883, 

6 ) Teorp. TypsecTaH. Kpaa. CEB., 1886 r. 

7 ) H. BacHJi>eBi>. KoqeBHrnsa TypKecTaHa (Odbitt. 8KonoMHHeoKa.ro o6sopa). 
CaMapKaH^t. 1890 r. 

8TH0rPA0>HTS0K0B OB03P*HIK. XXVI. 6 



Digitized by 




82 



8TH0rPA*K<lECK0E 0B03PBHIE. 



B* fcepraBCKO* ofaacTH vb 70-r* ro,a,ax*b »bjb jo 70,107 xynrt 
KHnqaKOBi», t&iei too, noBHxmoMy, ecjra Kaniafta b ciBTaiorb 
cefia OTqacni npaBaMeKanram kt» y36eieaMT> h BapaRBprasairB, to 
eme He ooBcrfcirb cjibjibcs ct> hhmh b, 6htb mokgtb, aaxo^HTCB bt> 
TOJfb ace OTHoraemH kt, hhmt>, b&ki» nomuHbt h napaKajmam Kb rap- 
rasairb ByiceeBCROft opau (cm. n Kap. ByK. op^u* bhh. I, cTpaB. 
33-34). 

0 BH'tniHOCTH ( Hp6BHHX r b HHIFl&KOB'b HaMT> BOTOB BB^erO B6fl3Bt- 

ctho, aa h Bootfme pasaue micaTejiB apa6eicie bjtb nepcaacirie aaa 
KaKie xpyrie Bcerja fiojrfee BBTepecoBajracB BHrbraHHMTb 6mtomt> aa- 

pOJBOCTB, KOTOpyK) OBH BOfffenWUB, VbWb (J)B3H^eCltBMB CBOfiCTB&MH: 

o6fiiKBOBeflHO OBB orpaHB^BBaiOTca jihbib aairfeTKoft, too rfe hjtb xpy- 
rie KpacaBH bjih 6e3o6pa3HH, cTpamaa Ha bhjp>ht. Taicb, Banp., 
H6flT>-BaTyTa, rocTHBmift aobojtbho aojito y xana Yafieica, mnnerb, 
qTO KHimaKH Bapoa* Kptmrift, caJibBBift a ajopOBuft, ho 6ojn>rae bh- 
nero b6 roBOparb o(fo> axt bh^hihocth . raMMepi>, Ba ocBOBaaiaKa- 
TaficKHXt hctoihbkobT) , roBOparb, too y BBmaKOBT» rjiy6oKOJieKa- 
uae rja3a, Bticrynaionjie boch h iycraa Copoati, Aajrfee, too y hhxe> 
roayfiue rjraaa a puaue bojioch. HejiLsa npa^aBaTt affect coiOBy cpu- 
sifl» 6yKBajiBHuft CMHCJrb a cj-feayerb noBaaaTb tojibko KafCbijBtrb 
pycHft; dTa onnrfita qacro BCTpfcqaeTCH a saBBcarb, B-fcpoaTBO, qacro 
orb jiBHTBHCTH^GCKHxt npHHHH'B. Hfa'b-BaTyTa, BanpHBrfcp'b, obhch- 
b&h pyccKax-B, roBopart, too obb rojry<5orJia8H a KpacHOBOJiocu; 
Bpwb-JH Bch pyccsie, BOTopux'b BHA'bjrb a6Hi>-BaTyTa, 6hjtb puae- 
Bojocue, a obt> hxt, Bmxhjrb bt> caMOwcb Capa-fe, Kam> boctobbbo 
sKflBynwrb, TaKi> a npitsacax'b KynaoB-b a bo BpeMH csoeft notajKH 
bt> Bojirapiio, oj-bAOBaTeoibBo, BHA*jrb hxt>, b*pobtbo, MHoro; BHTaft- 
CKie nacaTejra Tamae BaauBaiorb pyccRax*b KpacHOBOjuocuMH. HTaffB, 
cyja no onacaaiio ramiepa, BanqaKa Guam 6jiob;hhhh a, noBB^BMoay, 

H6 HOCHJTH B*b CBJIbHOS CT6II6HH Bfclp&JKOHBblX'b M OBFO JEO -TK)pKCKBXl> 

nepT-b (wb coBpeMeflBOirb CMMCJrb SToro cjroBa). CnpaniBBaeTCB, aa- 

CKOJIbKO ^tftCTBHTeJIbHO 3T0 OBBCaHie KacaeTCB BMeflHO KHOTaBOBT., 

a ae KaKoro-JiH6o jpyroro njEeneaa (bjtb po^a), BasbmaBoxarocH aTHirb 
BMOBeiirb m> omnb nrapoKOMi, cMHCjrfc cjOBa; no Bpaflaefl irfept, npex* 
CTaBMTb KHtnaKOBTb 6jiOB^aHaMH Tpy^Ho; o6t> dTOWb Baqero He roBO- 
pflTb, HanpHMtpb, nSH'b-BaTyTa, KOTopoMy ohb jojhkbh 6ujib 6po- 
caTbCB CBoeio pycoBOJiococTbio b*b rjia3a a o qein> OH*b ^ojaem* 6ajb 
6u ynoHBHyTb, Kaicb oht> 3to xbJi&QTb no OTHomefliio pyccBHX'b. 



Digitized by 



Kb BOIIPOCV 0 nPOHCX0«A»HIH KHPrHSCKArO hapoaa. 



KnnqaKH, noBH^RMOMy, H3i» o6meft Maccu tiopkob* 3ojigtoA opflH He 

BHKtjMLirHCb CB06K) HApySCHOCTBK) H Dpe^CTaBJIMH, B*pOBTHO, Vb OCTSJIB- 

HUBfH TiopicaMH tritl 6oji'be hjih MeH*e 6jH3Kifi. BnpoqeM'b, apa6cKifi 
nHcaTejb XVI b. H<5Hi>-flx*a *) roBopHrt, mo TiopKH- kbd q aKH otjh- 
qaioTca otb ocTajfcHHX'B tiopkobtj, a HMeBHO obh pejariodflu, xpa<5- 

pU, fiblCTpbl BT> ABH«eHiflX1», CT> KpaCHBOfi (JjHFypO*, np&BHJIbBHMH 

qepTaMH h fijiaropoAHu. OTKHAHBaa h3T> BToro nepeqna spaBCTBeH- 
Hua KaqecTBa, mm bhahmt>, q»ro B&bcb cymecTByert Becbiia acHbift 
HaMeKT> Ha HeMOHroJibCKyio h HeriopKCKyio (bt> coBpeMeHHoarb cMucjrfe 
drovo CJTOBa) opraHB8aiqK) KHnqaKOBi>; xotb, kohomho, h 3%bcb mo»ho 
AonycTHTb, qTO roBOpHTca o RHnqaKaxi> bt> mnpoKOMt cimejrfc aToro 
cjiOBa. 

Mto hma cKBnqaK?>> nepeHocajiocb b Ha Apyria rueMeaa, a, 6utb 
mo3kgtt>, Hep-fe^Ko h Ha Be* njieMena, o6HTaBDiiB Aemrb-KHnqaffb, 

BBJiaeTCB BDOJIH-fe GCTGCTBOHHblM'b: pa3T> Hfl HMeB0B&H16 JtemTB-KHH- 

qaicb pacnpocTpaHBjiocb Ha orpoMHwft paioHT*, to h bhh KHnqaKOBt 
Morjio pacnpocTpaHHTbca, Bnpoqearb, noBHjHMOMy, He yHHqToacaa ot- 

fltJIbHWa pOflOBHfl H HJIGMGHHiiia HMeHa. 

Bo bchkomi> cjiyqai, roBopHTb ct> yBtpeHHOCTbio o $H3HH6CR0irb 
Tant ^peBHHX'b KHiraaKOBTb B*b HacToamee BpeMa hobosmohcho; bt> 
sjTOM'b oTHonieHiH MoryTTi 0Ka3aTb ycjiyry MHoroqHCJieHHue Kypraioi, 
pacKHHyTue no HaniHMb loatHHin* CTenairb, Taicb Kairb, no CJnoBairb 
PyfipyKBHca a ), KHiiqaKH xopoHHjin cbobxt> MepTaeuoB'b, Hacunaa Ha^i> 
npaxoM'b nypraH'b h CTaBB Ha Hero cTaTyio jnatoxi kt> BOCTosy, aep- 
xcamyK) y noaea qamy, KaKT> bsb^ctho, TaKHxi> KypraHOB% ^co cTa- 
TyaMH* pa3CwnaH0 bt> n3o6njiiH bt> cOBpeMGHHOft ^ohcroA CTeira; h3t» 

HHXT>, KaKTi nepGAaiOTb iftCTHblG JBHTeJIH, HtKOTOpbie H AO CHXT> 

nop* coxpaHasoTb KaMeaawa (frHrypu 3 ). 

*) roiy6oBcfcift.~ neieefcPH, TopiH h hoiobrm. EieBT» 1884 r. 

2) TaM-b-ate. 

3 ) H'BCROJbRO OCB*THTb aHTpOOOJOrilO, tCMU H6 COGcTBeHHO Ap6BBBXl> KHD- 

HaKOB-b, to no Rpaftaefi i*p* Booflme Bacejeeifl 3ojOTofi op aw, uovsm 6uxyp- 
raau, naxoaau;ieca bti EyKeeBCKoft cTene. Ham> caMBMi» lOB&iocb wb 1888 ro^y 
pacRonaTb H-hciojibKO rpynn-b KypraaoB-b, a HMeHBO y XaBcsol Ctubkh, y Hobo- 
KasasRH a y Tbjobkh. PacKonKa bt» nocj^AHefl m-bctbocth Be M0»en> c^btbtlcb 
yAaquoK) BaR*b no Maio^HCjieBHOCTH pacRonaBBUz'b lrypraeoB-b, TaR*b h no Hcnop- 
HeBnocTH Hz*b; bo bchkomt> cjtyqa'B, Rypraabi bto! rpynnu HBHero o6n^aro c*b 

BpyrHBH BBMR paCROnaBBUMB Be BM'BB>1 w b > OTHOCHTCH, BOBB^BM OMy, R*b COBCp- 

meBBO ApyroMy RyprasBovy paiony h npBBaAJeaaT*B, CROJbBO mossho cy^HTb no 



6* 



Digitized by 




84 



dTHOrPAaiRKCKOE OB03PBHIE. 



IIo Ha6jK>^effiAirb yft<|>ajbBH, bc* coBpeiieHHBie cpeAHe-aaiaTCKie 
KHoqaKH HCKJiioqHTejiiBHO ^epHOBOJiocu; Taicie pesyjiBTaTu nojyieHH, 
no KpaSnefi ntpt, Ha 17 cyftBewarB. Bnpoiein», cjit^yerb a^tcb 
ace yKaaaTt, tto, Hanp., cpe,An Kopa-w Kapaxau-KunnaKoeb, poiOBi. 
opeHfiyprcrarB fianiKHp-B, no Ha6 jhoaghlh btb EL HaaapoBa, ofta3u- 
BaeTCH npH6jiH3HTeJbH0 jo 50% TeMHopycuxt h puacHxi> cy6^en- 
tob-b, xoth, BnpoieM'b, TeMHopycue cy6i»eKTu cpe^a (JaniRHp'b bo- 
o6me He npeACTaBjwiioTb p-fe^Kocrn. 



cfffcjaHHMHT. uaxo^sam, kt» i0BoxbHO apeBHeny nepioxy. Ito Racae-rca jayx-b 
Apyraxi, rpynm., y HoBO-KaaaaiH h Xancaoft Ct&brh, to bth KypraHu npeA- 
cTSBjflioT'b orhht» thqt>, He HMfeiomift oflnjaro c*b lypraHami y*HMCBoii, IlepM- 
CKoft ryCepHift h ChChph, bo croamift BecbMa 6jh3RO rt> THROBOMy TypraflcKoS 
o6iacTH h Ky6aHcsoft cTenH (<5biTb Moserb, flona h Kpbma?) Kyprauu HasBas- 
hmxtj A«yxT> rpynni», pacKonaHowe Ham*, otbochtch bt> XI V b., T.-e. kt» spe- 
m6bh npon,B*TaHia h Haiaxa yna^Ka 3ojotoM op^u, npHHaAJesarb HoieBOxy 
aapoxy TSopKCKaro THna ct mbjo BbipaseHBbiMH MonrojbCRnxu; nepTanH, bo njie- 
M6BH He iHCTOMy, a cocTOBBuieny b8t» npeACTaBHTejieft pa3BNXT> anTponojiorH- 
necRHX'b rpynn/b, CToamBX-b to 6\iHxe kt» MOHrojtcTBy, to jpihme orb Hero. 
HecMOTpa Ha paaaooCpaBia qepenoBT^Hxi, xobbo no^BecTH rt> h* koto pbiirb onenh 
onppYBjeHHfiiin> TBoaMi* j TaKOBbix-b HeTbipe. (IIoapoGhocth cm. „KypraHM By- 
xeeBCROtt cTena a . Ha. Hx. 06. JL, £. Aht. h 9t., t. LXIV. Tpygu Aarpon. 
OTAftJa, t. XI, b. 2. MocRBa 1890 r.). IlepBbift THm>, kt> ROTopoMy otbochtch 
6ojbmafl «iacTb HaffAeHBbixb h&mh nepenoBX, xapanTepH3yeTca cifcAyromnxH nep- 
tbmb: Ba^poBHbiH lyrn pa3BBTbi xoponio, hocoboH muai BbicTyaaerb BnepeA* 
AOBOJbno CHjibHO, glabella y 6ojbniBHCTBa Tone Bbicrynaerb SHaHHTcibao, no 

BeJRHHH* BTH Mepena CpeAHie, HH3K0llIHp0Hie, CT» gOBOJbBO UIHpOKHIIIb 3aTbM- 

romt», ci> 8HaHHTexbH0 eyaseHnwirb bi> nepeABeft cBoeft hbcth j6om'b, ct» Be- 

60Jlb0IHM'b neasrJa8HHHHWM'b UpOCTpaHCTBOMt, HH8HOOp6HTHbie, CT> HeCHJIbHO Bbl- 

CTynaiomHMH CKyjaMH, yaRO— hjk cpeABeiiiHpoKOCKyjbie, uinpoRO— hjh ysRoae6- 
Bbie, y3KOxpe6eTHbie n cpeAHemHpoROBOcbie. ToBopa BOo6me, sth qepena Bexb< 

8fl OTBeCTH KT» MOBrOlbCROft rpynflt, XOTB, Cb Apyroft CTOpOHbl, OHH HeJHOieHbl 

MoaroxH3Ma, BbicTynaiomaro y paaHbixi* nepenoBi* bt» pasaofi CTeneBH. Btotl 
thdi nepenoB'b, croxbro moxbo cyAHTb no 6oraTUM% ROJweRniHMi AaTponoxo- 
ranecKaro Myseff Hm. MocaOBCRaro yHHBepcHTeTa, 04eab pacnpocTpaaeH'b bt> Kyp- 
ranaxt, jeman^flx-b no Boxrfc « bt, HaiuHXT, H)SHbixi> cTenaxi; totl me thiti 
wepeaoB*b, BaK% KameTCH, BCTp-bqaeTca h cpe^H anp rnscR a xt» HepenoBi». BTopot 
thut. nepenoB-b, BafiAeHBbia Hanu, plisKO OTJia^aeTca orb npeAUAyn^aro, HH-Berb 
MOHrojbCKia nepTbi bt> HeHbuieff CTcneHH, H'BM'b nepBuft, xoth BJiaBie MOHrojib- 

CKOfi KpOBH, nOBBAHMOMy, OTpHI^aTb BeJb8fl, UO OHO RHSaJIOCb BT> HeSHaHUTeXb- 

Bofi creiieHH. 9tott> tmot* nepenoBii 6pocaeTca bi> rjiasa cBoero rpy6ocT(K>^ pia- 

KOCTbK) SepT-b, p«3R0 BblpaseBObllf H M'BCTHMH npHRpfememH MblUIUT., ecjia MOSHO 

TaKi> BbipasHTbca, yrxoBaTocTbK) Rcefi «H3ioHOHiu. CoBepujeano Tanie senepena 
6biJiH aaxoAHHu fl. He«eAOBMMT> bt> KypraBaxT> TypraficKofl oGxbcth C x P a - 



Digitized by 



KB BOnPOC? O nPOHCXOHCAEHlH KHPmSCKATO HAPOflA. 



85 



H3T> CpeAHett op^H h&mt> npe^CTOHjio 6u oct&hobh.tbc# eme Ha 
o^homt, noKo^-femBr, a hm6hho aptum (mm apmKt). Mu,vb coacajii- 
nw, He HirbeMt hhkerhx'b <f>aKTHqcoKHX'B CB-kjtmft o jpeBHOcra 
8Toro noKOjrfcmH h mmetn* sxbcb yita3aTB jihihs Ha npejame RHp- 
raaoBi, corjiacHO KOTopoMy xam. Anaqa hah Arana, (*o hsb^othoS 
CTeneHH) araeHqecirifi repoft— cofinpaTejiB KHpra3CKaro Meaiem (qacro 
CM'buiHBaeMuft ct> XaKKi-Hasapt-xaHOM's hjih Auiasoirb), pawfc m jtb 
GBofi Hapo^b Meauy cbormh TpeMH cbihobbhmh: yficK)Hi>, ApruHi h 
Ajtchh-b, ^aBniHMH Haiajio Eojibmofi, Cpe^neft h Majiofi opaaMTB. 
Cj-feAOBaTeJiBHO, ApruHi* (fmrypHpyerB bt> npe^aHinx'b KHprH30Bi> 
KaKT> mn oAHoro h3t> ctiHOBefi Ajaqa-xaHa. Ho, snaa, ito VRciowb 
ecTL He ?to HHoe, KdJffb mm OAHoro mi> iueMeH'B, Boroe^iuHxt bt> co- 
c r raBi> KHprH30BT>, 3Haa ,a;ajrfce, <ito h Ajrhht,, mm* mm" ceMiacB 
yBH^HMt, He ito HHoe, mwh ma apeBHaro Meaiem, 3Han, HaKonem*, 

qTO KaKB YSCIOH'B, TaKB H A.JiqHH'B Bt KHpiTOCKHXt HpeAaHiflX-b J1BJM- 

iotca cuhobbjmh Ajiaqa-xaHa,— ecTecTBeHHO npeanoJioacHTB, tto h 
AprwHt He hto BHoe, KaicB hmh caMOCToaTejiBHaro Hapo.ua, ho hmh, 
cb TeqemeurB bpomohh, TaicB ace KatcB Aji^hhT), yTpaTHBinee csoe 
3Haqeme h aaace coBepmeHHO 3a6uToe HCTopiefi. Mbi ho nymewby 

HATCH Bb MoCROBCROKb AaTpOBO.IOrBHeCROM'b Myae*, TaKT> 8C6, RaR*b B BCB He- 

pena, BaflAeaabie sans); cpe^a KnprH80Bt EyaeeBCRoii opAH, a Tarae cpeja 

ypaiBCKHXT. K83aK0BT> (KOTOpwe OTiaCTB COCTOflTTb B81> aorafineB'b) HaM-b ROBO- 
AHJOCb BCTpt^aiL JBDTb, 06oa(l 06JHK?> ROTOpHXT. D08B0JHCTT, HJHATb O Cym> 

CTBOBaaia Toro me Tana, hto b y aasBaaafcix'b nepenoBi.; noca*Aaie. opeACTas- 

•IHBOTT, TOSXeCTBeHBbltt THBt Cb TaROBUVb y H*K0T0pHXT> BOraficKHXt H6peOOBl> 9 

b8htux b EVb MorBJ'b ft. He*eA0Bwai>. TpeTiff tbot> BaffAeBauxi> B8hb qepe- 
bobi> OTA'siaeTCH orb AByxi> npeAMAymHXb b xapaKTepHsyeTca npeaiiyme- 

CTB6HH0 BHCTyaaiOmBMH MOHrOJbCKBMB HepTaMH, EOTOpblB fl 8aCTaBJflH)Tb CTa- 

BBTb qepena dToro TBaa bt> oco6uft OTb BpeAbiAyn^BX'b paAi>. HaaoHei^'b, nerBep* 
Ttiii Tanb xapasTepn8yeTca noxsuMb OTeyTCTBieMrb kbrbxii 6h to bb 6biio bob- 
roabCKHXT. sepTb b cflXbBOH) AOJCBxoAe«aiieio. Bon, tro boxbo saa-BTHTh 0 
KypraaHOM-b BjeMCHa ByaeeBCRofi cTena ct> aBTpooojorB?ecKofi tohrh aptHia: 
Djenfl 6ujo crtmaao B8b paaauxi a pa8BopoiBbixi> BieMeBTOBb, 6biTb MOHteTi., 
npocTO B8b BMxoAueBb EVh padBbixb cTpaai>, cnjfOTBBmaxca bocabbo, 6jaro- 
Aapa cjy4afiBbiH'b HcropBHecEHMb co6biTiaMi>; opeo6jaAajn» bi> btobt, napoA* 
9jeaeaTb TH>pRCRifi, cb cjra6o BbipaseHBUMB aoar 0 jb crb a h qepTaaa; rt» BTOBy 
BJeaeHTy npHM*nrajcfl ^pyroft, b'Bdohtbo Tome TK>pKCKift, B9 cb BCBboiaMB npa- 
saaRaMB KOBtuiasMa; apoMt Toro, bt» cocTaB-b BToro aapoxa bobxu b Apyrie eie- 
aeHTu, Haifb hbcto MOHroJbCRie, tbrt* b hrcto HBAO-eBponeftcRie. Kekt. bsb'Bct- 
ho, BCTOpflHecaia xaaabia 0 3oiotoA opA* noATBepas^aEDTb btb o6B^ia aaTpo- 
oojioraqecRia aaRjHoieaia. 




&6 



dTHOrPA*HqECKOE OBOWOTIE. 



ito6h bt> dmwb npeAnojoateHiH saiunoiajacb HaTAxwa 1 ); ho 
Aase ecjra 6h aro ft fcuio, to o*ho noKOjrfenie, o rotopom?> mm, 
Kara cicasaHO, ^aKraqecfcaro anqero ho 3Haenx, ^ho Moserb hom*- 
radTB Ham ocTaTfcca npa tomt> MHtHia o KHprH3ax?>, axb o6paao- 
b&hui h yBejraqemH Bit qHcifc, ROTopoe h&mh BHCKastiBaeTca. 

PacqjOHaa TaKHMT> oCpaaoirb BojbinyK) h Cpewioio opxy KHprn- 

30BT> H DpOBOAA MUGJB 0 KOHIMOMOpaTHOM'b CTpOOHUI OTHX'b OpA"b, 

mu oxnoBpoMeHHo, Tain> cKasaTb, OTptsuBaoMi oti> KHprascKaro we- 

M6HH H01TH XBt Tp8TH &IH 1450000 AyHfb (npHHHMafl, HO BaMfiepH, 

Bojn»myio opAy B'B 450000 (—500000), a CpeAHKMO bt, 900000 hjih 
ace 1748266 xynrb, h npraHMafl, coiuacHO ApyrHMi, hctoihh HaM'b, Eojht- 
myio opAy bt> 1036266, CpeABioioB'b 712000 Aynrb). HaM'b ocTaeTca, 
CJitAOBaTejibHo, eme TpeTb* opAa, ciHTaromaacH bt» 700000 — 900000 
Aynrb (ct> EyKeeBOBoio),— 3to Maaaa opAa. Oaa coctohtl, icaKt h&mm 
6hjto cica3aH0, H3i> Tpex*b noKOjrfcHift: oMiMyAuncmto, 6<MoxuHcm\o 
h ^jMf^o^icaio; HaHMOHOBftnid nocji>AHaro caMO no ce6*b y»e HaBO- 
Ahtt> Haci» Ha mmcjtb, hto ApeBHHro npoHCxoaAeHia OMy mii npunM- 
CHBaTb ho aojukhu; to ace caMoe, BnpoqeMb, roBopjWb a hmoh& ocTa-ab- 
hhxt> noKOjrfcmfi. 06paTHMi> BHHMaHie Ha npeAame, nepeAaiomee 
Hain> Hcropiio bo3hh BHOBOHin dToff opAH. Quwh Ajiaqa-xaHa, AjiqKB b 
(cm. ^Knp. Byn. opAH", b. I, cTp. 25), roBoparb npeAame raprH- 
30bt>, CTajrb bo rjiaB-fc Mjajunoft cothh OaBineft Bnocjit^CTBin Majiyio 
opAy); y Hero 6emo TpH cima, orb KOTopbix'b noraaiH Tpa noicojrb- 
ma Majioft opw: crapinift cum* Ajhmt, („yqeH«fi*) n&xb Haqaoio 

OAUMyAUHCKOMy HOBOJI'feHiK), KOTOpOe y»e H3AaBHa C^HTaOTCH CTapiUHMTj 

noKOjrfcHiearb h ero poAa CTapmHMH poAaMH bt> opA'fc (cm. „KHp. Byte. 
opAU tt , b. I, CTp. 45); BTopotf CfciH'b KaAupT>-XoA«a HMfejrb 12 cu- 
HOBeft, 6bun> npo3BaHT> n 6aflyjnu tt , T.-e. Coraraii cueoBbBMH, h Aajn> 
naqajio GaioAtiHCKOMy aoKOJitHiio (<n> 12 po#aMH) h, HaKOHeut, Tpeiift 
cuhi> Kaprb-KasaK-b HM-fcjrb 7 cHHOBefi h o6pa30Bajr^ noROortnie 
dotcumpy (A«HTH-ceMb py-pOA^) hjh ceMupodcnoe. Mli bhahmt^ito 
bi» 3T0mt> npeAaflin B03HHKHOBeHie cmaptmio noKOJitHi^ upHnncu- 



i) Mm nosevb noxTBepAHTb bth b&qjh caosa cjrBjyiomHMH oiOBanH B. Paff- 
jobb, (06p. Hap. met. Tiops, njeveBi*, *. Ill, CIIB. 1870 pj, 0 opOBcxoaueHiH. 
xHprR80Bi> HaM'b oneHb Kaio hsbActho, roaopHn. 8toti> aBTopi>:— pojOBMH mxt» 
HHena cb h x'BTejb ct By r>t% o tom«l, hto KHprasu oCpasosaiBCb wb pasajar-b 
Hap o^o Bi», Karb ero xoxasuBaiorb, nanp., HasBaaia BaeneHi* KHQqaKt, HafinaHT» 
if apvuwb. 




KT> BOQPOOy 0 nPOHOXOSXEBIH RHPrBdCKATO HAPOAA. 



87 



BaeTCH B y*eHony a cuHy, jajrfee, wo noKOjrhme HaH6ojrfee MHorow- 
cjieHHoe no cbohmt> po^ant hpohcxoabtb on qejOBtKa „6oraTaro 
cuhobbhmh", h, HaKOHem, tto TpeTBe noKOJitHie MmeHo BooCme 
co6oTB6HHaro bm6hh h HasuBaeTca cerapOACKHMt , no qacjiy sanjiKH 

qaiOmHXCH BT> HOITB pO^OBt. Mu He MOaWTb HO yCMOTptTb B'B aTOMt 

paBCBaat B3B$CTHyio HOKyccTBOHHOGTB h npiypo?eme no3AH*flraaro 
k-b paffbe coBepmHBmeMyca 4>aKTy h npn 3tomt> coBeprnHBrneaiycfl 
HHHMTb nyTeMi>. 

AtftcTBHTejiLHo, HOTopia HairE nepeAaerB Hiiro Apyroe, a HiieHHO, 
no 3anHCKaan> TeBKaseBa (1740), oKaauBaeTca, ito Majiaa opA&na- 
WBHa cocToajia H3T> OAnoro naeiieHH aa«<t*H», ROTopoe x^jihiocb Ha ajffl- 
MyjiHHCKoe h fiaiojiHACKoe nosojitHk; icb ajraHmtairB npncoeAHHiuiHCB 
cem> MejKHxt poAOBt, KOTopue, no cjroBaMt A. JleBHrana, He mbm 

CHJTB npOTHBOCTOATb B'B 6apaHTaXT> CHJIBHUlfB H MHOrO*HCJieHHHMT> 

aji x iHHn,aM r b, HiiTo irfcjiBHoe 0<Spa30BajiH bth comb poaobt* tojibko bt> 
kohij* XVII hjih bt> Haqajrt XVIII B*Ka, KorAa hxt> xaffB Tbbua 
(yMepi* okojio 1717 r.) co6ahhhji'b b'b oaho noKOJrfeHie, Ha3BaHHoe 
mwb ceMHpoACKHMT>. Odmee meMeHHoe hma juih fiaiojiHHCKaro h ajtrn- 
MyjHHCsaro noKOJi-fcHifi — ajwtawa, huh* yTpaqeHHoe h aaCuToe (bmh 
3Toro Hapo^a coxpaHHjiocB bt> ysfiescKOMt poA* cuhuhi), cymecTBO- 
Bajso erne vb nponuiOM'B CTOJiiriH h o hovb ynoMHaaeTca bt> 6yMa- 
raxi, A6yjn>-xajipa-xaHa (1748 r.). Ecan mu TenepB o<yraHOBHMca Ha 
caMOMi* ceMupodcKOMb noKOJitHiH, o npoHcxoaweHin KOToparo b'b ap©b- 

HOCTH H&MTj HeH3B-feCTH0, TO EQJSbBH BB OTJltTHTB, qTO H3*B CeMH pO- 

AObt> 3Toro noKOJrbma Tpn He abjuhotch npHcyniHMB tojibko OTOMy 
noKOJitniK), a hmchho: mafaam BCTptiaeTCH h y ysfieKOB'B, mam y 
y36eKOB , B h 6amKHpi> > nepeurm — ogtb hmh noKOjrfeHifl Cpe^nei opAU, 

0 KOTOpOM'B Mill TOBOpHJIH y3K6 BBUD6. GrfcAOBaTOJIBHO, H3T> C6MH pO- 

AOB* CeMHpOACKaro noKOJiima MaKCHMyicB jrnniB neTupe mohho 

6UJI0 6u CHHTaTB OpHTHH&IBHUMH. 



Mbl OCTaHOBHJIHCB Ha BCtx-B OTA*JIBHUX'B nOKOJ-feHiflX-B KHprH3- 

CKaro napo^a h Ha H'bKOTopux'B po^ax-B ero, sacjiyaHBaiomHX'B Han- 
SoJBmaro BHHMamH. Pa3B* mm nocjrb aToro He bhahmt>, ^to bt> Rnp- 
^H3CKOM^ HapoAi> H-feTi HHqero KopeHHoro h i^bJiBHaro^ ^to bt» HeMii 
ho tojibko oTcyTCTByeTi* aTHOJiorHqecKaa h aHTponojioraqecKaa u^jib- 
hoctb, ho vro Aaae bt» HeMi> h^tt* ocHOBHoro BUAaiou^arocfl MHoro- 



Digitized by 




88 



8TH0rPA4fraECB0* 0B03PSH1E. 



qncjieHHOCTbio a*pa l ), BOupyrB Koxoparo rpynnnpoBaJiHOb 6u orxbjfb- 
rae dJieiieHTBi? HanpoTHBt Toro, Bee KHpraacBoe ureiia pacaiHBaeTca 

CpeAH MaCCM TlOpKCKHXt, MOHrOJO-TIOpKCKHX'b H AaSKG HHbIXT> (yCK)HH) 

njieMeH'b. Mu He aejajm bhxoahtb mi* paiiOR* HCTopmecKHx-b $as- 

TOBT> H COfiMTit, BOTT> n016My MM OrpaHHIHJIHCb npRB6A6HH&IMH BHHie 

noKOjrbHiAM0 h poaaMH, Meady TtMt ofijiacTb npe^aaift HapoflHHX'b 
HaMBt botch C0BctMi> h6 saTpoHyTa. IMtaoroiHCJieHHua npejaHia, Bnpo- 

HQWb 3Ha^HT0JIBHO BapBHpyiOnuaCH BO M'fcCTHOCTHM'b, MOryrb OTKpUTb 

mnpoKoe noje ajth nsuoKaHifi cpaBHHTejbHoft jpgbhocth mhofhxi 
KRprH3CKHX r b poiobt H cymecTBOBaHia hxt> H-feKorjw, Bt Ka^ecTB-fe 
caMOCTOHTejrbHHX'b HapoAOBi>. Ct> apyroit CTopoHM, conocTaBjreme KHp- 

rH3GKHX*b pO^OBUX-b HUeWb C*b TaKOBBlMH flpyTHXT* TIOpKCKHXt IUe- 
M6HI 06Hapy3KHTb, Bt CBOK) O^epejb, CMtinaHHOCTb KHprH30BT> Cb 3JI6- 
MeHTaMH, BXO^flmHMH BT> HHHfl CaMOCTOHT6JlbHblH ILUCMGHa. 

ftb KOHrjioMepaTHoirb CTpoemH KHpmoBi BrfeT-b HHqero HOBaro; 
HanpoTHBt Toro, 3%bcb mu CTajncHBaeMCH cb rfeMTb ace, hto h y 
yfiryp-b, MOHrojio-TaTap'B h ^pyrnxi njieMeH'b, ct> toh> JTHrab pasmr- 
n,eio, ^to 3th pee nornfijiH, pacnaBmncb n aaBniH nnmy hoblimt> Ha- 
poAawb, a KHprHSbi — uxeun nos.UHMiiiHX'b anoxi, nepexcHBaamee h 
uepewHBaiomee BpeMena MeHte 6ypHua h BOHHCTBeHHbia , Tfeirb spe- 
M6Ha ApeBHia, nepeacHBaiomee anoxy Bjriama CHJibHux-b bt> KyjubTyp- 

HOMT> OTHOmeHiH COCfeflflft, BJUatOU^HX-b Ha HHXT> CB06K) n;HBHj[H3aaieH), 

KOTopaa hxt> coxpanaeTb vb tomt» ofoeM-fe h cocTaB-fe, KaROBue 
e<J)opBiHpoBajiHCb B*b Teieme nojyTbicaqejrbTia hxt> nojiHraqecKOft 

3KH3HM . 

MHCJb 0 KOHIUI OMG paTHOMT> CTpOGHiH KHprracicaro nJieMOHH, XOTa, 

noxwcb, h He cm^jio, ho yace HeojiHOKpaTHO BHCKastiBaaiacb pyccKH- 
mh aBTopaMH: t&kt>, KpacoBCKift % ) roBopHTB, Hanp., qTO Merely ot- 
A*JbHbiMH po^aMH KHprasoB'b cymecTBywrb Hept^tco o^enb 3aM*feT- 
Hbia OTjin^ia bt> 4>H3HqecKOM r b thh* hxt>; aajrfce Mefiept *) HHraerb, 



*) KoHeiHo, xasaicu fl«aHH6eKa h rnpeH coct8bjhh>ti> aApo, BOipyrb roto- 
paro rpynnHpoBMHCb BnocjrB^CTBis OTfffetbHiie poxu hjh nacTH hxi., bo ffosafftt- 
to ^saBB6eKa h Tapea cbmh no ce6* npe^cTaBJiBJin cm-bcb paraooGpasBUzi. po- 
flOB-b, caMH 6smh, TaKt cKa3aTb, cxynaftHaro cocTaBa, cami HtKor^a npHHaj(jie- 
aain coioay 9 y36€Koei u , bo ho n*ibHoe Hxpo naKoft- jh6o i^BJibHoM h cnioneBHoft 

HapOJHOCTH. 

2 ) 06iacTb CB6HpciHZ*b KHprHSOBi,, h . I. ClIB. 1868 r. 

3 ) KaprH3CKaH CTenb OpeflCyprcKaro BfeftOKCTBa. 1865 r. 




Kb BOIIPOOy O UPOHOXOaCtfEBIH EHPrHSCKArO hap6aa. 89 



mto wbvb HHKaKHxt npnqHin» npeanojraraTb, 6jxvo KHprwsH npo- 
n3onijiH nyT6m> ecrecTBeHHaro pasMHoaceria h qTO ohh HenpenitHHo 

COCTaBHJIHCb H3T> pa3BHXT> HapOAHOCTefl, HTO OTpaSHJIOCb H BT> HXT> 

qepTax-b. Apyrott aBTopt *) jamb noATBepaaaerb BHnienpHBeAeHHHa 
CJiOBa n ramerb, qTO HapyacHua qepra KHprH30Bi> bgclm& paaaaqHij 
y padjrHqHuxii poaoB'b. 3arbMT> H. H6paraM0BT> a ), iieatjiy mpowwb, 
roBoperb, q*ro orb Ajrraa *o Ypaaa Roqyerb njieiia, hjih, jyqnie 
CKaaaTb, nonywrm nAeMena, KOTopHa caMH cefia Ha3HBaiOTb „Ka3aKH B . 

B. PaAJlOBT, 3 ), BT> CBOK) OqepOflb, rOBOpHTT>, qTO pOAOBUfl HMGHa 
KflprH30BT> CBH^T6JlbCTByiO'rb O TOMT>, qTO KHpiTOH 06pa30BaJIHCb H3T> 

pasjinqHHX'b HapojiOB'b (KunqaKb, apruH-b h HafiMafTb); TO-rae MH-fe- 
Hie BbiCKasuBaeTca h BejLbaMHHOBbiM'b-3epHOBHM'b *) h II. CeMeno- 
BbiMi> 5 ). HaKOHein>, B. rparopfcOB'b 6 ) roBoparb, qTO KHprn3t>i npew^e 
He Chjih HapoaoB^, a npocTo ctoiihok) aaiaTCKOio ^KaaaqHHoft* 4 , cjio- 
acHBineiica h ciuiOTHBraeftca wb oaho nojmTHqecicoe u-fejioe h3t> o6jiom- 

KOB-b TlOpKCKHX'b nJieMeffb, HMtBIUHX-b npOJKfle OTA*JIbHOe, He3aBHCH- 

Moe apyrb ott> apyra cyiuecTBOBanie; aante, owl iipoaojiHeaerb, qTO 
KHprH3CKaa HapoAHOCTb cocTOHT'b H3i> i^tjiuxx poAOB'b, npaHaaJie- 
acaBmax'b nperaae Kb cocTaBy Apyraxi* HapoaoB'b. 

Ho ec.nn Bee a-ro AMcTBHTejibHO Tairb, Kaict mh roBopaarb, T.-e. 

eCJIH COBpCH6HBBie KHprHSW, #fefi CTBHTe JIbH 0, H6 qTO HH06, K&Kh KOH- 



1) Has. Hiin. 06. JL Ect., Abtp. h 9th. t. XXXV. AHTponoxonn. Bu- 
cTaBKa. T. Ill, h* 2. TyrB y M*CTa aau'BTHTB, hto BfcxoTopue pofla KHprHSOBt 

OTJHHaiOTCH H BT» OfteSRfe (06* 9T0MT» ttOXpaHHJHCb BOCHOMBHaHis BT» ByX6eB« 

cKoft CTenn; cm. „Kap. Eyic, opAw" b. I, CTp. 45; y HoraflueBT> — cTp. 37); 06% 
8T0M1,, vemfj npoHHMt, ffOKjfaflhiBajT» nyTeinecTBeHHtttrb B. JL rpon6qeBc«ifi bt» 
sac**. 06m. JIh)6. Ect. 9 •eBpsura 1890 r.; oht. yBasuBajrb, Mes^y npoiHMi», 
Ba rojoBHofi y6op-k seanjaBi* po^a nauMam, 

2 ) PyccKift TypKeCTaHt. B. 2, 1872 r. 

3 ) 06pasm»i BapoAH. jflTep. TiopKCBBX'b njeMeet. q. Ill, CUB. 1870 r. 

4 ) Hacj-BROBBHie o ebcbmo bcrhx'b i^apaxi h i^apesHqaxii. II, GIIB. 
1864 r. 

5 ) reorpa«B^.-cTaTHCTHH. cxoBapb. 

6 ) Hs** 3aypaJbexoit cTenH.~„fleHL a 1862 r. 28, 82 h 35. Ctbtbh hb- 
nacsBa no^ip nceBAOHHVOvb ^MeH^a-iH IlBpajieBT,". Bi> nepBOMi> BunycirB n Knp- 
rHBOBT. ByxeeBCKoft opj^j", ccBwaacb hb MeHjajiH IlHpajieBa, mw ^Ba pasa 
BoaxH bi> 0^ By b Ty ae oniH6Ky, chhtba nceB^OHHMT> „MeBAaiB IlHpajieBT> a sa 

MMfl C06CTB6HB06 H, CXB^OBaTe JbHO, UpHHHMaH BBTOpa 8B KBprHSB; BTH 0EDh6kB 

Haxo^aTca aa CTp. 275 u 287, h Hame BHHuaHie hb hbxi> o6paTBJi» apoteccop'b 
9. H). IleTpB, xoTopOMy mu BupasaeMt Bamy BCxpeBBK>K> npHSHaTexbaocTb. 



Digitized by 



90 9THOrPA*H1ECKOE OB03PBHIE. 

rjiOMepaTb paajiHqHNX'b tk>pkckhit> h hhmxt> nzeuewb, HirbBmHX'B 
H-feKor^a caMocTo^Tejtfloe cymecTBOBame, ocjih KaprasH, A-fcficTBH- 
TejibHo, He ^to HHoe, mm* npoAyKrb cjriaHia pa3floo6pa3Hux f b we- 
m6htobt>, to cnpaniHBaeTca, Kaidfl ycjioBia OKpyxajm 3th njeiieHa, 
KOToptwi month o6ycjOBjiHBaTb hxi> otuouButie bi> fffevro OAHopoj- 
Hoe a uijibHoe, paspocmeeca ao TaKext rpoMaAHbixt pasM'fepoB'b, 
Kaifb njneiia coBpeMeHHHxt KaprasoBi? Kara momo oayqaTbca co- 
eiHHeHie (h *ito coA^flCTBOBWo eiiy) 8thx^ djeMeHTOBi bt> fffeqTO 
utJibHoe, Kor.ua mm bh^hm^ bt> Apyraxi* MtcTaxt coBepmeHHO npo- 
THBonojioacfloe, Kairb, Hanp., Ha KaBKa3t, rxb (fcaKTaqecKa pojctboh- 
hhh HjreMeHa Hep-feAKO apoGhtch Ha agchtkh nojaTaqectca pasHturb, 
Apyn> orb Apyra ptSKO OTjiaqaiomaxT, ce6a? IIpaqaHa BToro Opoarfc, 
6utb Moaerb, o6maro n3WKa, oCbiqaeBT, h, B-fcpoarao, BtpoBaniA) Jie- 
3khtt> bt> arena— apeH* dTHxi> KoqeBuxT> HapoAOBT>. Ctool ho saaerb 
nperpaAi*, oaa ne 3Haerb crporaro pasrpaHHqenia seMJia Ha yqacTKH, 
ctodb caMa no cetf-fe ecTB ofoeAHHaiomiil ajreneHTt, sacTaBjaionrift 
Bcbxi) acHBymaxt Ha Heft cqaTaTbca bt> 66jn>meft hjh MeHbmeficre- 
neHH qjieHaMH o^Hoft ceMbu. Bt» ropaxi He to: Raac^aa AOJHHa, icaa- 
Aoe ymejbe Moater* cqaTaTbca coScTBOHHOCTbio Toft hjh Apyroft 
rpynnu jno^eft, 3amamaK>max'b 8Ty coficTBOHHOcTb y Kaicb CBoe; teas- 
Aaa cKajia, Kaayuaii naMeub laace cjyacarb y6*3KHmoM'b, oayawm. 
BaiuHTOK) npoTHB-b npamejibueB'b; h 8th cnajiH a k&mhh oropaaa- 
BaiOTT* a aamamawrb 3a hhmh CToamax'b oti> npOHHKHOBOHia He 
tojibko qy»e3eMua caMoro, ho h ero o6uqaeBT>, o6paAOBi>, Boaspt- 
Hiil. Oenb, noHCTHH* BOJibHaa, He SHaerb oTaxt nperpa^, cbo- 
6oaho OTKpbiBaeTB 0Ha cboh nacT6ama wa cbohxt* A*Tameft, ko- 
qyiomaX'b h TaM^, a Tyrb. Ho a KoqeBHHicb - cTeiiHHKi> ho BHaeTi. 
nperpa^: r^b oht> 6i*jn» Bqepa, Taifb ero Htrb aaBTpa, Ha ero se 

MtCTO aBJaeTCa HOBblff MCJIOBtK^. CTeHHHKl TOft BaMKHyTOCTH, K0- 

Topaa ecTb y acarejra ropHaro, He SHaerb: ero ofipaat «m8hb H3B*- 
CTeffb coc*Ay ero, oht> mhphtch <n> hhmt> oxotho, OT^aBaa cboio aohb 
3aMyacb 3a cuaa ero — OH-b A^aeTca ero TaMbipoMt. 

Ho cjiame pa3HopoAHfiIx^ 3JieMeHT0BT> npoasonijo He cpasy, a 
noait AOJirofi Me»Aoyco6Hoft 6opb6u, Kor.ua poat> BoeBajrb ct. po- 
aomi> cocfeAHHM^, Kor^a ayjb mejn> Ha ayjn», Kor^a KpoBb jnjracb 
p-feKoio, h Tucaqa roJioBT> bhhobhhx'b h 6e3BiiHaux , b Bt cnopt JiOAeft 
na^ajiH, noKpuBaa CTenb. HeMajio 6opb6u Bbuepxcajxa 3th ajeiieHTbi 
MeacAy C06010, HeMajio 6tAT* npeTepntja hx'b ceMba; ho, HecMOTpa 



Digitized by 



KT> BOHPOCy 0 IfPOHOJLOKA*HIH KHPTB8Cft*rO HAPOAA. 



91 



Ha wy BpoBonpojHTHyio 6opb6y, oTAtabHue MQuemu He nepecTa- 
bojih CTajKHBftTBCH Apyn> ct> Apyron-b h crbinHBaTBca: kto 6tacajn> 
kt> cocbjuy, npoaH samara orb cbohxt* ace, kto noApyacHJieH ct co- 
cbjoin,, faaroAapa rocTenpiHMCTBy, saKpiniiB'b dth Apyaecirifl ysu 
aceHHTi>6ofl, a kto (tajra b3atb bt> njrbHi> h nopa6omeHT>, ho Bet 

H6CJIH CBOK) KpOBb Ha CMtffleHi^ CT> KpOBbK) HHOft, HH1> HCKOHH 

qy«AoS *). 

HTaKB, MH n0BT0pfl6MT> 3 ), KHprH3T> eCTb C61HT> CBOeft CTeOH BT* 

nojiHOM-b CMHCJit aToro GJiOBa: ona BHpa6oTaja bt> h6mi> oeofieH booth 
ero xapaKTepa, BupadoTaja bi> h6mi> cBoeofipasHuft 6utt>; ho aToro 
MajEo: OHa npoHSBejia ero Ha cb^tb h3t> pasHuxt 3jneMeHT0Bi> ceoeio 
3aMHpHK)n^e k> h ofi^eAHHaiomeio cpeAOfl. 9jieMeHTu cjibjihcb bt> oaho 
ijtjioe HacTOjibKO, qTO bt> npaB-fc hochtb ofimee njieMOBHoe Ha3BaHie 
KHprH30BT> ( w Ka3aitH a ), ho He HacTOJbKO, ^to6h cocTaBHTb CTporyw 
aHTponojorHqecKyio rpynny, CTpofinyio bt> caaioft cefi'b. 

MeatAy TaoiKeHTOMi* h XoAHceHTOMi> scHBerb bt> Bacioamee BpeuH 
MaJieHbKaii HapoAHOCTb, Ha3HBaeMaa xypaMa; OHa goctoht'b npeHMy- 
mecTBOHHO H3i> hath poaobt>: do/caAaupt, meAay, maMa> doicaia.i- 
GatiAi* h mapaiuu; hh oahht> h3t> ^THX^ poaobt> He HM-fcerb cawo- 
CTOHTeJibHaro npoHcxoacAeHia: xain>, poAT> doicaAaup* BCTp-fc^aeTca y 
KHprn30BT> Bojibnioft op^H bt> noKoa-fcHirt yciOH'b; mejiay, dotcaxaA- 
ffatiAt* h moMa cyTb poAa ceMHpoACKaro noKOjrfeHia Majioit opAw, a 
mapaKAu — ojyuwb h3t> poaobt* EOKOxfcHin KHpeftn> KHprH3CK0ft CpeA- 
neft opah. Bet npH3HaK)TT> KypaMy aa CMtcb KHpraaoB'b h y36e- 
bobi *) 9 hhkto He owraerb KypaMHHi^eB'b caMocTOHTejibHoio Hapoa- 



l) HacKOJbKO cpaaeHTejttHO jenco cjiaaie qyasaxTb no cynjecTBy 9jeaeH- 
tobt» bt» cTena, mu bhahm* b* Baeroamee Bpexa aa cuiaHia aoraftcaaro poAa 
ct BBpniBaMH b«b ByieeBCKoft op**,— *aRTb, o lOTopoMt mu ropopHju Maoro 
Bunie (,Kap. Eya. opAu" bt. L, cTp. 36 h 37). Koae^flo, xaHaoe ciiaBie hoaxro 
npoaaoflTH jerqe h 6ucrpBe bt» cHJty nsvBHRBiuaroca noJHTHqeciaro nojomeHia 
EyneeBCKoft opAW, Htn bo Bpexa boibbbto XHTbfl KOHesBHia bt» cTeaHxt, ne 
HcnuTasuaro aa ce6ft Biiaaia iyai»TypBiiix% coc^eH, bo •am btotl xapai* 
repeat ajb CTena h Be aon> 6h um^tb m*cto cpeafl SHTexeft rop*. 

3 ) Cm. „Knp. ByR. opiu tf b. I, CTp. 283. 

3 ) Kypaaaai^u xBByTi> Bt ftojaaaxii plxb Bo^aMa, Kexeca, HwpjwRa a 
Aarpeoa (at HeaieBTCiOMi. a Kypaaaacxoirb y*3Aaxi>)-, hxt» qacxo Bcero 
Toxbao, no cjcoBavb OcTpOBcaaro (reorp. TypaecT. spaa, 1886 r.), 77,000 Ayan». 
IIo MH-BfliK) flsopcxaro (Onurb Hex* reopr. TypnecT. 1889 r.), aaa „Bypaaa tt 
o6o8Ba?aerE w c(5poAi» 8 ; axt noceaeaia, no cxobbxi* nocji*AHHro aBTopa, ue 



Digitized by 




92 



dTHOrPAftfHECBOE OB08PBHIE. 



hoctbk), h gaace hmh hx-b ^KypaMa", no MirfeHiio B. Favosa, o&b- 
jiCHjuorB cjobomt> ^Rypa u — niTo naT b , cmHBaTb ( w zusammenflicken a ); 
tskT) roBopan*, h coBepmeHHO cnpaBcuiHBO roBoparb, o MajieHbKOM*b 
ILIGM6HH KypaMHHK6Bi>; TO sco caMoe cxfeflyerb cKasaTb H o KHpra- 
saxT> (Kasaicax'b), ciuhthx'b hsi nearpHXTb jiocKyTKOBt, TiopscKHrb, 

MOHrO JbCKHXT> , MOHrOJO-Tf0pKCKHXl> H HHHXT> MeMeH'b. 



Py6aHia, 3 aBryeTa 1895 r. 



crapiue 100—150 jtbtb; coctohtb obb hst> cjrtgyioiijBX'b poAOBi: poja RBpnia- 
CKofl Boat mo ft opAH—capM, yftcym,, cepraie, Tapara, cth, yftxayTH, yrajrru, 
qeMwpi., qaEuniKyjt, RasaBHC*, saBrju, laajraHpi, KyHrpait, aTarafi, ajrraft, 
tcGhtl, TaKaxu, 6epTb, RapnaK-b, RHBpar&iu, saparaBi>, CacaBTieat, a«-6ypa, 
6yjaT<iif, Kapa-rnpeM, THpa-Tanra*£i, nprffBKaJiH, cajfupi, TopuaBriip*, ryro«a t 
TUTa6aKi>, 6yjTym», RapatiaxOTB, RyBARiHBi», TaBa-6yra h ysyai*; poja inp- 
rHSCRoff Majiotf opiH— AJKaraiCaftjM, pavaxasi* h Tana; B*cROJbRO ys^eKCKHx-B 

pOAOBT» H T. X. 



Aji. Xapysmrb. 





hgoCxojuimo npeAnoJtoKHTb, tto h bi> Mip-fe noasin nopBOHanajibHo hg 
6hjio Toro pa3Hoo6pa3in bh^obt, h po^obt*, KOTopoe mh bhahmt> tg- 
nepb. H B^tcb pasHOofipaaie bo3hhk&jio h3t> npeac^e OAHO06pa3na.ro, 
cjhohchog bhxoahjio H3i> 6o3<J>opMGHHaro, npocroro. Oco6eHHo 3to oqe- 

BHflHO B3T> TOrO, TTO BHaA&Jl'b HG TOJIbKO OTA'fc.IbHfilG pOflH n033iH 

hg pasrpaHHqHBatOTGH xoponio oppwh ott> flpyroro, ho h caMa noa3in 

BT> CBOeMT* nCpBOfiblTHOMt HpO^BJIGHUI CJHBaGTCfl CT> ^pyrHMH HCKyC- 
CTBaMH — MHMHKOt, TaHUaMH, HG TOBOpH y»CG 0 H'feCHflX'B. flpKO HpO- 
HBMGTCfl dTO Wb TaHUjaXT, AHKapfl, KOTOpBlft CODpOBOHCAaGTb CJIOBa 
ntHieMl>, OAHOBpGMGHHO TaHB^yGTB H jfcjl&eTh MHMHHGCtdG 3H3KH . Bt> 
9THX*b 3a6aBaXT,, BT> OCHOBt KOTOpHXT> KpOlOTCH 3CTGTHqGCKM H pG- 
JIHri03HbLH OOTpe6HOCTH, MOaCHO BH#'I>Tb 3a^aTKH H033iH, My3MKH H 

njotacTH^Haro HCKyccTBa. CnopBa JiBJMGTCH ni'fejioe, HGonpGA'fcjreHHOG, 
a sarfeM'b opraHH^GCKiit nian>— pa3BHTie, t.-g. caMocTOHTOJibHOO bh- 

RkJlQUlQ OTXfcjIbHblX r b iaCTGft a ). 

ApGBHiG (J)HJioco(j)bi-noaTH hg nuiH jtajitG Boapoca 0 flyXOBHOfi 
cnjrfe, KOTopaa .nMcTByGT'b wb Hoart h o Ha3Ha«iGHiH HCKyccTBa. Ohh 

OCTaBHJH flOBOJTbHO TOHHHH OnpGA'feJIGHia pO^OBTi H033ill IMiaBHbM'b 

ofipasoafb apaMN, a bt> H-feKOTopbixTb MHoax*b BucKasajin HeacHO 
mhcjih o npoHCxoHCAGHin jrapHKH, anoca fe t. a. Bt> jmufc FfjiaTOHa 
h ApHCTOTGJia rpGKH HOJioatHJiH HaqaJio Hayiefc o no93iH, h hg hxt* 

BHHa, HTO AOJirOG BpGMH CHyCTfl (j)HJTOC04)bI H KpHTHKH H01TH HG BHl- 
XOfltUH H3T> rfeX'b rpaHHm,, BT> KOTOpHXT> BpamaJHCb H OHH, H HG 

3a,iaBaJiHCb BonpocaMH & nocTGHGHHOirb pa3BHT*iH noa3iH. Ho TGnopb, 
Korjia ycopAHO H3yqai0TT> pasBHTiG BCHKaro aBJGHifl <J>h3H'igckoh h 

yMCTBGHHOft JKH3HH IGJIOB'bKa, HGOtfxOflHMO fifclJO BbJflBHHyTb BOHpOCH 



1 ) IIepeBOAi» cTaTbH r. MaTOBa, npoteccopa Bbicuieft hirojm b* Co*ih fnoufe- 
D^eHBoft B-b „BT>jirapcKH np-hrje^i*" 95 r. JS& 1), cA'BJaHt hbmh ct» h-bkotophmh 
HesHaHRTejibHiJMM nponycsaMH (oco6esno onynjeBU b*rot. ccujkh h npuMBiaBiH, 
KOTopuH cbo6oaho mohbo 6biJio ocTBBBTh 6e8i» nepeBo^a). HHTepecao CpaBHHTb 
H'fcKOTopbiH M'BCTa BToft cTan»H co ct. 06oxeBCKaro bt> ^PyccKoit Mucin" 1895 r. 
(Maprb), nont aara. „Ochobm Bayqaoft TeopiH HCKyccTBa b kphtmkh**. H. T. 

•) Pa3BBBDliflCfl BnOCJTB£CTBiH OCOCHRROH'B HCKyCCTBa MOryTTb CHOBB CJHBaThCH 

h oCpaaoBaTb BOBbitt opraBHam». 3to mu bh^wl bt> ApanaTiiHecROM'b HcsyccTB'B. 
^jih coBepraeHHoft «opMbi ero HeoGxoflHMO npe^BapHTe4bHoe pa3BHTie mmmhk;; h 
MyauKH; bt» canon oOjbcth no83ia BeoGxoflmio paaBBTie ota-Bjibbo du<>ca 11 jw- 
pHKa, noRa bo3mosbo H3o6paateaie shbbh bt» »opifB ^BficTBHTejibBOCTH, ROTopaa 
cosepuiaeTca npeAi> Ban u. Bnpo^eMT>, nepBo6biTHaa ^paita hjih, cKopte, BanaTKH 
ApaMbi HBHJHCb bt> oyCoKoft Ap^BHocTH, Bb wrpaxi. h peJiHrioaHbixT, npoi;ecciHx r b 
npe»Ae, TBirb oCocoOHJHCb jiapHKa h anocb. Cp. M. Kapi>epT», HcKyccTBO h-b 
cbh3h ct» o6mnMT» pa8BMTiein> HyjbTypw h H^eajOB'b qe*OB*«iecTBa. M. 1871 r. 
II, 182; Ch. Letournean, L'eTolution litteraire dans lea diverses races hu- 
maines; Paris 1894. 




94 



9TH0rPA4>H^LECK0E 0B03MHIE. 



h o xpoHOJorHqecKOtft oTHomeHia Meauy poaaiiB noasia. Earn jpaMa, 

KaKl> TO HSApOBJie R3BtCTH0, XQTH H H6 COBCbWB npOACTBBJUIOTCH H6- 
COMHtHHUMT>, ABJIHeTCH CaMHUTb HOBHMt pOjOMT* n033ia, TO KOTOpblll 

(fojrfce CTap^ H3T>,KByx* jpyraxT* poxoBT,: jihphkh h anoca? OpoasomjiH 
oahht> ott> apyroro hjh BMtcrfe ott» TpeTbaro poaa, bt> KOTopoMt 
aaKJuo^ajiHCfc, h ecjia TaKt, to oaaoBpeMeHHO, aan oabh* nocjit npy- 
roro? OTBtrb, KOTopuit mo«6tt> jaTb aayica Ha 3tott> ponpocb, Ba- 
x6Hi» se tojbko ajh ofoacHema sbojioiuh wl ao3TaqocKOMi> TBop- 
qecTffb, ho h w H3BtcTHHxi> aoraAOicb o eyAymein* saaqeaiH oo- 
33iH.., OnpejckieBHaro Bsrjjua Ha 3to aepraaaca h noKofiHwft cja- 
bhctt* MHKJioniaq'b, BucRasaBUiiftca ocoGbhho acHO bt> cbo6mt> nocjrfcj- 
H6in> coqaHeaia (Die Darstelluug im slavischen Volksepos. Wien, 1890), 
h a noauTaiocb no 3TOMy noBoay pa3i>H carts 3/rfecb, saKi> ctohtb 
Tenepb saHaaiaiomift Hac*b Bonpocb a Ky*a kjohhtch ptnieaie ero. 
Mewb, nocpeacTBoarb KOToparo Moaten. 6htb ptraeH'B Hayqno 

BOnpOCT> 06t> OTHOCHTttJIbHOlTB CTaptfalBBCTBfc 9H0Ca H JRpBKH, Ka- 

hcgtcr, xoporao onpea'fcjieB'b bt» Haqajit ojhoS CTaTbH E. Bojbifta, 
nocBHmeHHoft TOMy ace caMOHy Bonpocy (Eugen Wolff. Yorstudien zmr 
Poetik. I — IV. Zeitschrift far yergleichonde Litteratargeschichte, N. F. 
VI. 1893, 423 CTp.). ^B^ HacTonmee Bp6MH oqeHb qacTo pa3,naeTca 
rojioct sa aaiyKTBBHyio noaTaicy, ho ae coBctarb eme hcho, qTo 
HyxcHo paayarfcTb (bt> aTOirt cjiyqafe?) no^t hhaykthbhumh mgtoa^mh . 

TaKl> KaKT> npOR3BOJbH£lft BU6opi> H HaKOHJKOHie UpHMtpOBl BO BCfl- 

KOft aayqHoft orpacJiH cq«TaeTca AajieTTaHTCTBoarb, HH^yKTHBHaa no- 
BTHKa TOJibKO Torja M0»erb conepaaqaTb cb motoaomt. (jwjojoria h 
ApyraxT> ycTaHOBHBmaxca aayicb, Kor^a 6y*e«rb bi cocToaaia pas- 
CMaTpHBaTb HCTopiio CJT0B6CH0CTH 6e3i> yBjieqeaia, bb nojiaorfe h no- 
panict. TIojiHOTa h nopajoicb to ace caMoe, qTo h pa3cuaTpHBaTb 
HCTopiio cjiobochocth bt> acTopaqecKoft HenpepuBHoft nocjrfeAOBaTejib- 
hocth . Hocexfe noaTwta nojbaoBajracb HCTopieft cjiobochocth, Kaicb 
OKa^eHtJiHrb opraaH3MOMT> > mm icaKi> icaKHM-b-TO wmaowl juh 
ptAKocTeft. HacTo ^yMaJia, qTo yqeHi'e 060 BceMi> mohcho acqepnaTb 

OAHHIfb npHM'fepOBTb HJIH HtCKOJIbKHMH fipHM r fepaMH, DO£0()p&HHHMH R06- 

KftKi), TaKott cnoco6i> (5mjh.-6u nexocTaToqeHi> ^a«e bt> tomi cjryqat, 
ecjia HCTopia a oco6eaao acTopia CJiOBecaocTa He 6bim bojtho- 
o6pa3HMMi> opraHHSMOMt . A 3to hmchho TaKofl opraHH3Hi>, cb ne- 
peMtHaMH h npeotfpadOBaaiaifH, KOTopwa, ecjia 6yAyrb bt> 6esno- 
paiK* HarpoMo»AeHu zpyn m *pyra, Moryrb sacTaBHTb Ha^ ycyM- 
HBTbca, mohcho Jin onpeAtjrHTb ofiiuee HOHaTie no3THKn, ho ecjia 6y- 
.ttyT-b pacnojioaceaH bt> nopaAK*, taty'Th caM$ift Btpawll peryjaTopi 
Bapiau.iit o^aoro Tana. Ecjh co6epeMT» Bcb BayTpeRHia a Batmaia 
coBna^eaia pa3Jaqaux'b no <f)opirfe a Ba^y OTpacoreft BceMipaofi no- 
diia, to j,o6yAeMT> rjraBauft npanuan-b BcaKofi no33ia a . 

Ha dthxtj npaauanaxi> ocaoBaai Tpy^i» <}>paai^y3CKaro 3BOJiiouio- 
naCTa .leTypHo: L'evolution litteraire dans les diverses races humai- 
nes. Paris 1894 (XV t. Billiotheque Anthropologique) . Bi> yBtpea- 



Digitized by 




3II0CT> JIB APEBH*fiffllft VORh H033IH. 



95 



hocth , qTO aHTponojroriH Moaterb npojrnTf> cBtrb Ha TeMHue bo- 
npocH paaBBTiA no33iH, JleTypHO paacMaTpHBaerb $a3HCu noasiH y 
BCHRaro Hapoaa, otfpamaa rjaBHoe BHUMame Ha caosecHocTb xsiKBYb 
Hapo^OBT>. Hpo(J)eccioHajibHBie hctopbkh, roBopnrb JleTypHO, HairacajrH 
AO chxt> nop* Maccy KHHFb, KOTopwH, HecMOTpa Ha bck) cboio Baac- 

HOCTb H n$HHOCTb, BC6 3K6 HGnOJIHM, TaKfc KaiCb HG OSflBMaiOTb BCerO 

HOJioBtqecKaro poja. CjroBy „cjiOBecHOCTb a jo chxt> nopt npH^aBa- 
jiocb aTHMOJioraqecicoe y3Roe SHaqeme, Ta»b icaKT> n3r> ea noHaTia 
HCRJuoqaJiacL 6ojrfce npH mhthb saa HaHBHaa noasia. Meacny rbart Kant 
Cojrbe coBepmeHHaa cjiOBecHocTb ecTb paBBHTie 6ojrfee rpyfioft, h no- 
CJt^HHH Taicace Aajiesa orb nepsaro 8apoauema aiOBecHOcm ITo- 
aaia sapowaeTca orb rfexi> hmghho sabaBT* h flBHaceHitf, KOTopwa 
y.noBJieTBopHioT'b owy h Ty se acTeTHqecByio noTpe6HocTb, ho ko- 
Topwfl aojo>3yiOTca bt> caMofl cjra6oft cTeneHH aaoBOirb, noqeMy H3y- 
qeme reH63Bca noa3iH HyxHO HaiHHaTb otckw. CoqHHenie JleTypHO, 
KOTopoe bw3b&ho 3thmh coofipaaeHiaMH, ^jHTca Ha TpH rjaBHiaa 
qacTH: 1) jHTepaTypa HerpHTaHCKH xt> pacb, 2) jwiTepaTypa atejiTwxT* 
pacb h 3) JHTepaTypa Hapoxojrb 6-fcjioft pacw. BHaqaxb naxo- 
AHTca BCTynHTejubHan rjraBa, nocBaiueHHan Boofime paacMOTp-femio 
arbcTa, KOTopoe saHHMaeT-b noaraqecicoe TBopqecTBO bt> pa3BHTiH qe- 
JOBtKa. JleTypno HaqaHaerb ct» 6ioaorHqecKHx , b ochobt> acTeTHqe- 
ckhxt» pe^JieKCOB^, jaerb npHrbpu HaqajbHoft 3ctgthkh y mchbot- 
Hux'b, 3arfearb ocTaHaBJiHBaeTca Ha cbh3h noa3in cb nepBofiHTHtiM'b 
HSUKOM-b, Koropyio moxho Ha6jno^aTb h B'b o6pa30BamH ^tTCKaro 
H3UKa, h, naBOHen^, OTM-feqaerb cooTHomeHie Meacjy pasBHTieM'b noa- 
3iH h oSmecTBOHHaro ycTpoficTBa napoaa. 

Ha Ty »e TeMy, KOTopaa aaHMMaerb Hact 3A'kcb, 3 — 4 roaa to My 
Hasajcb 6ujio HaracaHo npyroe BaatHoe coqHHeeie no9Ta-(})njioco(J)a 
JI. Hico6oBCicaro (Ludviglacocobovski, Die Anfange der Poesie. Grund- 
legung zu einer realistischen Entwickelungsgeschiche der Poesie. Dres- 
den und Leipzig, 1891). nocjrfcaHift nojCTynaerb kt> Bonpocy ct> apy- 
ro*CTopoHH,HOTOMy qTO HSCJi-feAyeTb hot, cicopte, OTra^MBaerb cyAi>6y 
nepBHqaoit noasin He cTOJibKO nyT6Mi> HafijiOAOHiH, CKoorbKO qpe3?> 
^BAyKuiio. H jno6onjUTHo 9 qTO bhbojh Hico6oBCKaro h JleTypno, H^y- 
Hiie pa3HUMa nyrara, BCTp-bqaiOTOA Mes^y 00608. 06a ohh npnxo- 
Ahtt* Kb saKJioqeHifo, qTO nepBaa noasini Co3AaHHaa, wJiOBixQWh 
HBitjut CKopte jrapmecidft xapaKTep^. 

Teopia, CToamaa sa cy6i>eRTHBHuft xapaKTep*b nepBofifciTHOft noa3in, 
KaaceTca mh* 6ojte BtpoaTHoft, q%M*b Teopia rbxx <fmjioco<i>OBT>-apxe- 
ojroroB'b, Kb KOTopHMT> npHHa,ii,JieacHTT> h MHKjroniHqi,, h KOTopue 
yqarb, qTO raaqajia BCHKan noa3ia ecrb anocb. H A**CTBHTejibHO, 
HCTopia AyxoBHaro pa3BHTin noica3UBaeT^ HaMi>, qTO ochobu Haraex'b 
AymeBHbixi> cnocofiHocTeft (naifHTb. bojih, pascy^OKTb) cyTb pe(J)^eKCM, 
qro oTJinqHTejibHaa qepTa ncHxia nepBo6uTHaro qejroB-feKa ecTb hm- 
nyjibCHBHOCTb, T.-e. Hey^epacHMoe no^HHeme nepBOuy qyBCTBy. IIo- 
TOMy-To nepBo6uTHutt qeJiOB-feirb npeac^e Bcero CKJOHeH'b H3o6pa«aTb 



Digitized by 




96 



dTHOrPA*ai£CKOE 0B03PBHIE. 



gjiob&mh h ^BHaeeiajMH to, hto ero BOJiHyeT^, h Bee naxoAa- 
meeca bh* CBoero „a tt npeACTaBjraerb TaKxce cyfiteKTHBHO. H Kara 
BOo6me o6i»qkthbho6 npeACTaBjreHie bh^hmato h HcnuTUBaeMaro rb- 
jui&tgh TpyAHBurb, to ajisi HepasBHTaro qeJOB-fefta oho booth ho- 
BOBMOdCHO (CoeHcepT» Ochob. hchx § 253, Coiuoji. § 31; Letourneau, 
La biologie, I, VI, X rj.). 

H H3Jro«y cnepBa A0Ka3aT6JbCTBa cy 6t>gkthbhoct h nepBOHaiaaiB- 
Hoft no33iH, zwrbwb nonuTaioeb noKasaTB, kt> Katcoft 9noxt o6me- 
CTBOHuaro pa3BBTia mo»bo npnjioHCHTL Teopiio anoca. TaKHMi o6pa- 
3omi, yjo6Hte Bcero 6y^yrB nporaBonocTaBJieHH h ao HSBicraofi 
CTenGHB npMMHpeuLi npoTHBonoJioaHUfl yqeHia. 

HkoGobckUI AOKa3UBaorb cHa^ajia, nojnayacb aHajoriefl, hto nep- 
BOBaqajibHaa no33ia ecu, npaJurpRica . 06bikhob6hho cpaBHHBaion. 
qeJOBtqecTBO cb OT^-baibHUMi qejroBi>KOMT>, h uaicb bt> ota^jibbom^ 
qeJOBtict, TaKi> bt» utjroirb qeJioB-fcqecTBt paajraqaforb (fraaHCbi: a$t- 

CTBO, I0HOCTB, 3p-fejK)CTb U CTapOCTb. A^TCTBO npHHHMaK)Tl» MOABJIbK) 

iipHMHTHBHaro qejOB-fcica. 

CnpaniHBaeTCfl, Kairia nepBtia npoaBJieiria co3HaHia A*TCKoft AymH? 
Ahtji, ao^BJwacb 831* yTpo6H MdTepHHCKofl , H3Aaerb KpHKT», Bupa- 
acaeTi> cTpaxi* h HenpiaTHoe qyBCTBO. ButumnH npnpoAa cayscHrb 
jum A'bTeft TOJibKo a&h Toro, qTofiu, B036y«Aaa hxt> HepBU, npnqB- 

HflTb yAOBOJEbCTBie HJIH 60JTb; AO 06l>eKTHBHar0 BOCnpHHATLH B6 AO- 

crnraioTB AtTCKin cnocofieocTH. HepBHaa pa3ApaacHTejrbH0CTb, omy- 
mema, BOcapHHftTifl, npeACTaBJieHia — bco 3to bt> a^tckomi, opraHH3Mls 
TtcHO cJHBaeTCH cb qyBCTBOMT> npi»THaro n HenpiaTHaro. Bt> omy- 
meHinx'b BupaacaeTca bocb AymeBbii! MipT> pe6eflKa, omymema — nep- 
Bbift onpeA'feJieDHbift MOMeirrb bt, qyBCTBHTejibHofi »H3Hh A'kTeiL H 
TdKi> KaKi> npajinpHKa ecTb BbipaaceHie qepe3T> SByKH qyBCTBeHBbixi* 
npoaBjiGBifi, to acHO, qTo jmpmcfe npHnaAJeacHrb nepBaqHOCTb, a He 
anocy. 

TaKHifb o6pa30MT>, npajiapHica hjth nepBOHaqajibHaa noD3ia otb*- 
qajia npiaTHUM'b h HenpiaTHbiirb omyiueHiaarb. Ho HyxcHO santTHTb, 
qTO TOJibKO cnjibnua B036y«AeHiH— npiaTHwa hjh HenpiaTHUfl — bu- 
boahtt* qeJioB-feKa hst, HBA»t{)$epeHTH0CTH, npHBOAaT , b ero BT> COCTO- 
Hie „CBameBHaro 6e3yMia tt h 3acTaBJwiK)T'b tbophtb jrapHKy. Oaho- 
o6pa3Hbia h cjia6bia BneqaTJitniw, noBTopaacb, ne HM-feiorb yae fioji-fee 
CHJiu ajj« Hauiero qyBCTBa, Taici> cita3aTb, npHTynjaiorb ero 11 ho mo- 
ryTi* no6yAHTb kt> TBopqecTBy, noTOMy-TO Heo6xoA«MO pa3HOo6pa- 
3ie h CBrfeHa omymeHiii, qTo6u nojiyqHJiacb CHJibHaa h nacToamaa 
jiHpnKa. 

Co3HaHie, BbiBeAOHHoe iia'b 6e3pa3JinqBaro cocTO^Hia KaKHMT>-JiH6o 
omymeHieMT>, oTKJiHitacTca Ha Hero cooTBbTCTByioni.HM'b 3ByKOMi>, 
OTJHqaiomHMca 6uctpotoh, KaK'b ii pe(j)JieKTHBHua ABHKCHm, H Taicie 
nepBhie SByKH, BbiiueAniie H3^ qejiOB^Ka, o6pa3yioTb jmpHKy, ho ohii 
»b to ae BpeMa Haqajro A3UKa h ntcaa. IloTOMy no33ia, asukti u 
nbcHa — B'feTBH OAHoro h Toro «e CTBOJia. 




3nOCI> JIH APEBH'BAmiS FOKh n033IH. 



97 



Tast Kara qyBCTBa fiuBaion, npiaTHua n Henpiaraua, to co- 
otb1>tctb6Hho 3TOMy nepBOHaqajiBHaa jrnpHKa aBJWJiacB bx ^opMi 
paxocTHot hjih CKop6Hoi. JlKofioBCKift flOKasMBaert, qTO jujia noa3in 
CKop6n TpefiyeTca MeHte B036yacj.eHia, qianb ckojibko %Jia nporaBO- 
nojioacHofi. IIoTOMy-TO nepBtift po.n'B nodsim 3HaHHTejBBHte BToporo h 
no KaqecTBy,H no KOJFHqecTBy . JlHTepaTypa BcearipHaa AORasuBaeTB 
dTOTh sa-MtnaTejiBquH (fraKTB. YBopt aa to, ito neccHMHcroiqecK&fl 
noa3ia fiy^TO 6u aBjaema 6ojrfe3HBK) h npeBOcxoAHTB KOJinqecTBoarB 
noasiio acH3HepaflOCTHyio, HeHarfcerB 3HaqeBia. UeccHMHCTHqecKaa jh- 

pHKft HBJIHeTCa B6 TOJIBKO GCTGCTB6HH Oft HeofixO^HMOCTBH), HO HO 

cnpaBefljniBOCTH MoaeTt aanaTB fiojrBrayio qacTB BcaKoit no33in. He 
HysKHO 3a6uBaT& h Toro, qTO qejiOB-fera HjrfeerB HaKJOflHOCTB pa3- 
MunuiATB HaAi> HpnMHHaMH HenpiaTHHX'B omymemft. YaoBOJiBCTBie ace 
nepesKHBaerB 6e3i> Toro, qTo6bi 3a#aBaTBca sonpocaMH o npnqHirfe ero. 

IIpe^MeTaMH, KOTopuMH B036yawaiOTCH wb nejioB^Kt npiaTHHa H 
HenpiaTHHa qyBCTBa, onpeatJiaeTCH cojepacame nepBOHaqajBHoft 

JIHpHKH . 

Ilpeame Bcero qejOBtra OTpaacaerb pe<f)JGKTBBHO <j>H3HqecKia 
omymema, KOTopua oTjraqaiOTca qncTO arfccTHHarB xapaKTepoM'B, Kara 
nanp., 6ojib ottb nopaHeaia h y^OBOJiBCTBie ottb npeKpamema 6ojth. 
Toro ace xapaKTepa n rfe jpnacema, npnqHHN KOTopuxi KpoiOTca 
wb aHOMajiiH «H3HeBHaro npoaecca. Ecjuh nocttiamft m^eTh npaBHJiBHO, 
MH omymaeM'B yaoBOJibcrBie, ecjra ace flirt, to oropqeHie. H bth 
bh^bi omymesit qepe3i> 3ByKH BturHBaioTca m> CKoptfB hjih pa^ocTB, 
qacTO BbipaacaiOTca bt> aBHaceHiaxi*, qacTo caMBiM'B 6ecMMCJieHHUM r L 
o6pa30M*B. H 9th SByKH cjiiflOBajo 6u Ha3BaTB jiHpHqHBiMH, ho pa- 
3yMteTca, ohh dojite HHSKaro KaqecTBa, Tara k&kt> noaofiHwe 3ByKH 

HS^aiOTGa BCHKHlfb atHBOTHBHTB, BCJrfe^CTBie TOCTO <J)H3HqeCKHX'B 

cboSctb'b, BJia.ntiomHM'B HepBHOK) pa3,npaacaTejiBH0CTBK> ii chocoCho- 
ctbio H3AaBaTB 3ByK». TaKia omymema h bi> qeaoBfeK-fc pe<|>JieKTHBHbi, 
ho fljco6oBCKifi AyMaerB, qTO HyacHO ynoMaHjTB o hhxt>, TaKi> KaKi> 
BcbMT> HapoAaHi> CBoftcTBeHHti no^TH OAHHaKOBHa Meac^OMefia w« 
H3o6paaceBia pwcth h cRop6n. 

3arfeMT> no CTeneHH BaacHocra n^yTT, r-h omymeHia, KOTopua 
HMtiora b^ ocHOB-fe ^Ba rjiaBHbia BjieqeHia nepBofiwTHaro qeJiOB-feKa 
bt> nepioAt rpySoft 6opB6u 3a ac»3HB: 1) BjieqeHie k*b nnn;* 2) — kt> 
jik>6bh. IlepBofiuTHBiH qejiOB'bKi> HcnuTHBaji^ 6oju>mee B036yacAeme, 
Kor.ua fitLn-B rojiOAeH'b, ntwb Kor^a cbitt,, ho ocofieHHO SjiaronpiaTHO 
%Jia npoaBjieHifl npiaTHtixt h HenpiaTHux-B omymeniil cocToanie 
Mcaac^w. 9to saBHcnrB otb ^HsiojiorHqecKHxi. orapaBJieHifi, KOTopua 
HacTynaiOT-B .BCjit^'B 3a HacBimemeM7> h npn irameBapeHin BU3tiBa- 
iottj y HiKOTopux'B acHB0THbixT> CTb pasBHTHMTb annapaTOMi* jvia nH- 
meBapema ^aace coh-b. C-b ipyrofi ctopohh, noqTH BCaKifi Hapo^i* 
ynoTpefijiaeT'B on^anaioHue nanHTKH— Me^T>, bhho h npoq., KOTopue 
B036yacAaioT'B bt> qyBCTBt cnjy a Boofime ^taTejiBHOCTB . HoTOMy-TO 
BcaKifi HapoAi> HMteT^ no33in nnpa, ho niiT-B no93iH HactimeHia. 

8TH0rPA«H1KCK0B 0EO3P1IIIE XXIV. 7 



Digitized by 




98 



3TH0ITA*MHECE0E 0603PUIS. 



Tan Ban rojox* h m*m» ean no cefrfc Henpurrmia coctobhLs, 
to DOftHTHo, tto ohh fojbme Dofiyauuuorb n neccBBBcnnecEowy 
noanqecEovj TBopqecTBy. Kt> TasoMy ze poxy TBopqecraa no6yx- 
xaerb qeaoataa b nojosaa crpacTb. DepBofiuTHut qejoirfcn bcoh- 
THBAjrb ayienie, xe*aa yjOBjerBopH-n* cbok> crparrb, b tojmco yace 
nosjurbe aon> npexBaymaTb opurrHOcrb orb yjOBjeTBopema ea a 
6utb aeeejo HacrpoeHBun. Bnpoqem>, ito6h yroxHTb xeemirt 
a npHBjie<n> ee n cefrfc, wuiaaxb aepBofiuTHuit qejostn raiorb 
csoeft caoptiaoi h 6oxfe3HeaHOft jHpHKH na Bec&mft b jH3aep*xocr- 
aufi. Totoo Taaxe h ^yamuB bbtb qyBCTB-b, ooo6eaao buoehxt»— 
apfcaia a CJiyxa, a cjoxhuh hxt> rfrfcTBia cnocoficTBy vrrb Tm axa 
atraqe npoaueaiio jymeBH&ro aacrpoeHia. Bojrfee aasmia qyacraa 
(ocasaaie, o6oHaaie, saycb) CToarb aa BTopon njart. Hasoaeirb, 
b aaeqaTxfcaia orb oapyauuomeft npapoAH B036yauuua n nepso- 
6mthomt> qejiOBtst pa*ocTb bjdb caopfe, CTpaxi> hjh Hajexjy 

3syKH, KOTOpUMA nepBo6uTHLtt qeJOB^KT, noqTa HeBOJBHO b 6c9- 
coaaaTejibflo npoflBjraJi'b csoe HacTpoeme, hochjb xapairrepb mnipoBB- 
aaiua. Bcaaift SByn Haetpeo Ewbjn* H-bcaojbico on-bason a tohobt* 
yj,apeaia, ao o qacxb 3ByK0BT» iiejtaa caa3aTb aaqero nojoacarejb- 
aaro. Boaaoacao tojibko npejnojoacaTb, qTO bo MHorarb cayqaan 
BM-fecro CJion cjysajui XBaxeMia a Maaaaa. 3aaon npaBuqaa ofaer- 
qan xjla qejiostaa noBTopeme npoH3HeceHHHXT> Maoro pan jwpa- 
qecKHxi, 3Byaon, Tan qTO co Bpeaeaen qacjio an pocjo. Ta- 
Koro po*a ynpaataeaia npoacxoAHja cnepBa Hae^flHt 6eai> Baaaaaia 
kt, ayfijinat. 

Korxa noaBHJiacb ny6jiBKa,T&n yxe abhjocl ycxosie wa aaoca. H31 
qerapexx rjiaBHOTb acToqeHKOn jmpflqecaan apoaBJieaift: roaoja, 
jho6bb, sptaia, cjyxa, Toibao oihhi> — jtficTBie jho(5bh no6yxAaen> 
qeJies-bKa HcaaTb apyroro, qiodu BHcaa3aTb eay qyacTBa cbob b 
bucjih, b qToCti tott> pa3AtJiHjrb hxt> ct> hhmh. JKeHa ecTb nep- 
Baa nyfijiflKa xjw Mysa-jnapHBa. Ho bto tojilko BpeaeaHaa nytijrasa, 
a ho nocToaHHaa. Tan xyaaerb HaofioBCKift, noTOMy qTO 6pan 
nepBonaqajiBHwll npeacTaBJiaeTCH eay, KaKT> coBepmeaHO CBofiojwoe 
MOHoraaaqaoe cynpyacecTBO, npoAOjracaiomeeca tojibeo HdBtcTHoe Bpeaa 
Meauy wyMa jiHaaaa. 

Bcaailt pa3i>, aan tojibko aeHa OTBtqaeTt Myacy ho tojbbo 
aaaaKOff, ho h csoBaNH, jiapaqecaaa noasia Kbx&&rb man n anocy 
b nojiyqaerb bt. to ate BpeMH ApaMaraqecayK) 4>opMy. Ho Hacroamaa 
anaaa pa3BHBaeTca TOJbico Tor^a, xor^a h3t> ceHOficTBa o6pasyioTca 
pojuj. Tor^a He tojibko qyBCTBo jik)6bh, ho b Apyria qyBCTBa aacTaB- 
e jraiorb qejiOB-feaa a^Jihtlch cbohmh BneqaTjrbmaMH ApyrHMH. Hoxpa- 
acaHie, CBoffcTBeHHoe npHpoA'fe nepBo6uTHaro qejOB-kaa, aacTaBjiaerb 
Ttxi>, KOTopue c^biDiaTi> JiupHMecaaro iitBua, noBTopaTb ero coiOBa, 
oco6eHHO Kor^a nocjii>AHia BwpaacaioT^ npiaTHoe HaerpoeHie, noToay 
qTO Bc^aifi acejaerb Taiwan, o6pa30Mi, HcnHTaTb no^ofiHoe ae co- 
CToaHie. 




anoci. m APEBHsBmifi poat> ho33ih. 



99 



TaKMMTb, Moaen, 6uTb, cuyTHO c03HaBaeMHirb aejaHieirb 3sy- 

K&MH H ABBSKemflMH npOH3BOCTH TO ace qyBCTBO, KOTOpoe C08AaJIH 3TH 

SByKH h ^BHaeHia y Toro, kto nepBuft hxi> npoHSHecb, ofoacHaioTca 
oCmeerBeHHue xopoBo^M h n-fecHH y nepBo6uTHBix , b HapoiOBt, o6jia- 
Aaion^Hx-b oqeab HeSoibniHii'b mraqecTBOMrb nkceffb, ntraxT* cuhkbtb 
qejioBtKOM'b Hae^HH-fe, 6e3?> ofimecTBa coyqacraHKOBT* hjeh 3pHTejieft. 

rocnojCTBO jTHpHKH npojojiaaeTca, no MH-feHiio £fco6oBCKaro, ho- 
AOJiroe BpeMa. Ho Htrt Heofixo^HMOCTH npwaBaTt Tanoe orpaim- 
qeflHoe 3Haqeme TopMHHy jmpH3Ma, Kaico* npH*aerb oht* eMy. Hoasia, 
bi» KOTopoft npeo6jiaAaeTi qyBCTBO, bt> KOTopoft pacyeTca ho ctojilko 
4>aKTT> hjth sapTHHa, ckojtlko aymeBHoe nacTpoeme, BuaBaHHoe hmh, 

OCTaeTCA, HeCdMHliHHO, JlHpH^eCKOS. 

BnaaaiOT'b bt» oniH&cy h rb yqeniie, KOTopue npejnoJiaraiOT'b, 
qTo nepBOHaqajibHan noasia Ghura airaqHOtf, T&tcb Kara* apeBErbfimeft 
<J>opMoft o6in,ecTBeHHofi jkhshh (fora po^b (coiQ37>, 3aApyra, KJiaffb 

H ^p.)> H TaKHBfb 06pa30MT> H6 6hJIO MtCTa flJia H H^HBHJl yaJUbHOCTH , 

jyia jmpmecKoft uoasia. roBoparb, bt> poj* qeaoBrfcicb cosHaeTT* 
ce6a He Kaicb caMOCToaTejibHHfl hh AHBHAy y mt> , a Kan-B qjreffb irfc- 
jiaro — poaa h Bapojxa, h ero jraqHtia ayxoBHua h MopajiBHua cno- 
co6bocth noAftBJiaiOTca h o6Hapy»HBaTbca Moryrb tojibko bt> aajrb- 
HtftraeMt nepiojt hchshh. HKofioBCKifi: aonycKaerb, qTO ao o6paso- 
Bama o6mecTBa qeJiOBtKi 6ujtb caMOCToaTejibHoft eAHHHuea. Cjrfa- 
AOBaT6JM>ao, HHAHBHAyajibHOCTB 6bura tojibko bo Bp 0 Mil nepio^a He- 
ycTpoficTBa, h TOjbKO bt> 3to BpeMa npouBtTajia JiHpaRa. Ho, Moaterb 
6tiTb,qejiOBiK , b 6nun> CTa^HUM^ ofimecTBeHHUM'b acHBOTBtJMi> — Tor#a 
icyaa othccth nepBaqHyio jiapHicy? 

Oaho 3a6biBaio Tb bt> Taicax'b pa3cy3KfleHiax , b: eara Hcqe3aoTi> 
jiHqHOCTb B'b sa^pyrfe, po^t, to Bee ace ocTaeTca HtKOTopoe jraqnoe 
co3HaHie, a nocjrfcflHee B'b 6o.irfee CHJibHHX'b ^opMax'b h ecrb po^o- 
Boe, o6mee. I^^jiuft po£i> HM-keTi> o^HHaKOBtie HHTepecu, o^Hy mo- 
pajib, Btpy h qyBCTBa, h sto Jiyqmia ycJiOBia JiHpHqecKHX'b npo- 
H3BeAeHiH, KOTopua C03Aai0Tca oT^jbHbiMH jiHqHOCTaMH, ho Bocnpo- 
HdBo^aTca ivfcjibiM'b po^ofifb h noHaTHN BcaKOMy ero qjieHy. 

H JleTypHO AonycKaeTb Taicoft hmohho po^OBOfi jinpH3M'b (lirisme 
du clan) r&a nepBHqHoU no33ia. MHoroqacjeHHiie npHMtpu, npHBe- 
AeHHue bt. ero KHHrfc, yfitamaiorb Hacb, qw bcthh& Ha ctopoh* ero 
npe^nojioaeHia. Bt> TpeuiiH, KOTopyio sacTaeM^ erne bt> tomt> (j>a- 
3Hcb o6mecTB6HHaro pa3BHTia, cymecTByioTT, xopoBO^Bua n-fecHa m- 
pHieciearo xapaKTepa, h TOjibKO no3AHte hx* pasBHBaeTca anocb. 
KaKT> Bet BCTeTaqecKia arpu h 3a6aBu aBCTpHJiifiueB-b, TaKB h ntcan 

HX1>, COe^HHeHHUa Cb XOpOM-b H MHMHKOtt, 06HHMaK)T r b UfcXUfi K&&Wh 9 

cpejiH hhxi> HM^iOTca h jiBpHqecRia. Ilanyacbi, y KOTopux'b xopu 
aBJiaioTca H3o6paaeHia BcaKHX'b BaacHbix'b o6n^ecTBeHHbix'b co6u- 
Tiit, KaKT> acaTBa, BofiHa h np., conpoBoa^aiOTii xop?> cjiOBaMH, KOTopua 
xoTa sejacyTca B'b ,niajiorHqecKofi ^opMt— Mea^y HaqajrbHHKOM'b h po- 
Rowb — ho B'b cymtHOCTH BupaacaioTb BOHHCTBOHHoe HacTpoeme po^a Hnp. 



7* 




100 



3TH0rPA®H<IECK0E 0E03FBETIE, 



Bt> nosAH-fcfimcM'B nepioA* BpeMera, KorAa omen poAOBoft no- 
pnjioKb, oor^a hbhjihcb qacraaa co6ctbghhoctb, qacrabie HHTepecu, 
Kor^a oahh CTajiH (yfeAHHMH, apyrie 6oraTUMH, Kor^a ofipasoBajracb 
pa3HBie Kjiaccw, pa3Hua y6tac^6Hia n np M «BHjracb Apyraa jrapHKa, 
roiaBHoe coAepacanie KOTopofi — jhoCobb. 

TaKrb npe^CTaBJiflerL ce6t JleTypHO AO-HCTopaqecKyK) noasiio co- 

BpeifeHHLiX'B 06pa30BaHHbIX r B HapO^OBTj, KOTOpyK) M03KHO OTqacra na- 

fijuo^aTb h y cym.ecTByioiiiiHX'b ahkhx'b njreMeHt. Ilocxfe yKasaHHioxi> 
AByxi> (J)a3HC0BT» pasBHTifl no33iH HacTynaeT'b Tperifi: o6pa3yK)TCH 
ocofiua cocaoBifl, KOTopua KyjEbTHBEpyiOTb My3UKy h nime, HCKyc- 
ctbo TaKi> haott* BnepeA'B, q*ro BcuKiM y«e He Moaerb bi> hoitb 
ynpaatHaTBca, HeofixoAHMbi occtfemoe AapoBame h noAroTOBKa. Tex- 
Hpa coBepmeHCTByeTca, ho b-b to me BpeMa orb 3Toro hckycctbo 
noraCaerB ^ cbo6oah C03Aama, acqesaerB npnpoAHoe B^oxnoBeme. 
Bt> 3totb nepio.ni> no33ia bobcg He Bbipaaeaerb roro, ?to Ha3NBaeTca 
„KOJUieKTHBHoilAyraoft tt HapoAa, noaBjrdioTca a noKpoBHTejia mmm, Ha- 
jiaraiomie qarro Ha Hee cTpamHoe crfecHeme h ofipeieaioaue Ha ynaAoicB. 
3a 3Toft <f>a3o# pasBHTia no93iH cjrfcAHTB JleTypHO cb oco6eHHOft 

JlK)60BbI0. A 0TH0GHT6JTBH0 HpOHCXOMC^eHia H0331H OHT> AepHCHTCa OCO- 

6eHHaro MH-feaia, o KOTopoMt a HaMeKHyjrB paHbme. Hmchbo, ofb ao- 
KasuBaerb, hto no33ia Hamiacb b-b ApaMaTaqecKax'B Hrpaxi> h 3a- 
6aBaxi>, h orb ApaMH, aBHBmeftca bt> Hepa3BHToft popart, oTAtaajracb 
Majio-no-Majry jiapHica. OqeHB MHoro noApo6HOCTeft HaxoAHTca y Jle- 
TypHO, AOKa3UBaion^(ix , b ApasiaTaqHOCTB arp* y nepBofibiTHHX'B n 
apeBHHX'B Hapo^HOB-B ABCTpajiie, Ilepy h MeKCHKH, KnTaa, Iyxen, 
Tpeain h t. a. 

HeofixoflHMo npH3HaTB, qTo tojibko bt> ycoBepmencTBOBaHHoft 
(J>opnrfe ^paMa— caawtf mojoaoS po^ ao33ia, a b*b ^oparfc aaqajBHOft 
OHa Morjia noaBHTbca h oqeHb paHO. 

*Ito KacaeTca Apyrax*B Asyxnb poaob-b ao33ia— japaKH h anoca— 
speMa hxt> npoHcxo»yi;eHia ropa3AO Mcirfce HHTepecyerB JleTypHO. 
BooGme »e oht> npanaciiBaerB jmpaK-fc crapimft B03pacTb, ho ayacHo 

3aMtTHTB, qTO JIHpHKy 0BT> HOHHMaeTT> BT> OqCHb IHHpOKOM'B CMHCJTfe, 

Kor^a othochtb kt> Hefl h Bcfe jiereH^H a npeAaaia. H3i> npuMtpoBt 
KHHrn bhaho, qTo JleTypno noA^ CJIOBOMTb anocB HOHHMaerB TOJIBKO 
TaKia pa3BHBmiBca animecKia npoHSBCAenia, kuk-b Mara6rapaTa hjth 
OAHecea. Bt» HfeKOTopuxT, M'fecTax'B oht* AaeTT> npnarfepw, KOTopue 
coAepacaTi anHqecniii DJieMOHT-b, a oht> hxt> HastiBaeTi, „jrapwKoft tf . 
Ob Apyroft CTopoHbi, HafijiioAaeTca nyTaHnua a bt> tomti, KorAa jrnpH- 
qecKia ntcHH, cocTaBJieanua ota^Jibhumh JiaqHOCTaMH, npoTHBonojia- 

raiOTCa KOJIJUeKTIlBHblM'B XOpOBOAHblMt HtCHaMTj. 

Ajih Hauiero Bonpoca hco6xoahmo CTporo cofijioAaTb ' pa3JiHqie 
Me»Ay JiapaqecKHMH a anHquuMH ajieMeHTaMH, Heo6xoAHMO OTiiiqaTb 
He TOJibKO r-iaBHyio pOAOByio qepTy npoa3BeAeHia, Koropoe Hsyqaearb, 
ho h 0TTi>nKH ero, TaifB KaK-B pascKas-b, Hanp., mcwkho ncpeaoKHTB 
bt> HacToaiuiii jiapaqecKiH toh-b. 




dnOCB JDtH XPEBH'Bfinilt POAt H033IH. 



101 



Botb no3TOMy HeefixoAHMHM'B mi KaaajioGB npocjnrfcAHTb He 

TOJtBKO CHCTGMy 3BOJHOH,LH JleTypHO, HO H UpHMtpH, pa3<5pOCaHHiie BT> 

ero KHHrt, qTofiu Tarairb ofipasoarb bha^tb, onpaBAMBaeTca jih 
nepBo6biTHux'b Hapo^OBt TO,qTO npe^nojioasHjn> SicoooBCKift w ao- 
HCTopHnecKaro qejiOBfcica, oco6eHHO Ha ocHOB-fe a^yktubhlixi. co- 
o6pa»eHifl o ero ncinuiqecKOii npHpoA*. 

H A^CTBHTeJIbHO, y nepBOfiblTHHX'B HapOAOBT> BCTp-feqaeMT* H03TH- 

qeciria npoHSBeAema, bo bcjikom'b cjyqa-fe OTj^qaionuaca fiojrfee jih- 
pniecKHM'b xapaKTepoMt. 

BOTT> H-bCKOJELKO flpHMtpOBT>: 

y K)3CH0-a<j)pHKaHCKHX r b HOrpOB'B, CTOamHXT> Ha CjramKOBfB HH3KOft 

CTeneHH KyjibTypw, noioTca saroBopu h norpefiajibHHH- nicHH. KpoMt 

3T0ft fl 6*bAH0ft JHpHKH tt , MO»eT*B 6blTb, y HHXt eCTb H ApyHH H03TH- 

qecKia TBopema, ho 8to HeH3B*fccTH0. Iloasia roTTeHTOTOB'b coctohtt* 

Bt HMnpOBH3HpOBaHHbIX'b MOJIHTB&X'b H B*B jmpH^CCK^Xt (H CaTHpH- 
ieCKHXT>) nfeCHaX'b, COeAHHeHHWXl> CT> XOpOBOAOMT* H My3HKOfi H 
OpeACTaBJlHIOnUIX'b CMOpTb 3HaM6HHTarO BOCBOAH, OXOTHHKa Ha OXOTfe 

h np. y nanyacoBii, KOTopua AOCTaToqHO hhto je jih reHTHH , paAOMt 

Cb GKa3aHiHMH HaXOAHiTb H BOeHHhlfl n*CHH. A y 3CKHM0C0BX, HBJIH- 

lomnxca MHpHHMnb HapoAOBn>, phaomt* ci> pa3CKa3aMH h jnereH^aHH 
Haxoj^arb h^chh nocBameHHwa npocjiaBJiemio npnpoAH h ea Kpacort, 

KT> KOTOpUBTb 9T0TB HapOAT> OKa3hIBaeTCH OqeHb qy BCTBHTe JH>HblM1» . 

KpacHOKoacie aMepHKaHma mrbioTB h jeroHxu (nposoft), ho dojibmaa 
qacTb noa3iu y hhxt> coctohtb h3t> JiHpnqecKHX'b uicQWh — B06HHbixT> , 
jhoGobhhxt, h norpe6ajibHbix'b. BoeHHbia ntcra hx-b, no cjiOBaMi> Jle- 
TypHO, noAo6HH peBy ahkhx^ 3B*fcpeft. JIiofionuTHO, qTO BiencAy 

3TBMH JIHpHqeCKHMH irfcCHHMH HaXOWTCa COCTOautfa H3T> 6e3CBa3HbIXT> 

cjiobt>, ocTaBmiaca, KaKT> BOcnoMHHa Hia utjiaro coAepacaHia, a Apyria 

COBCtM'b HeHCHM, T. K. COCTOaT'B TOJIbKO HS'B MeacAOMeTift. KHTafi, 

KOToputt noATBepacAaerb Teopiio JleTypHO o CTap-fcftnraHCTBt Apaiia- 
THqecKHX'B npe^CTaBJieHiff, He AaeTi> bt> HacToamee Bpeaia u-fcHHbix'B 
npHMtpoB'b paHHeft jhphkh: nepBBie o6pa3mj ea AaTHpoBaHH 1766 r. 
AO P. Xp. H accHpificicaa cnoBecHOCTb, k&kt> to bhaho no HaAHH- 
caMT>, npoqHTaHHUH'B cn> 6ojK»mHMT> HCKyccTBosrb, coAepacajia He TOJibKO 
KOCMoroHHqecKie mhou, ho h thmbu. Tam. KaKT> TpyAHO sa^cb pt- 
mHTb, qTO upHHaAJieacHT'b kt> AP^BH^fimeMy BpeMOHH, to xopomo 
A^Jiaerb JleTypHO, qTO He ptmaerb o6mift Bonpocb na TaKHx*B H6Aa- 

THpOBaHHbIXT> 4>aKTaXT>. IIOTOMy H Ha BblTiH 0H6jiefiCKOM'b OHT> He 

ocTaHaBJiHBaeTca AOJiro, rbwb dojite qTO HaxoAHTb CHjibHoe BJiiflHie 
Ha Hero OAHoro accapidcicaro pa3CKasa. CoAepacame eBpeftcKoft no- 
33in oco6eHHO jrnpHqHO, h rjiaBHtia qepra 9Tofi noa3ia pa3CMaTpHBa- 
eTi> JleTypHO hoa'b 3arjaBieMT> ^JinpHqecKaa eBpeftcKaa no8sia u . H 
bt> CTapoft repMancKofi no33in HaxoABMX npoaB^eme „oqeHb ApeBHeft 
jihphkh", Hanp. bi> ntcHH o JIoA6poKt. KorAa B3rjiaHeMi> Ha KjnaccH- 
qecKie HapoAw, to npHHyacAeHH 6yAeMT> ocTaBHTb pHMJiaHi 3a hoao- 

CTaTKOM'b AaHHb1Xl> H OCTaHOBHTbCH Ha TpeqeCKOft H033iH. H MTO BH- 



Digitized by 




102 



3TH0rPA«Hq£CR0E OE03PBH1E. 



JtfiWb 3^*CB? OtT> ApBBHHX'B Bp6M6HT> Sfl'fcCb COXpaHHJIHCb BT» OBA3H 
C*b XOpOBO^aMH H ntCHH, KOTOpUH H6 BCerfla 6&LIH 3HHqHBIMH. B*b 

ApeBHOCTH 6kuh cjraBOCJiOBiH, nocBamenHHa rocTJiMt h ^pyrHMt jth- 
u,aMi> bt> pa3Hbixi> cjiyqanxi*, oco6eaHO bo BpeMa CBaAi»6u h norpo- 

66Hifl. JlK)6onLITHO, HTO CaMt rOBfepT> ynOMHH&BTT* 0 FHH6H6HX I B 9 

T.-e. o fipaHEHxt irbcHaxT*, KOTopbia nepBOHaqaJibHO OTjinqajmcb jh- 
pHqecBHMi> xapaKTepoMi>, a nos^H^e mowih nepeftTH bt> cKa3amaJ 

H TaKT>, MHOrO^HCJIGHHUa yCJIOBiH, KOTOpbia BfcJ3hIBaK)TT> a-fcftCTBH- 

TejbHo jrapaqecKyK) noa3iio y nepBo6biTHaro qejiOBiita: o6mecTBeHHwa 
HrpLi h satiaBM, Boeraoe nacTpoeHie, jriofioBb, Bocxnmeme KpacOTami 
npnpoAU, oiuiaKHBaHie yniepniaro bot&ab. hjh po^cTBeHHHKa, MOJHTBa 

K1> HHlfb HJIH *603KGCTBy . 

Bmncaa wh ycsoBifl, oS^acHaioinia Hairb npeo6jra»Hie aupitam bt> 
noaaia nepBo6brrHux , b HapoAOBi, mu aojkkhh npH3H&Ti>, hto jrapmca 
aBJiaeTca rjaBBHirb eoflepacameM'b nopBHraoft noa3in. ToBopio ^roraB- 
Hoe coAepacaHie", noTOMy qTO h aimqecKia TBopenia co3jnaBajracs 
Torw, Kor^a o6pa30BHBaJiHCb po^i> hjih ceMeitcTBO, ito bh^hmt> h3T> 
Ha6jiio^eHift. Iloawbe, BcaijcTBie AOJiraro npoawiTaro BpeMemi h npn 

H3BtCTHUX'b OeCTOOTejrtCTBaXt, MOrb B03HHKHyTb H padBHTBCfl TOCTUft 
anOCT», BT> TO BpOMH KaK*B MHCTblfi JIHpH3MT> CB0ftCTB6HT> CaMOtt I\iy- 
60KOft ^peBHOCTH. 

BnpoioarB, B'fcqTO mw>6Hoe flonycKaiorb h HtKOTopue HiMeiprie 
yqeHBie, croamie Boofime 3a nepBopoACTBO anoca. Tan* h M. Kappsep-b 
^onycKaerb, q-ro rJiaBHHa KaqecTBa, kotopbimh OTjinqaeTca aiioci*, 

HMeHHO O(5'L0KTHBHOCTb , HOflpo6BOCTb U e^HHCTBO — QE\B Hepa3BHTbI Wb 

Haqajrfe: oixbjibHUH ntcHH, BnepBue aapoaaaiomiaca bt> annqecicoft 
uoaain, fiepyrb noBoaoarb itficTBHTeJibHoe cofibme h BOcntBa wrb ero 
*jia npocJiaBjrema Raicoro-jiH6o repoa hjih nojBHra; B'b hbxt> 3ByqHTb 
jrapnqecBift toht>, repoft HHor^a aBJiaeTca h caMHM'b irfcBn.oM'b. JUa 
no3AHtKoiaro noKOjrfenia, jwa KOToparo He Bee aBjraeTca aCHHirb, 
CTaHOBATca Heo6xo,nnMHMH noApofiHOCTH n HacToamift annqecKift CJiorb. 
no3AH-fee aBJiaeToa h o<fc>e£HHeHie H'bcKOjrbKHxx ntceffb, OTHOcamnxca 
ki> o#HOMy repoK) hjih cofibiTiio. H tojibko Torw Mosserb ocjtaG'bTb 
B'b 3HaqHTejn,Hofi ctoiiohh jiHpnqecKifi ajreMenrb, KOTopuft coBep- 
meHHO HiiKor^a ho HcqeaaeTb. HocMOTpHwcb Tenepb, Ha qTO omi- 
paiOTCH yqeHue, KOTopue no^epaHBaioTb CTapMraHHCTBO annra h 
KOTopwe npHHa^JieacaT'b rjraBHbiMT> o6pa30MT» kt> HtMemcott <J)hjiojio- 
rnqecKOft raicojrfe, ocHOBaHHoft rpHMMOMT>. Ilpeac^e Bcero ohh nojrbsy- 
K)Tca HCTopHqecKiiMH ^0Ka3aTejibCTBaMH. no liocjrfcAHHArb caMbia xpes- 
aia npoH3BeA6Hia H-feMeuBoft jiHTepaTypu, HacKOJibKO snaerb Hcropia, 
noaTHqecKia, a caMMa nepBHa h3t> hhxt> — anHqecicia, ecjin HaqHevb 
co BpeMeHH TauHTa. EBpeftcKaa jiHTepaTypa HaquHaeTca anocoirb, 
Toqno Taicace HHaificKaa h rpeqecKaa. xpyroft CTopoHti h BHyTpeH- 
ma coofipawema npHBoaarb aTHxi> yqeawxii kt> TOMy we saKjnoqemio. 
H3i> Bcbxi* xyraeBHbix'b chjii*, no hxi» MH^Hiio, npn cosflaHin noara- 
qecKaro o6pa3a ocofieHHO atitCTBOBajro BOofipaaceHie: qyBCTBO h pasyM-b 




3H0CT> JIM APEBHSfilDlft FO^b D033IH. 



103 



crojuni Ba BTopoMi» njiaflt. A noHOTHo Boo^paseeie hphboahjio Kb 
araiqecKOMy TBOpqecTBy. h jierqe 6mjio ajih qejiOB-fcua, npeinojia- 
raiOTB ynasaHHue yqeHwe, qohatb HSBkcraoe cotfbrrie h npeACTaBHTB 
ero bt> c^0BecH0MT> npoH3BeAeHin, q-feMt bhhkhybt> b^ caaioro cefta 
H8o6paacaTb cboh qyBCTBa. jtajrfce, 6yATO-6a bt» nepioAi> poAOBoro 
CTpoa qejOBtieb 6ujn> cnoco6eHT> tbophtb TOJibKO anHqecfria npoa3- 
BeAema, noTOMy qTO Bee HHAHBHAyajrbHoe norntfajro, Kaicb HeHHTe- 
pecHoe &Jin Bctxi> qjicHOBt poAa. Coo6pa3HO dTOuy ynoMHHyTaa 
mKOJia AOHycBaerb, qTO nepBOHaqaabHoe coAepacaflie anoca coctohjto 
bi> H3o6pa»efliH npapoAHbixt aBJieHift, Ba KOTopwa cMOTp-fejm Kaicb 
na a*«h& h cocToama cymecTB-b cqHTaBninxca 6oacecTBaMB 1 ). 

Ho K&Kh BWA^JH Mbl ywe, HH OAHO B31> 3THX1> AOKaSaTeJIbCTB-b 

He BHAepacHBaeT-b kphthkh. Coo6pa3HO npnpoAHbiMT> CBOHCTBaMT> AymH 
nepBo6&iTHaro qejOBtica hoo6xoahmo npeAnoJioatHTb, q r ro ohb 6hxb 
6ejnte cnoco6eHT> hjia JwpmecKux'b npoaBJieHift cbohxt> qyBCTBTb h 
BneqaTjrfeHift, KOTopwa 3aHHMajH ero AOJibme scero. Bo-BTopuxt, 
KorAa qeJiOB'fcK'b npHHaAJneacHrb icb poiy, ceMeficTBy, to coxpaHaeTca 
Bee ace hhahbbay ajitHOCTb , h kt> TOMy ace u*fejiuft poAT> MoaceT'b hm1>tb 
oaho o6mee qyBCTBO, Taicb qTO u 3Al>cb aBjaeTca nojiHbift npocTop'b 
AJa JiepHKH. PejiHrio3Hoe qyBCTBO, 3totb BaacBiift (f)aKTi> btj o6meMi> 
xoa* pa3BHTia qejiOBtna, enoco6cTBOBajio TOMy, qTo6u nepBOfiwTHbilt 

qeJiOB'fcK'b TBOpHJPb He TOJIbKO MHObI, HO II MOJIHTBU 3 ). HaKOHeEfb, 

HCTopuqecicie opBM-bpw, Ba KOTopux'B ocHOBMBaeTca yqeaie o nepBO- 
pOACTB-fe anoca, MajioqacieHAbi h He npoqHu, h eo«H BtpHO qTO 
Ape^fffefimia npoH3BeAeHia rpeKOBT>, repMamjeB'b h np. 3HHqHH, to 
OTKyAa mh SHaeH-b, qTO 3anucaHbi AtflCTBBTejrbHo TOJibKO ApeBHtftniia. 
HsB-fecTHO cna6oe BHHMaHie aP6bhhxt> aapoAOB^ ko Bceity, hto He 
HOCHT'b cepbe3Haro xapaiwepa. IIoTOiiy nsi* cTapHXT> jiHpaqecKHX'B 
irfeceB'b TOJibKO pejrario3 huh ofipaTHJin Ha ce6a BHHMaHie h 6hjih 
yAOCToeHM sanncH BMbcrfe ct» jiereHAaMH. A Ha Apyria kto o6pamajn> 
BHHMaHie? ToTqacb ct> noaBjieBieM* HRCBMeHHOCTH hbhjocb aceJiaHie 
3anHCbiBftTb cofiuTia. H bo^b wb jrfeTOHHcaxTb sanncuBaiOTca h ho9th- 
qecKia npeAaHia, KOToptaa utnaTca aapaBirfe cb npo3aHqecKHMH pa3- 
CKa3aMH oqeBHAi^eBi*. HapoAHua jho^obhuh ntcHH He 6hjh sanncaHU 
y KjiaccHqecKHX'B HapoAOBi>, ho h^tt, coMH^Hia, qTO OH-fe cymecTBO- 



1) Wackernsgel. Poetik, Rhetorik und Stilistik, II Aufl C1888) 52—60. M. Car- 
riere Aestetik II, 541, 533. IIo btoS TeopiH repoH lecxiff aoocb abhjch nosae 
MHeoBT.-, CKaaania o repoaxi, - 6ynjo-6hi peJHrio3BBie (hocb. npupo^. HBJ6H.) 
mh9m, nepeueceHHwe ci> 6osecTBa Ha repon. Ho, kobciho, vaio BtpoflTHO, hto- 
6h h6JIob'bki> cBa^aja cosAaBajt noBTHqeeKia TBopeHia o 6oraxi», a noTOVb o 
ce6* h noAo6HMxi» ceG* xiOAaxTb. 

2 ) H B*BKOTopue AonycsaiorB, hto xp^BB'Bfiinaa n-BCHb ecTB vojBTBa. I. 
Grimm. Kleinere Schriften II, 460. Ecjh npRMem*, hto pejmria B03Hawa orb 
npocjtaBJteaia yaiepmHxi» npe^tfOBT>, to oCpamaa BHHMaHie Ha norpefiaiBBua 
b-bchh h cjiaBOCJiOBia, HafiAeifb h bt> hhxt. 6ox*Be jthphkh, h-bm-l anoca. CneH- 
cept. Ochobm conjojor. I, 289. 



Digitized by 




104 



3TH0rPA4>H<IECKOK OB03P-BHIE. 



b&ih. Ob Apyroft CTopoHw npe^i> HamHMH rjra3aMH p&3bhb&6tch noa3iji 

y C0Bp6H6HHBIX r b flHKHX'b HapOAOB'b. KaKT> MBI BH^JIH, HadjHOfleHifl BT> 

aTofi ofijiacTH noKa3UBaK)T^, qTO anoct 3aHHMaen» Men-fee MtcTa 
nepBHqHoit no33in, q-fcarB jinpiiKa. 

Ho Hyj&HO jih 3^bcb 6paTB 3a aHaJioriio flHicie Hapo^M. E. BojiB(|nE>, 
CJiOBa KOTOToparo o Hay^HOMt MeTO^t nodsia a npKBejrB, npHaawe- 

HCHTT* Kb 3amHTHHKaMt. Il0JIb3yaCb TOJTBRO npHBffepaMH H31> HOdSiH 

apiitcKHxi, h ceMHTiraecKHxt Hapo^OB'b, oht* 3aAaen> ce6t Bonpocb, 
He nponycTHjrb-JTH oht> nfrnoft anoxa vb pasBHTin BceMipHofi no33in? 
H Ha 3T0T6 Bonpocb oTBtqaeTB, hto pasHHija Meauy noasiefi, koto- 
pyio 3acTaear& (bt> HCTopnq. naMJiTHHKaxt), KaKt canyio apobhiok), h 
tok), KOTopaa Ha caMOMt a^ji* 6ujia caMoft apeBHeft, AOJiHHa 6bltb 
HeBejHKa, t. k. HacToamaa no33ia Tpe6yeTB HSBtcraoft CTeneHH 
KyjibTypu h a3UKa. IIoTOMy, oht> ayiiaerb, noa3ia HasBaHHbixt nep- 
boCmthux'b Hapo.noB'b ho MoacerB oiyacHTB aHaoioriefi h Hopnoft, 
t. k. rfe Hapo^u (Smjih HeHCTopHqecKie, h Bee y hhxt> 6hjio Kaicb 6u 

HaBUBOpOTB . 

Tauoft B3rjrwb coBepmeHHo omHfioqeH-b. Ecjih hst* »h3hh ah- 
khxt> Hapo^oBT» fiepyTca (J)aKTH Rjisi HCTopaqecKaro H3yqema peJiwriH, 
o6uqaH, comajibHaro cTpoa h np., to wbrb npHqHHbi nocTynaTb HHaqe 
bt> ncTopia nod3in. H caMBie KyjibTypHtie X50BpeMeHHue HapoflM mopjih 
HtKor^a HaxoAHTBca na tomt> hhskom* ypoBHt KyjibTypu, Ha koto- 

pOMT> BHAHMTj COBpeMeHBtlXTj AHKHX'B HapOAOBt, y KOTOpHXT* Ha6jU0- 

weMTb npoueccb pasBHTia no33ie. Tenepb MoateM'b cnpocHTb: r^t ocTa- 
jiocb Bfiime npHBe^eHHoe noxBajibHoe acejianie Bojrb<j)a, no KOTopoMy hcto- 
pHqecKaa no33ia ^ojiHcaa oirapaTbca Ha nojiHOTy h nopaaoK-b, Ha 
npHM-bpu cofipaHHue orb irfcjaro Mipa? 



PasBHTie no33in h H3biKa Haxo^HTca bt> cbh3h ct> yMCTBeHHHM'b h 
jLjme^EHWb pa3BHTieMT> qejiOBluea. Ecjh asimb cosaaeTca h pasBH- 

BaOTCH BT> O^IUGCTBt, TO H WH n033m HeofixOflHMO ^OnyCTHTb T03K6. 

Ecjih Ha nepBwx'b CTyneHux-b o6m,ecTBeHHaro pa3BHTin jibjihiotch 3a- 
qaTKH ^paMbi u ^hphkh, a qncTbift anocb pa3BHBaeTCH oqeHb ho3#ho, 
to SHaqnT'b, qTO bt> nepBoe BpeMH no33in orpaHHqena B'b cpeflCTBax'b 
cbohx^: 0Ha Jierqe H3o6paacaeTi> BHyTpOHHiff Mip'b, KoneqHO fiesi 
caM0C03HaHia, a BH-feinHifi Mip'b em,e H3o6paacaeT , b bt> OTHomeHiB kt> 
BHyTpenHeMy. OTciojia cyfi-beKTHBHOCTb nepBHqBOft noasin, cJiHBaio- 
iuancH cb en 6e3JiHqHocTbio hjh o(5n^eHapo,HHOCTbK). Ofi^eiCTHBHOCTb 
pa3BHBaeTC«, KaKi> h m> fl3bnci, Majio-no-Majiy. 06i>eKTHBHOCTb H3bnca 
ecTb BafiBeHie o6pa3HOCTH. A TaKi> KaKi> no33in ecTb Bttirajneme o6pa- 
3aMH, to paacaaeTCH Bonpocb: He cyac^eHO-jiH Bnocarfe^CTia no33in 
Hcqe3nyTb bte> o^ hht> .neHb HaBcer.ua? Ho 3tot^ Bonpocb MoaceTi* pas- 
cMaTpHBaTbCH oco6o. 



IlepeB. H. fpyHCKiH . 




M3T> 3An.-EBP0nEMCK0» 3TH0rPA<M4ECK0fi AMTEPATyPU. 



II. 

HoBbie MaTepiaAU A*f\ ircyieHifl mctopim pa3BMTifl ceMbH. 

(Heinrich Cunow: Die Verwandtsehafts -Organisation der Australneger. 
Stuttgart. 1894. 8°. Op. 190+YIII). 

GiCTena pojcTBa, rocnoacTByiomaa y aBCTpaaiiaeBi, ciyatwa aeoftao- 
BpaTHO npe/pieTOMi H3CjfexoBaaia h eme *am;e TOJKOBaHia bi ncibsy Toro 
ui HHoro Banana Ha acTopia) pa3Biria ceitta. CB^taia, KOToptia avfeucb 
061 9Toi cacTeMt aacToamaro Bpexeaa, 6uia, ojaaao, aejocTaTOiao toihh, 
a, aaxi TaaoBtia, no3BOiaja oxaan onipaTbCH aa hbxi> jja jomaTeibCTBa, 
mo HaaSoifce jpeBaefi cTyneabio pa3BHTia cexba cifcayeTi ciaTaTb 6eano- 
paxoiaoe cosaTeibCTBo, jpyrairB — aa ocHOBaaii aejocTaTOHao npoBfepeaHtirb 
CBtjfcHitf, tto y HtKOTopHii aBCTpaiiicxaxi aapoAOBt yse cymecTByeT* 
wen> poflcm no omy — *0Ka3HBaTb, ito araaTBiecKaa cena 6uia 3M6pio- 
bomi> pa3BBTia bi HCTopii cexba Boo6me. PaSorfc r. KyaoBa cyatjeao 

BH6CTH CBtTt Bi flfciO H8y*6Bia BTOl CBCTeW 9 H TflKX OBa Brier* 

BasHoe saaneaie jjh pfcmeHia Bonpoca o xoj* pa3BETia cenn>a B<x>6me, to 
Tpyjp> r. KyHOBa npioSpfcTaerb cynjecTBeaaHif Haiepect jjh H3y*eBia aaao- 
hobi pasBHTia ceneiHuxi oTaomeaii Ha Hidmaxi ayjbTypaurb cTyneaarb. 

npeas^e Bcero r. ByaoBi CTapaerca pasctaTb xoflMee xataie, mt«> bi 
muu$ Ty3enaaro HacejcHia ABCTpajria mu HMteit jfcio ci oiaopojaoi no 
cBoeny HyjbTypHOMy ypoBHio aaecofi, ocTaaoBBBinefica bt> CBoevb pasBaria. 
Htrb HHiero oma6oTOfce 9Toro B3naja, naraeTt oai; cpeja aBCTpajiiijeBi. 
Taxae rocnojCTByawi »i3Bb h jBaseaie, pocrb a ynajorb, i aaai-Sbi aa 
Ra3aiacb aan hxitokbuhb pasiatia b* cacTeMaxi pojCTBa y aaaSoite aasao 
OToanjaxi nieaeHt ABGTpaiia, cpaBBHTeibHO ci Haa6oifee pasBHTUMa nie- 
Bceaaia ea, nocifejaia nponuia xjbhbuI nyTb, npa qeirb npoxoiKjeaie ero, 
npa Toft MexieaaocTi, ci aoTopoft noxaaraeTca Buepeji ayjbTypa aa aa3- 
eixi CTyneaaxi pasBam, noipttfOBaio, b*pohtbo, afcCKoibKax* Tjacaiertrii. 
H3B-feCTBoe rfbieaie aBCTpaiifii^eai Ha waccu, cBa3aaaue cl am sanpe- 
THT6ABH6 saioHu o 6parii a Bopau, onpextiann^ia npoacxoa^eaie, He 
aajaiOTca, KaRiTO xy^aji'b Mopraai ■ ^p^HaaSoite npanHTHBaoft aa* 13- 
b*cthmxi ao Hacroanjaro Bpeaeaa o6mecTBeaaHii ♦opax; ohe ae npe«- 
CTaBiaDTb a cnepBHxx po6aaxi nonuToai ki» pasBaTiio» , aanpoTHB 1 * Toro 
hmi», no Mnftaiio r. ByaoBa, npexinecTByeTi eme 6ojte jpeBaaa cTa^ia. 



Digitized by 



106 



3T(IOrPA«HqECKOE OBOSPSHIE. 



9ra CTajiii, ocBfcmeHHaa BnepBue r. RyHOBMMi y aBCTpajiflijeBi ■ KOTopaa 
■oxen 6htl oTBpura Ha ocHOBaHii cicTenu pojcTBa ■ y xpyrxxi napox- 
xocTel, HM'heT'b Hai6oite Baxnoe 3Ha*eHie ijh icTopiH pasBMtifl cexbx: 
Ha Heft mm npeuymecTBeHHO h ocTaHOBHMca. 

1 Ito6h bhojh* oijfeHXTb SHaieiuG rpyxa r. ByHOBa, bchombhii., tto no 
Teopii MopraHa sa nepioxoMi OTcyTCTBia periaxeHTauix bi OTHomeHiarb 
xexxy lauaxx p'a3Haro noia HacTynferb nepiox* orpaHXTOHia, h nepBui 
man> bt» btomi HanpaBieHix BupaxaeTca vb *opxfc, KOTopyio Moprafft Ha- 
3UBaen> ccexbei, ocHOBaHioft Ha apoBHOXi poxcTBi* : orpaHxqeHie vb btox 
eexbfc ssRimaerca bi sanpenpaii BGTynaTb bt» 6paRT> xexxy Bocxoxanjxxx 
i xxcxoxanixxx; rpynnu cynpyroB'b pa3AfcjeHH Ha noROjfcHia, npi Hen uem* 
Raxxofi rpynnu cwaxacb xexty cofioM OpaTbaxx i cecTpaxx; bi npetfuara 
aaxxoft rpynnu Opart 6hii pa3p*ineHT>; oxHy rpynny cynpyroBi coctbb- 
juux uKru h 6a6KH, xpyryio — hxi x*tx o6oero noja a, HaROHem, Tpe™o— 
Hii BHyxi. Bii 9T0xy BUBOxy Mopram npxme<rb Ha ocHOBaHia xayqeHia 
cHCTema poxeTBa bi noiHHe3iH, bi> ^acTHOCTH Ha rasax, BCiftxcTBie qero ■ 
Bca cxcTexa BTa HasBaHa raBattcKoi; xoth oba bi HacToanjee BpeMa x ho 
eooTB^TGTByen xxsax, ho 0Ha xorja cioxxTbca tojlro npx Tfcxb yeio- 
Biaxi, o soTopuxi csa3aH0 Bume, Rorxa EpoBHua pu, BocapenjtiomM 
BCTynaTb bi 6paRi, nonxxaixcb tojbko bi cmhcj* BocxoxHmxx* a hhcxo- 
xanjaxi po^cTBeHBHKOB'L — ho 6oibme. 

9Ta-xe cxcTexa poxcfBa cynjecTByerb i n ABCTpaiix, i y hmidhxi 
niexefli>, no RpafHetf xtpfc, OHa cooTB*TCTByenb bi 8HaqxTeJbHo£ cTenexx 
caxoi xkbhx, xoth sHaieHie ea, Rant bto xoxerb cwaTbca b* HacToanjee 
Bpeica xoaasaHHUH'B r. KynoBuxi, h 6ujo HeBfcpHO hohbto MopraHon x 
ero nocjfcxoBaTejaxx. 

Kaxxoe xra aBCTpaiiitcRxx'b niexeHi, t. e. rpynna hhxhbhxob'b, npex- 
CTaBJflwn^Bi'b ^iaaeKTHiecix o6ooo6ieHHyio xaccy, nxmerb r. ByHOBi, xfc- 
jxtch na HSBfeGTHoe ncjio caxocTOHTeibHux* rpynnx; xaxxax xsi nocjfcx- 
nxxt o6i»exxHeHa Biajfeaiexi hsb^cthoh TeppxTopiH, n npexftiaxi BOTopoi 
rpynna Hoiyerb, xoftuBaa ce6t CEyftHoe nponxTaHie; o6i>exHHeHie rpynni 
npoxcxoxxTb ixuib |Ja npasxaecTgi x pfeuieaia cnopoBi. Atieaia Ha pox- 
CTBeHHue co»3M He cymecTByeTb, ho xaxxax rpynna pasx^ieHa Ha Tpx 
uacea, xexxy BOTopuxx SpanHbia ysu BoenpemeHM; bi Hacroamee spexa 
cymecTBywrL orpaHx^HTeJibHue saKOBu o 6paK* x BHyTpx xa»xaro Kiacca, 
ho BTx 8aK0HM, no cnpaBexJXBOxy saM^vaHin r. ByHOBa, 8BJHB)tch npo- 
xyiTOXi xa-ttBtfimaro pasBXTia, a XJia yacHeHia 601*6 xpeBHei CTaxix ohk 
ho xoryrb hx^tl 3HaqeHia; nepBuft ejbcci saxxofi rpynnu codoaxb n 
6oite OTxajeHHoe Bpexa, BtpoaTHo, Tan xe, Easi x bi» aacToamee Bpexa, 
xBik xaibiHEOBi> xo 17 — 18 x x^B0?eEi» xo 13 — 14 Jtrb; cjfexyromit 
Eiaecb cocToaj'b H3i> Bspociuxi, EOTopue eme He xxtix x^Tei, xocTxraHXi 
6paMHaro B03pacTa , x TpeTil Kiacci» — hsi poxatejeit rfcxt, ROTopue npaHax- 
jexPiH eo 2-xy Riaccy, T.-e. 1-1 Eiaecb cocToaii. H3i BHyROBt, 2-ftx3i» 
otuobt» h 3-ft H3ii x^XObi; 9ieHu aaxxaro EJacea ciHTaioTca xexxy co6ot 
OpaTbaxx x cecTpaMH. noHariaxi dfbdb, omew, mm — lexarb. y aB- 
CTpaiiii^eBi>, oxaaRO, npexcTaBiema He o rpobhom* poxcTBt, rbri xyvaix 




H3T> 3AII.-EBP0nEttCK0ft 3TH0rPA$H1ECK0ft JIHTEPATyPH. 107 



pam>rae, a JHuib o pauHiiHXB no Boapacxy; bto xoKasHBaoTca tIim*, yto 
dTHVOJorifl yKa3aHHUii TepMBHoat yKa3HBaerb Ha npoECXOKxeaie ax* ott, 
cjobt>, 03Baqa»mHii BOspacTi laua; Hinp., y BaHRya: Kumbaja— Soibmoi, 
kcmbija — OTein>; y Bain6o: mimbaia— 6ojbmoi, ktmbia — OTeui, y be- 
Teiei ctB. EBBHCiaHxa ciobo yunger, yanga, yunga h np. oaaawerb 
h vaTb, h sapocjyio semi^HHy. TaKiMt o6pa30E , b, npanaaaa, tto nepaoaa- 
qajbHoe x^ieaie rpynnu ocHOBMBaeTca Ha Bospacrt Bioxam;iXT> bi efl co- 

CTftBl ttOb, KM HOJyiBM'L 6CT6CTB6HH08 AftieHlO: Ha lEU;*, 611*6 H6 JO- 

CTHrniHXTi 6paraaro BospacTa, ieux, xeeTHrmEXi ero, a, HasoHeqi, CTapBKOBi. 
9to uieHHO BOspacrL, a He apoBaoe poxctbo, onpextjaerb nojoaenie iau;a 
wh rpynnfc, xoaasuBaeTca i rfeMi, hto Rasx&ii uacci» aaxoxaroa bt» nocro- 
hhhomi H3jrfeHeHiH; aanp.,XBa ima, aoTopua, no Hanum* npexcTaBjeaiaai 
o poACTBt, ciHTaiDTca flBOiopojBHMi 6paTbHHB f 6yxyrb, ecji oxHOMy 30 
xfcrb, a xpyroiiy 15— npBaaxieasaTb r* pasiaiBHM'b uaccan, npa tout. 
CTapmift 6yxerb cqaiaTbca otuomi Mjaxmaro; ho aorxa nocjt^Hift, xocTar- 
HyBi 6paiaaro B03pacTa nepeftjerb B* RJiaccb cotiiobd, to obt> Syxera 
CTOTaTtca cMjajmairb 6paT0ii> CTapmaro; touo Taaxe npa hsb^cthuit. 
yciOBiaxi nieMaaaairb ott> cTapmei ceoTpu nia Miaxmaa wenaHama (xoffc 
xaxa no OTuy) loryn OBasama 6pa?baMa ■ cecTpaiia t6trh. TaKoro poxa 
nepexox* isi uacca vb Kjacci BayTpi rpynnu airteTt, no ciOBan r. 
ByaoBa, itcro toilko y rfexi njeieHi, KOTopaa He pasBHJi em;e I'Lieaia 
aa 6paiHue Maccu, san» KaaaiapoE, rxfc npEaaxieaaocTb kt> aiaecy onpe- 
xfeiaeTca npoacxoaxeaieii 1 ). 

Taxi MKb Spaas m npoxftiax* aaaxaro Etfb ajaccora no Boapaciy pa3- 
ptmaiOTca, to ecu xaxa i meiiaHHiua, tbtib ■ njcMHHHHKt oaaayrca 
bt» oxhomi aiaccfc, to 6paaa aeaxy heme noryrb cooToaTbca; TO-ae cit- 
xyerb oaaaaTb e OTaocBTO-ibao poxauxi 6paTa h cecTpa. Exhhctbchhmel 
orpaHH^eHieiTb HBiaeTca aanperb poxaTeian cocTOETb bi oxaon KJacct 

Cb XtTbU, a Cl^XOBBTBIbHO H BCTynaTb Cb HEME BT> 6p8Kl. HO E OT- 



flfcjieHie KaMMapoH HRiaeTCH yase npoxyKTOMi nosxHfcflmaro pasBHTia; ohh 
A'BJiaTCfl Ha kb* KpynHiaa rpynnu: Dilbi h Rupathin (Has. r. KyHOBum* BCrtxi* 
sa MopraHOMt opaTpiann), ocnoBaHHua Ha kpobhom* po^CTB-B h Bexymja CBoe 
npoHcxoaf^eHie on, senmBHi* po^oHanajibHHi^T>', Dilbi rImbtch Ba Tpn po«a: Duli, 
Murriira ■ Mute; Kupathin— TaKate aa Tpa: Dinoun, Bilba b NuraL PaiOMi. ct 
BToft opraHBsanieft cynjecTByeTb en;e pasx^OBie Ba4ajacca, a HMenao: bt> «pa- 
Tpin Dilbi: I Mum (wencK. mata") a II Kubbi (aeaca. kubbota); Bt ©paTpin 
Kupathin: III Ippai (aeacK. ippata) h IT Kumbo (atencK. buta). MjieHi> Macca 
Ippai von> seaaTBca toilko Ha atean^HBt B8i» uacca kubbota, kambo— tozlko 
Ha mata, murri - tojibko Ha buta, kubbi— to jlko hb ippata. JJ'Bth ot* bthxt, 
6paaoBT> upBHHCiaK)Tca kt. poxy MaTepn, bo Bxoxan* B i» cocTaBi. xpyroro, h*bmt, 
Hxt mbtb, BJiaeca Toft-ase tpaTpia, T.-e. x*tb Kenn^HHH b8t> po^a Duli ($pa- 
TpiHDilbij Bjacca mata, 6yflyTi» TaBace Duli bo Boftffyrb b*b ajiaccb kubbi (kub- 
bota). Hao6oporc>, ffftTH aceHmHHH poxa Duli, ho Kiacca kubbota, BO#xyT*b bt» 
cocraBT> Exacca muni (mata). OTCB)xa npoacxoAHTb, nro a*tb aeBmnnw as* 
KJiacca kubbota Bcer^a 6yxyTi. cnaTaTbca bt> Kjacch murri (mata); x*th buta — 
bt> KJiaccb ippai (ippata); /tbtb mata— bi» K^acc* kubbi (kubbota) h x* th ip- 
pata— bt, Kjacc* kumbo (buta). 



Digitized by 




108 



3THOrPA*HqECKOE OB03POTIE. 



hochtcibho BToro sanpemeHia ecTB ocHOBaHie npexnoiaraTb, vro oho He 
aaifleTca HepBOHataibHbuu, Tan m%, HecMOTpH la Hero, 6pan Mesxy po- 

XlTeiflHH 1 XfcTbfl npOXOMaHflTb BCTpfciaTbCH. 

KapTHHa, KOTopyw pacKpuBaerb nepexi hemh r. KynoBi, pHcyerb CTaji» 
6esnopaxoiHaro cosHTe JbCTBa , row exiHCTBeHHun orpaHHqeHien wywb ih- 
qan BCf yna-rb bt> commtcilctbo cjyaMb B03pacrb. IlepBoe orpaHMerie, Bure- 
uaiomee hbi EpoBHaro poxma, saKuimeTCH Ha bto! CTaxia wb aanpememH poxa- 
TeiflMi BCTynaTL bi> 6pain» co obohhh x^Tbo, h bto BTopoe Becbxa BasHoe cbh- 
XfrreJbCTBO, KOTopoe HaM% jaera r. Kjhobi: bi canon* yto6h bto orpa- 
Hneme Mono 6uTb npHitHaeiio Ha npaKTHKt, hco6xoxhxo, vro6u oTem 6uii 
H3B*cTeHi>; bto-so yciOBie Heo6xoxHKO ajh nepewcjema Jiija hvb Kiacca 
otaobii (t.-6. He iMtomnn x^eft, xocTHrmnxi 6paraaro B03pacra) n 
KJiacci x^XObx. Bthmi onpoBepraeTCH noioateHie, rto oTeiyb Ha Hismet 
cTyneHH ofaqecTBeHHaro patBHTia ocTaBaica HeHSBfeCTHurb — noioseme, Ha 
ocHOBaHii BOToparo ctpohjch buboxi o h6H3(^shocth cynjeoTBOBaHia Ha 
Hi8mei cryneHH uraHiHaaijiH cieTa poxcTBa no aencKoft ibkh. Ilpa nojmofi 
cboCox* cosine ACTBa xesxy lauaxH oxhoto h Toro-»e Kiacca, Horxa *a- 

BtCTHOO 1HI(0 MOr JO COSHTeibCTBOBBTb X0TH-6l* CT> pOXHOt CCCTpoft, C0H>3H 
BCO-Xe HXfelH H8B&CTHyH> npOXOIBHTO JBHOCTB • 

AtlcTBiTeiBHO, h bt> HacroHiijee Bpeafl hsSth npnirtpu cynpyaecKoi 
b*phocth cpexH aBCTpaiilueBi 6ojbmaH pfypsocTb; ciynan Hapymema en, 

HeCHOTpfl HB TO, 1T0 pOBHOCTb flBJAOTCfl KaieCTBOMl CHJbHO p88BHTUM'b y MyM- 

whi, BCTptqaroTca qacTO h He B086y«xaH>rb HeyxoBOibCTBifl bt» ueaaxi 
rpynna, eon toibro HapymirrejH npaHax-ieaarb si oxHOMy uaccy no bos- 
pacTy. HecioTpfl oxmiio Ha bto, cohhu acerxa urtmrb HSBfccTHyio npoxoisH- 
TexbHOCTb; ra* BceoGnjaro ynoTpe6ieHia cjob*: oTem, xaTb — bt» OTHome- 
Hin ho bc*mi ueHan CTapmaro Kiacca, saifciaerb r. KyHOB** He cjA- 
xyerb xkiaTb aaxjuraeHia, «ito6h aiiCTpaiieui He BHaib Mjaa CBoei Mare- 
pi bo Bpexa ero poaxeHia; ohi SHaeTi He toj&bo ero, ho h otijobi xpy- 
rm x*Tet CBoei rpynnu h nox^acb xaae h cocfexHHXi rpynni. 

Iloaoxenie seHH^HHbi y hhshiixx aBCTpajiltcRHXi naeMem Kpatae npran- 
aeHHoe: «i3HHecKoe npenocxoxcTBO MyaiiHLi h axfccb nrpaerb cboh> poib; 

cMySl aScOUDTHbll C06CTB6HHHK*b CBOet KOHM (hJH SOHx): Ofl% HOSeTl 

o6paman>CH ci» Heft xoponio hjh xypno — coBepmeHHO no npoHSBOiy; ohi mo- 
serb ocTaBHTb ee y ce6a, npocnrryHpoBaTb ee, npoirtHHTb Ha xpyryio aeH- 
n^HHy hji oTxaTb ee xpymrb naeHan oxHoro ci> HHirb Kiacca* . Ben 
BcnoMHHTb, «rro TeppiTopiaibHHH rpynnu, exHHCTBeHHbia, HaKOTopua — ecu 
ocTaBHTb vb cToppHt KjaccHOHBauiio no B03pacTy — x^iaTca HH3mia me- 
M6H8 aBCTpajiftueB-b, Bpafae HeHHoroncxeHHU (40—50 to ♦aim, 

tto OTei^i peSeHKa oiasuBaeTca h3b*cthhmx, 6yxerb coBepmeHHO noHareHi; 
ho H3*b oToro tarra en^e othh>xb Hejibsa foim> saBimeHia, sairb bto 6uio 
cxtiaao Mesxy npoHHii r. UlTapKe, ^to hb BH3m&rb CTyneHan paBBHTia 
hu yse BCTpftvaeHca cb sapoxunieH'b arHamecKoft cexbH. Bi to! cTaxii, 
KOTopyn nepexi Hani pacxpuBaerb r. RyHOBi, onpextienia poxcTBa, CTporo 
roBopa, ne cymecTByerb h He noserb cymecTBomb, Taxi Barb He Btipa- 
6oTaiocb enje Boo6me noHHTia o BpoBHOKi poxcTBt; npn poaxoHin pe6eHBa 



Digitized by 




H3t 3AII.-EBP0IIEitCK0ft 3TH0rPA*H«IECK0il JTHTEPATFPH. 109 



ero ^pracjflvrb n meppumopicLtbuou rpynnfc a ), n KOTopoi npHHax* 
jenatb ero poxHTeiB, He xkiafl npi btom* pa&mia, oaaauBaeTca-JE mate 
ero ueiioro BTofi TeppiTopiaiLHoi rpynnu no npoHcxovxeHiio, in ofla 
BBexeHa bi Hee ehuei nyTert: noumoHieirb, noEynaoi hie ufcHot. /J^io 
bi> tomi., 9to, npH HaioiBcieHHOCTH TeppHTopiaibHuxi rpynnx, MyannHan 
Hepfcx*o npnxoxETca ECEBTb g&H mevb B3i cocfexHHxx rpynni, h bto xase 
y mrcmax'b mexeffb (nam, Hanp., y BaJtysoBi) npiBOXHTi m ki uoxe- 
meHiio hie n h*h* cecTpan co GTopoHH ihui, npnaxjeaaii(HX'& et» 
paaflun TeppnopiajibHUMii rpynnam. Stotl-bb HexocTaTOHTb seHnjESi 
npiBoxETB y HtKOTopuii nieKBHi ABCTpajii i el noiiaHxpin, npi tomi 
CTapmie 6paTba paspfein&iorb cosHTeibCTBO ci» cboeme mesam xiaxmnrb 
SpaTbflii, noxi yciOBien nojo6Haro-se paaptmeHia co cropoHH nocifcx- 
hbxi nocifc xeHiT]»6u. 

CncreMa poxcTBa, KOTopyro r. RyBOB* BCTpfcTBii y Hiamui aBCTpa- 
lifcKCTL iij6M6ht» e ROTopaa nosBOinia eny o6pEcoBan» oxHy B3i HanSoifte 
nepBo6uTHHii «opn o6meeTB6HHaro pa3BETia, ho aBiaeTca ECRiH>wreib- 
hhmi jocTOBHieM-b aBCTpaiiiueB* : cideMa poxcTBa y noisHesiiiteift (era- 
natcRaai) h y ayxycoBi, no cnpaBexiHBOMy o6i>HCHbHiH> r. KyHOBa, coxpa- 
BflerL acHue cifc/iu Tanoro-ae nopaxRa Benjei, aaai e y aBCTpajitqeBi, i 
eciE ysasaHauxii •aRTOBt xo HaBomeHia hobuxi aHaiorHiHUXii b Hexo- 
CTaTO^HO x'fl BOBBexeHifl BumenpHBexeHHaro BUBOxa r. KyHOBa bi o6npl 
saKOHi *eioB*«iecRaro pasBHTia, ohi rbwh m Menfce sacTaBiaen spETEW- 
cee OTHecTicb ei rocnoxcTByHmjeiiy MHfeBin, wo MaTpiapxarb HBiaeTca ae- 
E36tsHUM% cifcxcTBieix TOi CTaxiH pa3BHTia, aorxa otoui 6uxb hoesb^- 
CTem,: xu HKfeexi 3X*ci» *opaiy o6n^esfltia, r*fi npa esb'&cthoote o6obxi 
poxETejef OTcyTCTByert BHCTETyri poxcTBa. 

IlepBHl mart ri orpaHETOniro cbo6oxm o6memft saBiiraica, Basi 6hjo 
OTM'bieHO Bume, bi sanpenjeaiH poxaTeian e xtaro BCTynaTb bi 6paKi: 
pasBEiie npexcTaBiesiS o RpoBHon poxcTB* pacnpocTpaawo sanpeiEreiL- 
Hue 38K0HH Ha poxHiixi 6paTseBi e cecTepii, x»J*e Ha XBOH>poxHUXi h 
TporopoftHuxi 6paTbeBi; m> btoxi cocroamE pa3BETia HaxoxaTca m hb- 
cToan^ee BpeHa nieveHa rypHXETmEapa e RypHas, nps howl y nepBuxi 
eme BCTpl> T i8H)TCH 6paEfl xesxy HieaaME oxHofi TeppETopiajbHof rpynnu, 
a y BTopuxi 6p8RH 3anpemaioTCff, Bei^xcTBie 6ie30cte poxcTBeHHUX'B yai, 
xase cl npexcTaBETeibHEuaHE H^KOTopuxt coc^XHfl^ rpynm. Bo Bcto npn- 
sexeuHux'B ciyqaaxi poxciBO oxEHasoBo dyssrb npenaTCTBiex'b Kb Spaay, 

6631 pa3JB«H, 6yxeT*-JB OHO pOXCTBOfll CT» OTaOBCBOft HIE MaTepHHCKOft 

CToponu. IIjeHH HappnHbepa nouuo bt> stohi OTHomesiE eme xa«H>me: 3a - 
npeTHTeibHbie saROHu pacnpocTpaaaioTea sxtcb oxEHaKOBo, Eaai Ha ueHOBi 
TeppiTopiaibHoft rpynnu oTua, tbei* e Maxepa. 

He flcao, UHffleT^ r. KyHOBi, qto xaio TOiieKi ei> pa3BETUD btexi 



x ) TeppHTopiajiJbHHH rpynnM oC-beflHaeHM TOJibKo o6maocTi>io TeppHTopia; 
A*jeme Ha TOTewaqecKia rpynnH noHBjHeTCH Bnocji^cTBia. HaasaHie TeppaTO- 
piajbHwa rpynnu nojiynaion, oti xapaKTepa aaaajiaeMofi aaa m*cthoctb, a npa 
nepea'BH'B nocji*^Hefi h'Ehsgtch a aaaaaHie rpynnu. 



Digitized by 




110 



aTHOrPAttHIECKOE OB03PMIE. 



orparaveml: 6htl Mosero, cteir 3an*qaTb, xan Ha »to v noBHxnoxy, 
yxasuBaerb okbo H3i npejanii lueaeHi flieiepi x ), vro 6pau 6paTbeBi k 
cecTept HHftu pesyn>TaTom> jereHepaiuH); ojbo iamb coaepmeHHO hcho, 
npoxouaen aBTopi, vro Vb iCTopii 9tbxt> orpaEiweHift irpa»n poib no- 
Hflrk o poACTBt, npeiGTaBieHifl o kpobhuxi yaaxx. 

TOTL-Ke UOpflAOiTL, KOTOpuff rOCnOJCTByCTb DpH cymecTBOBaHin HCKJQO- 

qmeiiHO jftiefiia niexeHs hi TeppiTopiajbHiia rpynnu, npoxoixaen cy- 
mecTBOBaTb H^KOTopoe BpdEfl e nocjfc toio, Basi TeppaTopiajbHaa rpyraa 
pasBHiacb n TOTemqecKyH), t. e. rpynny, soTopaa npiaaaeTi cymecrBOBa- 

Bie HSBfcCTHOt CB83H MeSjy EaSXUMl 131 CBOMXl IJCHOBl H HSBfcCTBUlTb 
BHJ0M1> MBOTHUXl 1JH paOTeHii, I DOflBBJOCL C03BaHie,*TO Ufttttt OftHOf rpyilHU 

BpoacxoAan ori *Toft-«e moth>, RaRi, Hanp., y njoHeai Typpa, Myp- 
pHHrL, HappiHbepa h jp., t. e. xftri npaqaciaiicb ki rpymrfe oma, I 
oto BnojBt ecTeCTBeHBo: TaBt KaKT) TOTeMiqecEit coi03i nepBOHa^aiBHO cob- 
naxaii ct> rpynnoi TeppiTopiaibHof, to ■ seH^iHa, saxBaqeHHaa ueHon 
*yawft rpynnu, npojojaacrb, BaBi> i jo B03BHEH0B6Hia cohwob* TOTeime- 
cbixt>, cmaTbca npHHaAienocTbH) toft rpynnu, bt> BOTopyio ee bb&h 
Myai; oTjfcieHBaa on caoei pojHi, oHa BBjaerca co6cTBeHHocTb» Myaa, h 
jase nocjfc ero CMepm OHa, bi KaqeciBfc coSctbchhocti rpynnu, aoixhb 
6bua nepexojHTb Kb 6paTLHMt Mysa, ecia ohh Toro seiaiH. 

C-l pasBHTiem po^oBun coiosobi npoacxojHT* nepeifcHa: noaiuaeTca 
vaTpiapxnTi; peOeaoai no npearaeiiy npHWCiaeTea si TeppirropiajttHoi rpynnfc 
onja, ho uojpmb bt» cocTaat pojOBoro ooi»a MaTepa (*paTpia i poj?> — 
TOTemeciil), t. e. npeaje, npa oTcyTCTBiH ui upi cpaBHMTeJLHO Ma- 
ion pasBiTia poj(a, iCBxrowTeibHO rocuoiOTBOBaBmii TeppiTopiaJbirai 
npiHijini HaiHHaert ycTynaTb pasBHBmeiyca pojOBoiiy ycrpoftcTBy. Ilepe- 

XOJTb 9T0T1* 6CT6CTB6HH0 COBCpfflaiCH JHUIb HOCTBHeHHO ■ AOIBOTb 6*111 

npolTH HtcKOJbKo npoMeayToiHHXfc CTyneHtfi. IIpHWHH 3aMfcHH TeppHTo- 
piaibHaro npiHUHna poxosLOTb octbiotch HeacBUHH: (uTb hosoti, dh- 
merb r. EyHOBi, no BCj^wBie yBeJHHHBaiomeftca, Saaroiapa pasBiTiH) sa- 
npeTHTeJbHiui saKOHOBt, cboOoxu B*b oTHOineuiflxi mm&j JHuam paaJH?- 
aaro noja, npeuM y mecTBeBHO bcj*jctbi6 B03HHKH0B6Hia 6paqHHXi rpynn* 
nupaypy 2 ), onpextieHie orua ci xocTOBtpHOdbio CTaHOBHJOCb Bee MeHte 



a ) IIpHBOAHMt 9to HHT6p6CH0€ npeAame, 6pocaiomee cb*tt> na flpeBHiH ot- 
Honiema Mes^y nojaMH y aBCTpajiiMi^eBi*, co cjob'b r. KyBOBa: „IIocji* eosiaaifl 
Mipa, OTau, MaiepH, 6paTba, cecTpw h Apyrie GjHBKie p off ctb6hbhkh Bcryaaju 
6e8i» paaJH^ifi veaxy co(5oft bt> 6paKt, noKa He cTaiH odeapysHBaTbcn BpeABUH 
nocjrfeflCTBiH noAo6Haro nopn^Ka semeft. Bo»ah nanaJiH coB'hmaTbCfl h o6ffyMM- 
BaTb cpeflCTBa kt> HsvBHeBiio noioatemfl; ptniBJiH o6paTHTbCR ct» npocb6oft vh 
MypaMypa (Be*. *yxy), h toti> npHKasaji,, ^toOm Kamjoe nJiejia 6uao pasff%- 
jieao Ha paajaHqnbiH b-btbh h bth nocjiABin 6ujih HaaBaHbi sanAoe OTff'BJbnHM'B 
HueHeirb, saHMCTBOBaHHMM'b ot-l 0AyiueB^eHHbixT> h HeoAymeBjieHHbixt npe«- 
neTOBT., Hanp. flHHro, Mbinib, BMy, AOiKAb, HmepaMa h np.j HJieHbi oRHoft h Toft 
se rpynnbi He aoj»bh 6bijih BCTynaTb bt. 6paKi> tf . 

,J ) ^ieftpn BbiM'bHHBaiOT'b Ha cecTept, npioCp'BTaro'Tb noKynKoft hjh cxyn6oft 
bt» aoh* fiyaymaro tccth hjh, naKOHeui., noxHmajorb ce&b seHt*, npio6pftTen- 
hbh 8THMT. nyTeirb seBa HaauBaeTca — noa. Ho BCTynaTb bt> coh>8t> c* Heft 




1 



H3T> 3An.-EBP0IIEftCK0it aTHQrPA*H1ECK0fl JIHTEPATyPH. Ill 

bosmokhuk; (ute xosero, TaMe, too eraix npnixaTB, *to pefiexoxi 
B&rtxcTBie ana xftroposxeiiia npoHcxexarB icbjdtot6jh>ho orb mora xa- 
Tepi; xaxi-fai to hi 6hio, ho y 6ojfte pasBiwii meveui ABcrpaiix 
TeppiTopiaiBHUi npHBipni npH onpex**eHix npoxcxoxtxexia 3artieHiya» 
ctotomi poicTBa no seHCsoft mil. 

Ci noflBjeHiexi xaTpiapxara apxaxxcexxoe noioseaie xteHHiKHH, oxHaso, 
ricbojlko He RSHtHfleTCi n> jywfexy: xyn saHiMaert no npe»Hexy CBoe 
nepBeHCTBy»mee Htm x npoxoisaen* cwraroa co6ctb8hbhkomi seaii h 
Xfcrei; seHa ■ npx rocnoxcrafc xaTpiapxaTa nepexoxHT* mtl bi Teppxro- 
piajMyro rpynny, bi Boropof npxHax-ieaxTi ea xymi., h exy, xasi co6ctb6H- 
HBKy seHU, BpBHaxJesarL He tojlbo x*ti, posxeaHua on Hero, ho h t*, 
oTHOciTBJbHo KOTopun owb 3Haen» HJH npexHoiaraera, *T0 HO OHl HBiserca 

XXI X^fiCTBHTeJBHUMTi OTUOHl.PfcBKO BbICK83HBa6TCfl HpOTHBOHO JOSHOCTb MUMfJ 

TeppxTopian>Htuii» h HpoBHuurb npxHmnaxx bi o6uraafe, conacflo BOTopoxy, 
eeix xa»e 0Teu> (HtpxxxtecBil) yxpe-ra Tome* nocj* posxeaia pe6eHBa, x 
ero bxob* xaeTca rpynnoi xysa pasptmeme BOSBpaTiTbca ci peOeHxoxi n 
ea poxHjro rpynny,— pe6eBon oGasaBi lepesx BfecxoiBxo itorb BOBBparxTLea 
bt> rpynny, a* Boiopott npaHaxjesa n ero OTeir*. B-l erom o6mafc acao npo- 
BexeBi B8rjaxi>, fro TeppxropiajMiaa rpynna, KOTopax npx cynpcTBOBanix 
xaipiapxaxa ne coctohtt, X3i apoBBLixi poxcTBeHHHHOBi, a xra ibb>, npx- 
HaxieatamHxx yse at paamfiun TOTexxiecKaxi coiosaxi, o6iexiHeHHan 
o6mBooTbH) HHTepeooBt x CTpexieHiexi yBejxmbca ixeienHO, — cqitaert 
ce6a co6cTBeBBHuefi pe6eHBa, posxeHHaro on 6pm oxHoro is* jbu;i, bxo- 
Xflmaxi b*b Bee, x seBnpBu, xo6uTofi btbxi jxiiovb Tpyxon xjb noxynxot 
x BBjflH)meica, sasi TasoBaa, ero coCcTBeHHomio; ho npx btoxi BpoBHiit 



HM-fecrt npaBO He TOJbBO nyarB, bo eme pegi. jam,- CbiTb mowctb, 3an*Hae«n» 
r. KyHOBi*, *ctfc ^«na oflaoro BOspacTa ct» Myaein., hjcbju ero rpynabi; nyarb bt» 
cbok) onepejb HifBerb Tasifl-aie npaBa no OTBomeHifo kt> arenam, bthxt> inn,!,; 
xysbfl CHHTaioTCH no OTBomeaiB ^pyri. kt, Rpyry nupaypy\ vrnwh se BveaeMt 
HasHBaiorb ^pyn> Apyra n Bcesbi noAo6H*m TOBapun^eit: 3A*Cb mu w*%twh bhrt. 
rpynnoBaro Cpana, u eftsa jh Monerb 6biTb coMutaie bt» tout,, hto BBCTHTyn 
nnpaypy aBjaeTcn OTroJOCROMi> cTOftin 6e3nopHAO?aaro c o miTeJib ctb a . Hhcjo hh- 
paypy KOJieCaeTCH nempj 4 h 10 h 6oj«Be coynacTBABOBi*. IIpHnncbiBaTb BTOMy hh- 
CTHTyTy saaHeaie oaKTopa, BbiSBBBniaro kt> vbbbh MaTpiapxaTb, Kamb bto A^Jiaerb 
r. KyHOB-b, eA&a jh ocBOBaTejbao A Tarb icaKt, h npa nojHOai, rocnoACTBft Teppn- 
TopiajbHaro npaanana npa onpeA^eaia npoaczoBAeaiH BOBoposAeaBaro^ beet, 
bto OTHfeieao r. Ky hobumtj, cjynaH cynpyaecKofl BftpHocTH BCTp*Haa>TCH p*^o, 
u3B'BCTHa nojiiaaApia h, naKonei^'b, cymecTBycrb Aase o6binafi npocTHTynpoBaTb 
cbohxt. aen-b, cj-BAoaaTeJbBo, onpeA*BJieHie •aKTBHecsaro OTna Tam>-ae TpyAHO, 
bbki b npa cyn^ecTBoaaniu BBCTBTyTa napaypy. EABa in ae CyAenb Bfepafee o6%- 
BCBHTb aoflBxeaie MaTpiapxaTa pa3BBTiem> npeACTBBjeaift o BpoBaomi poACTBft, 
npeACTaBjieaiS, KOTopua en;e ae cyn^ecTByron* bjh aaxoAHTCH TOJibKO bi> sapo- 
Abimfe npn rocnoACTB* TeppHTopiajbaaro npnauHaa; bt> btott. nepioAi> pe6e- 
hort» ae ciHTajicfl cBHsaaBUMi, c-b poAHTejiHMH KpOBHbiMH ysaMH h npnaaA«- 
sajrb rpynnt; npH noHBaeaia nonaTift o KpoBBOMi, co»3*, o6*b ysaxi,, cBflayio- 
mm> poABTejeH a A*Teft, — ysu, CBfl3biBaH)n;ia pe6eaKa cb aaTepbio, ao*«bh 
6bijiH CHHTaTbca Baa6oji*e KpftnKHMa, bsei* bcji-Bactbic bxt,, Taffb csasaTb, 66jo>- 
meif Har jh^hocth, TaKt a BcxBA^TBie aenpo^aocTH Cpanabixi* coh)30bt>, koto- 
pue jerRO a hbcto pacTopra»Tca cpeAa aBCTpajifii^esi*. 




112 



dTHOrPA&HIECKOE OB03FBHIE. 



npHHAiiTB He TepniTi HapymeHia, thjtl Eara pe6eHorB, san co6cTBeHHOCTb 
rpynnu, o6fl3aHHut shtb Bt etoft rpynn* i ciyxETb efl urepeean, rtMi 
He MeHte cmaeTCfl npHHa^ieaamHin vb poxy CBoei varepi. Iociioactbo 
semqEHu i yHTOoaeHie npasa Hysrami Ha cbohtl Atoei, nepexoji bthh> 
npaFL bi> pyKB Kaxepi h efl poAa, npeACTaBHTeaem KOToparo o6utH0BeHHO 
wb oTHomeHii n cyAbCfc Afcreft HBJffeTca 6pan MTepn (a*ah ci MaxepHH- 
CKoi ciopoHH), ABJHeTca yme pesyxtTaTOirb AajtHtlinaro pasBtrm pojOBoro 
oovsa i He noaerb cwraTbCfl nepBOHaiaibHiiifb bt» ncropix pasBHrin xa- 
TepBHCRaro poia, no KpaiHel B*pfc Ha to! cra^ii, Ha BOTopof HaxoxflTCfl 
eme aBeTpaiituu. 

3HaieHie noflBieHia narpiapxaTa iir o6njecTBeHHaro ycTpoicTBa aBcrpa- 
jiftueBT, 6iuo rpoaMHo: ecu nepBOHavaJbno 9HAora*HHfl TeppKropiaxbHUff 
rpynnu, ei yBeineHieu uoia sanpeTHTeiLHun sasoHOBi o 6pa*£, ctb- 
hobejhcb Bee 6ojrfce aKaoraMHUMH, to npi B03HHKH0BeHii TOTeoiecRm 
coh)30bi» oh* npexcTaBiflu H^EOTopoe Bpenfl oftHopoftHyiD no CBoeny npo- 
HCioxxeHiH) naccy. Ilocife noaBJeHin MBTpiapxata oAHopoAiut cocraKb Tep- 
piTopiajbHott rpynnu npeTepn&naerb cifcjyromee iBrineHie: tbfl iasi semi 
6epyTCfl H3i pa3JH?HUiT, TOTeimecEHxi coiosobi, i jftTi or& teeix* 6pa- 
kobi, ocTaBaflOb vb TeppiTopiaibHott rpymrfc oTija, npraeviflJieb n wre- 
mraecEOMy conray MaTepi, to rpynna cTaja Bcsopfc coctohtb nsi wbhobi 
pasiMHHTb TOTemecraui cok>3ob*, a Tarb *twb 6paKi, ecu oeraBiTb 
bi cTopoH* HiKOTopufl orpaHHiesiff, MOBXy UBHaHI paSJHTHblXl TOTen- 
?ecBixi> cobosob* paspfemaHWCfl, to TeppiTopiaibHafl rpynna m dssoraxHoi 
CTaHOBiiacb bt> sHauTeibHol creneHH chobb BHAoraxHoft, t. e. f Wb cia- 
mb, BosBpamaiacb n nepBOHauxbpoxy CBoeaty cocTOHHiio. 

TaKHMt o&paaoM*, TpyA* r. SyHOBa orapun cpeAi emaBniHiCfl oaho- 
poxauifH no CBoeny o6mecTBeHHOMy pasBHTiio aBGrpaiiftueBi i^ftjyro ecto- 
piio pa3BHTifl oSmecTBeHHHXi OTHomemt, Haqraan on HHSineft crajiH, jo 
cpaBHHTeibHO BticoKoft, xo soTopof noiHHJHCb aBCTpajilcirifl nieneHa, HO 
Koiopafl B*b o6meft HCTopis pasBiTifl OEasuBaeTCfl Bce-se Hue, Tfcrb crraxifl 
ci pasBHTborb MaTpiapxajibHtiarb po^on, ROTOpafl BSBtcraa Han y mho- 
rHii, abkhxi nieMeH-b. 

Ecjh Bb npe»Hee Bpexa fiBifliocb B03MoaHmrb, BCitxcTBie EaaaBmeica 

CIOSHOCTH H HBfiCHOCTH DpaBIIl, peryiipyiOmHX'b BSaBHHUH OTHOmeHlfl 

poAOBux-b h TeppHTopiaJLHHxx rpynni aBCTpajiiijeB'b, BCi^ACTBie paa6po- 
caHHOdH npeACTaBiTeiel pasHUxi poAOBi cpe^H MHoroqECieHHUxi Teppi- 
TopiajbHbixi rpynm,,— owaTb, uro coBpeiieHHoe nan HaceieHie AscTpa- 
lin. — «He 6oxfce, ebei pasctflHHbie octbtei npesHixi Bsanirao scTpetaB- 
niHxi APyr* Apyra nieveHiii, — to nocit pa6oTu r. KyHOBa ctbhobitch 
BiiojHt flCHbiMi, hto aBCTpaiilcRifl weMeHa AOcnriH cospeneHHaro Hirb 
pasBHTia Bi c*ept oSn^ecTBeHHbixi omonieHii — nyTem opraHH?ecEaro pas- 

BHTifl. 

Buio-6h, HecoMHtHHO, npeasAOBpeMeHHUM-b AynaTb, ^ro nyTb, no eoto- 
povy niio pa3BHTie oSii^bctbchh uxi OTHomeHii y aBCTpaiificEHXi» MeneHi, 
BRifleTCH o6fl3aTeibHbiM , b h a^h Apyrni'b HapoAOBt, AOCTHrmnxb 6oite bbi- 
corbxi cTyneHeft syibTypu: B03pa«eHie, 6yAT0 aBCTpaJia^u pasBiBaincb 




H3T> 3An.-EBP0nEfiGK0lt 8THOrPA*fl*!E0KOft JHTBPATyPH. 113 



iniDweuHUii ujr%wb 9 eme He onpoBeprHyTO h 6y*erfc, HeciOTpg Ha 
iioihji) cboh) OesxoKaaaTeibHOCTL, bt» chj*, noKa AdTaAHoe HiywHie npi- 
HiTHfiHun HapojOBi He onpoBepraert ero . Ho yae Ton *aKn», tto xoth- 
6h h bi OAHOft ABCTpaiia o6mecTBeHHoe pasBnie npHH&jo jpyrie nyTH, 
lfcra 9T0 npejaoiaraiocb rocnojcTByDmei Teopieft, ciysm jib nocifejaei 
BasuiMi AonomeHieMi i nonpaBuoi, i ecu 6u BnocifyCTBiH 6uio jo«a- 
aaHO, tto BTun»-se nyTero pa3BHBanci. i jpyrie Hapoxu, to roenojcTBy»- 
mafl TeopiH uojyiua 6u iHoe ocBfcmerie, ho ocTaiaot 6u HenoEOie6ieHHoit 
bi ocHOBHoii CBoexi noios6HiH y iro cien» pojcTBa no aeHCKoi ikhm 
npexmeoTByeTL every pojcTBa no nyscKoft, Taxi me* npeAmecTByromaH 
MarpiapxaTy cTajifl paaBiria, loropyio ocb^thji jih aBcrpajiiueBi r. Ky- 
hobi,— oKasMBaeTca nepiojom. oTcyiCTBifl pojctbohhhxi noHfliil i Heno- 
HiMaaifl m*eHifl spoBHuxi ysi. 

H. XapysHHi. 



•THorpjiMiiasos obo*f*kib. XXVI. 



Digitized by 



OM'BCb. 



MeJLKLH (J)OJIBBJIOpHCTHHeCKia SaMtTBH 

6. 3imtM ropuHbi«n> n TyrapMHi 3iteBM«rb. 

*Iame Bcero imh ropuntiTb BCTptiaeTCH pa^osix ct» flofiptiHei , ocoScbho 
bt> 6ujHut t Bb KOTopoft onicuBaeTcar RynaHbe floSpuHi b*b ptrfe Ilyqait i 

6oft CO 3MteMT» fSMtHHHmO TopUHHO^O, SMtfl TopKIHUHTa, 3MfcH l IlimO fopUH- 

4iiqo, riib*., 472, 560, 800; anisn^o ropuHiamo, KHpfeeBCBift, b. 2, 
dp. 23; SMtHmmo ropHHimino, Bhmhh dap. h hob. sanHCH, M. 1894, 
dp. 71). HHorja bto hhh ABifleTca i Kb jpyrol 6kmmh% o floOptiHt, kso- 
6paaa»mefi ero iroSoab r* MapnHBfc (TopbiHinje npoKiHToe, TaTapaHi To- 
pioHime noranoe — OjdJHme noraaoe, rajb*., 469, 661); HHorja me bt> 
BToft nociijHet Ouibh* ctoiti jpyroe bmh — TyrapiHi (Tyra-3ideBETB, 
TyrapnHi siieBiTB hjh SMfceBHVb, Thjbo., 116, 1088, 1205, 1250). B* 
cEropifc Xpa6poMTi» uapb fleiibHHime Ha3Baffb ojHaatjH ropuHHieirb (A, H. 
BeceiOBCKitt, M&ir. saH. ri 6MiHHain», XX. Eojbm. cthii o Eropifc h 
cKassa o6t» Hib* h 3Mfrfc, dp. 62); b* H-fcROTopux'b CuJHHan, o A»k% 
c3Minme ropuHHme> (ibid.). Bi> CK«3Kt tCienaHi BeiiRift naHi» y Po- 
ManoBa, BixopyccK. CoopH., b. 2, dp. 219: c3itfi ropuneqi»»; y A*a- 
HacbeBa Ha 9to»i> irfed* U,urapHHi>, T.-e. TyrapiiHi; bi MOHrojbCBHiT» csa3- 
saxi Maumci, HHororoJOButt 3Mfci. Bt> ntcHai-b ypaibCKHX* h TepcKixii 
KasaKoBi* p^kh: flBK-b TopuHuib, TepeKb ropwHHTb (C6opH. MaTep. jjh 

ODHC. HJeitf. H M*fedH. KaBR83P, B. VII, CTp. 119). 

Bb 6ujHuf> o 6ot AoSpuuH cb ropwHuseni M*doo6HTaBieirb TopuHUMt 
BbidaBjaiOTCH ropu CopoiHHCKia (Hub*., 471, 560, 746, 802), HHor*a 
TyrH-ropu (rax**., 317, 342). 3»M MBer* bi aTHii ropax-b bi nemept; 
ctoja OHt CHOCurb cboh) *o6bwy, CBoft noiOH*b. HHorja TopuHbim iso6pa- 
saeTCH leTywn (raxb*., 315, 472 h jp.); row ohi xdHi-b, rpoMi 
rpeiHTi, luym, a^eTi (ib., 472, 665); OoraTMpa 3Mfcft ocunaerb HCRpau, 
acxerb ero t£jo (raxb*., 473, 800; Bujhhh dap. h hob. sanici, 71). 
y svfea TpH (472) hih BoceMb (665) roxoBi h 12 (472, 800) hji 30 
xo6otobi>, Bi» 6uiHHt onscfaiBaiOTCfl ABa noejiHRa ^oOpuHH ci si^ohi; B*b 
nepBMft pa3b ^o6pbiHa cxBaTRicH co siteMi nocit Toro, KaK-b ero boao- 
Boporb p*RH Ilyqafi 3aHecb bi> ne^epy, Bb ROTopoft 3Mtft sbbbti; 3Mtl 



i) Cm. ,9th. 06«., XXIV, 127. 




MEJIKIfl OOJLKJIOPHCTHqECKia 3AM-BTKH. 



115 



jaerb aapoK* Ha jeraTb bi Pycb, He yHocmb hoiohi b* nemepy; flo6pHHii 
OTnycEaen 3rfeH Ha bojd, ho ohi> lewb memo RieBa h ynocHTL nienHH- 
HHny BjaxHHHpa 3anaBy IlyTHTiTOy (3a6aBy IIoTflTHijHy, 3. HoTflTHiHy 
(rajb*., 474, 746, 801) hjh joqb KHfldfl llap*H*y BceciaBbeBHy (riib*., 
316) ijik seHy BaajHiiipa AnpaKciio *) (Bui. ct. i hob. aansci, 72 — 
74). #o6puHH tjerb b% ropu CopoiiHCKifl (hjh bi Tyrn-ropu), ySHBaeTi 
3H%h h ocBoOoRjaerb nifeHHHAy. y KipfcBCKaro (buh. 2, cTp. 49) #o- 
6puHH ocBoSoajaerB hsi sirfeHHaro nifcHa cboh> TeTKy Mapbio /^HBOBHy . 

Bi CTSTbt cBuiHHa o /JofipHHt h MOHron»cK06 cuaaaHie o racapt> (bi> 
B$gth. Efiponu, 1890, coht.) mi* r.jf£iajH c6iUKeHie Mesjy JJoSjuHett n 
XaHi-ryffiHpoMi 6ypHTCKoi ciasan. 3jliCb mm HairfcpeHM jonojHHTb Hama 

66lHVeHiH. 

XaHi-rysnpi fcjei"L jo6uBaTb neqeHb Hapaffb-I^paja; Ha joporfe BOTpfc- 
qaeTB yMHpa»maro 6orarapfl Xoxojoh. 9toti» 9nH30Ai mli c6jHsaiH ci ani- 

30J0M*b MOHTOJbCKOtt CKaSRH 0 9pj9HI-Eap8JHKfc (9TH. 0603p., KH. XVIII, 

6Tp. 24). 9px9HH-XflpaiHH'b OTnpaBjfleTCfl sa wkhhh, ho CHa*aia ohi aoj- 
K6H% ao6uti» cepxue KopoBu PaKma-KypHHi . IIo jopor* m» BTOiy *y#)BHmy 
3pX9Hi-XapaJHKii Hafcaaaerb na TOjny ysacHbin acypuBi. CSinaafl bth 
9nH30ju, PaHma-RypRHa mu npipafiHHjH ki HapaHi-ftpajy; Toina acyposx, 
ho Hainevy npejnoJoaeHiio, saiffecTHia Xoxojoh. Ecih mu B3riflH6Mi» Ha 
pyccsyio fiuiHHy, Karb Ha BH^OHSH^HCHie 9Toro cioaeia, ecu Ao6ptiHH> 
npHHOHi sa 9pA9HH-XfipajHKa, to 3m*io ropHHmy pyccKoi 6hjhhu bk 
MOHroibCBoft 6Ha3Rt OTB'fcTiTt BopoBa PaBraa-RypHHi,, HOTopaa ospyaeHa 
oSjaxaNH napa, eio BbijuxaeMaro, H3i> EOTopui'b CBepKaion xoiHin, noTpacaio- 
njia BcwcTpaHy— o6pa3i,HanoMiHaion^iftHauiero ropuHuqa,cunjH>iqaroHCBpu. 

Pama, nepBuii qieHi KOHroibcaaro napHaro, ecTb caHCKpHTCKoe raxas, 
oco6ue jiyiH, maTaiomiecH Ha KiajSHmaxi, notjaDiijie cupoe mhco h npn- 
HBMaiomie pBSJHiHLio o6pa3u. 

BTOpoft mQWb €HypiH1»> KaKi GyjTO HaXOflHTCH Bl> CBA3H <Vb MOHrOJL- 

ckhstl yxypz, cKoploBai, KopoBbH cTaTbi Ha ^ajBHent boctok^ lado npx- 
CBOHBafOTca sjhm'b HepcoHaaaM'b; siony Ti6eTCK0My i^apio JlaHAapu^, tohh- 
Tejio 6yMH3ia, npeAaHie npHnHcuBaen 6u%h pora; sjob cyn^ecTBO, no- 
t^aiomee iw^efi, wb KHTaficBHxi cKasaHiflxx hochtx hmh HbHHroy-BaHl, 
c6uBorojioBbii n;apb> . Bi> BapiaHTt cebbrh o Barapi-MeABHTJi, sanicaHHOut 
mhoh), uapb-HacHibHisi Ha3UBaeTCH yxupb-BaMa-xaHi, cKopoB&-BaHa-i^apb> 
(OqepKH c. 9. Monroi., II, 154). EpiHKx-xaHi, uapt a^a, bhhobhhbi» 
cMepTH JH)«efi, BsoSpaaaeTCfl ci Suuei tojoboS; bto i ecib 3Mtfi Hamnxi 
Hapo^Hwn> npeACTaBiemi. 



a ) »CTynHjia KHflrtTHH co Gfeja ramha Ha 3m*h, o6bhjich 3M*ii BKpyri> ptSBHXT. 
Hori», nocaAHJn» khhthhio sa Mory4H nieHH h yHecx bt» nemepw rjy6oKiH a (Bmj. 
ct. hob. sanHCH, 73). Bi> 6bijhh , b o ropHHbinft, nowfemeHHofl bt> „Ii3B , BCTiflxi> tt 
Hmh. Aks^. HayKt no ot^bj. pyccK. as. h cjiobcchocth, t. II, CTp. 279, no- 
cjiBACTBia nponaxa RHHraHH ^pyria: xo#HJia BBHrHBH no KpyTUMt ropaMt, HacTy- 
nsja Ha JioTa sm'Bh TopBiHuqa; 3^*8 o6bhjch sonpyrb Horn; khhfhhh hohocb 
nonecjia; ha^o npoB'Bmuocb: n ne na,wb ie6n b-b oChaY 3m*h), h nor^a 6y^y bi» 
B03pacTB, 8aH/iy bt> nemepu 3M*eBH r OTpyfaio 3m*k) roiOBy, npHHecy TeCf . 



Digitized by 




116 



dTH0rPA«H1£CK0E 0B03PBBIE. 



dnHsoja, oTBtwromaro B6Tpfc?fe n acypann, n pyccRot 6ujih£ H*n: 
ho He 6bi40 mm annsoxa vb toii pojli, mi n cbb8k$ o Xoxojo* 111 
Ban bt> 9DH3ojr6 o PoojaHeeBol roiost pyooftoi cRaaRH, KOTopoi ui cGjh- 
xaexi cb pascRason o Xoxojo*? y lyixora Somupb ArpHRaHon sasfe 
maen RiajOByio n opyaricHb Tony, rto noHjarb Boftn 6orarapef hb- 
ero ?pi3Hfc. Borarapb ynepi, rojoaa ero jbshto Ha Koarjraoro noi*. flo- 
^pHHH HameJi no^b uen Kiion, OTnepi MajoBya), ocBo6ojHn, sanepToro 
Topona h joGui-b Hen (Pu5h., II, npHHfc*. BescoHOBa vb ft 64 1 ). 

9ni30Xl O A<)6pMHft Ha K06THH0II HOJ* H'TO CTOflTL Vb 6bXUHt HOpe** 

6iTBot Ha roparb Copo^HHCBixi ho*o6ho Tony, Rani PociaaeeBa rojOBa 
Memwrb Ha nepejeeni nyTH Epycjana n nap» ILiaHeHHuft wn, OrneB- 
HOe Konbe, hih rbri rfeio Xoxojoh: hb nepexHeni nyTH XaHb-IyatHpa Wb 
Hapan-rapaiy. Mbijynaen, h n HoeroibCKoi cKaaKfc 6ujh rt-me o6pasu; 
dpxdHi-XapaiHBi, BfepoflTHo, HataRtn Ha 6oraTbipa, ROTopui hbioxhjgh wb 
noJoaemH ui Pa&iaHefl hjh Xoxojoh; Hasuaajcfl btoto 6oraTbipb bt» hb- 
moiui Acypoii, hih, Ran hu yse BMCRaaaiHCb parite, Raaupon (STHorp. 
06osp M bb. XVIII, dp. 24), T.-e. r» capon; ho npt 6yijiflcKof o6pa6oTH* 

CHB3XH 9T0 HHfl HaDOHHHBIO BCypOBb, T6IH06 HJeHff, XRBynjee Dpi HO- 

loniB* ropu Cynepi h Bejymee Bo&Hy ci TBHrpinHH, cb£tjumh cymecTBBHH, 
o6aTa»miMH hb BepuiHHt ropu, h acypu bmt^cbhjh h npeseee hih, h 
npearaift o6pm. 

CpBBHHBBH pyCCHyiO 6blJHHy Vb MOHrOJBCROt CBaSHOl 061 9p^9HH-Xapa- 
<JHH*, HU JJfl JByXl BflHSOJOBb BBJRMb HBpaJJeJH, JJH jpyrHXX flByXV. 

1) Kyn«Hbe Bb Qyial-ptafc h 2) yron jomajn h yBosi jocnfcion 6ora- 
Tupfl ero ciyroH) hih poxHUHi SpaTOH* Hothrohi — coBCfcn h*ti coot- 

BtTCTByrofflHXl paSCBBBOBl Vb HOHrOIbCKol CRBSKt. BpOH* TOrO, ROHBlTb 
HOHrOJbCROl CKBSXfe TOJbKO OTWCTH OTB*Werb pyCCBO* falUHfe. flfrtpiIHH 

npHBosRTb aeH^HHy, yBeseHByw 8Kte»; bi MoerojbCKof CKa3K* 9px9HH- 
XapaiHKi npHBOxiTb x^hhh, 0 EOTopoi He roBopnrcH, wo6b ona 6bua 
nepe^i rfe*b noxiiqeHa hjh yBesena, xoth noAosp*BaerB noAo6nui Bijrb 
pexaRitin mohkho. y6ieHie HyxoBHn^a PaRina-BypHHa Bb cRasnt hcho hb ho- 
THBHpoBBHO. He noTOHy ih ero HysHo 6hjo y6HTb, ito ohi HHaqe ho iiobbo- 

JOLlb 6u yBB3TH XBKHBH? A 6GIB Bb OBHOHl J*J* Wb CRRBRt npOBe^HO 

ooiyBCTBeHHoe oTHomeaie x&hihh n oh yB03y, Ran bto Han Baser ch 
(ch. cfaHorp. 06o8p.i 9 rh. XVIII, CTp. 15), to noxospfcme vb Ton, <no 
XBRHHH Hax«iHT6H Bi uitay y 8JOro ^yxoBHU^a RypBHa, ycHiHBaeTOH* 
Bb Cuibh*, sanHcaHHol C. I. TyiaeBUHb on ieoHTia TyniquHa n 



1 ) Topona, KaaeTca, r Tenepfc eu\e iiomhhtt* npa floGpuH* ojioHeuKaa 6u- 
jHHa. Bi> OAHoft 6u2hb* hu Haxo^HMi> Tanoe m*cto: w Mjaflii-To cjyra a» 6ku% 
oht» TopoaoKT», a yroajT> to y Jto6pwa»iniH ^o6pa kohh, a yB63i>-T0 y ^o6pu- 
HiomRif Tyrofl jyrt, a yBe^-TO y ^o6puHB ca6jm BocTpyto, a yBcat KOBbe xa 
AOJiroif'BpBoe, a y Bea^-TO oht, najai^y BoeaayH), cmibEH oht> octbbhxl o^ay 
mjianoBbsy, ojay nwany-TO ocTriBRjn. sejfja rpenecKoft* (TflJib*., 315). IlepByio 
cTpoKy ae crtftyerb jch aanacaTb tbkt*: ^Ifia^-b-TO cjtyra ^a 6birb owb Topo- 
norb"? Bi» 6biJHa , B cTapaBHott sbbbch Toponi> — cjtyra Aiewx IIonoBKia (BiUHfif* 
CTap. h hob. aanacH, M., 1894, ot^. I, CTp. 60). 




MEJIKlfl <l>OJILKJIOPHCTHqECKia 3AM-BTKH. 



117 



BapHayit, BTopofi 6oft flo6puHi co sxfeen paacnsawb ci iioxpo6hocthxh, 
xoropuxb Htn bi jpyraxi BapiaHTaxi. Iota jmt bo Bpexa nepBaro 6oa 3H*I 
onicuBaeTca jeryixxt, upiroTOBJHacb xo BTopol 6htb$, ropuHLm nojBa- 
BUBaeTt ce6* KptiJba 6yxa«HHH. SaciumaBi upi6ai»eBie AoSpuHl, axfei 
jwtbti HaBdptqy. Tjn flo6puHa «3HXxaii> oboi pyEH Ha Be6o, csra 
roBopirt TasoBu ojobb: Coacb-ix, Coaei, Bose xxiokhbijI! HaTi Ilpe- 
ucTaa, IlpecBflTafl Boropojxua! Co^af, Tocnoxi, josjraa!* Hauua Tyia, 
nomen xoxxb, nojxoHiio y sxfea 6yxa»HUH Rpuiba, ynara axfett Ha cupy 
aexJio (Bui. gt. h hob. aanica, 75). 

3ta so T6ia BfiTpiiaeTca ■ bt» 6buiHt o6t> Aieinfe HonoBiqt; y Ty- 
rapiHa 3xt6B*<ia 6yna»Hua EpbUba; no xojhtb$ Aiemi Mxero joajb, i 
nocatACTBifl rfe so. Bi opffiHCKOMi ♦oibEiopfc mu xrtexi cjfcjyiomia 
napajieix. IIIxAupBaHi, MOHroibCEift EHiisb, i3i£hhhbi> npoTxra EHTaicxaro 
HunepaTopa, bjhti bi iuAkv, ero Besyn in Hbehhi, ho oh* yieTaen 
i3i pyKi MTaiuPBTb h noxHHHaercfl Ha Bosjyxi; torja EaraficEiB xxnepa- 
Top* Beiirb ciysiTb voieScTfiie; cayman i HIiftupBaH* ooycaaeTca Ha 
3eniH) (cOtepu ctB.-3an. Mowoj.i, IV, 298). Bt» nopCwrcaoi CEa3Kt 
iiH 6mxHfe HpiHi GalHi jo6HXb lepHaro 6uKa, n EOTopox* 3aKJUoqaiaob 
jyma hjx cMepTb xaHruca, qyjOBBiija, ot<uigth coorBfrrcTBfioinaro Hamexy 
3rtro. Oflb BcKpuBaerb ytpo6y ^epuaro 6usa; hsi Hea BmeTaerb jBfcuaj- 
uaTb HTamerb m nojHxxaioTCH ki Beoy; HpaHX-CaiH'b A^J&eii jsajy, T.-e. 
nocpeAGTBOM* btmaro wmw npoHSBOAUTi HeHacTte; ijeTb sejft3Hbift rpa^i; 
Bee npodpaHCTBO noxpuiocb xpaxoxb h iyu ocBtmaia i eorptoaix TOXbBO 
He6oibmoi yqaciosii aa HpHHi-Galaa; htbuu 03h6ie x cnycTwicb 

Ha 9to CBtuoe MTHumio.Tyrb HpiHi-Cafini y6iBaerb m(cOvpRi cfcB.-san. 
MoHro<i.>, IV, 461). Bi SypaTCXoi csasst o6x AiTaHi-inarai-MBpruH* 
KOHb btow 6oraTupa HacHibHO BMbn Atomy rxaixaHMpaHi-TapSaani; 
X^BHua xoqerb ocBoftojHTbea; oua BUHHxaerb 831 KapxaHa TapfiasBHUfl 
nepba (T.-e. nepba CTennoro opia) x, BOTBByBuix xxi m> cboo itio, naxft- 
peBaeTCH yjerhTb. Boub sasan. sy6axx o6fc Horx a*biuu h He OTnycTUi 
ee. DpHBe3mn x*BHuy n xfecTy, ift Jiesaji eocth y6xTaro 6oraTupa xo- 
aaxfla, soHb onycsaerb j*BHuy Ha eocth. Ho ohb yjeTaen n He(y. Torxa 
EOHb pseTi ci*xya)mixx ciOBaxx: <9c8r3-MaiaH < b-T9HrpH! th, TBopeui! Bi 
BToxy yxepmexy xoexy xo3axHy a npxBe3i> rxaftxaai»-ipdH'b-Tap6»XH, ho 
OHa, He osbbbbI) Corampa, Boaseciacb Ha He6o> . 9c9ro-MaiaHi, i^apb He6a, 
nocujaeTb EaxeHHul rpa^t n spoBaBuft xow, cojihuo CBtTarb Jauib Haxi 
■orraxH AjTaHT»-«araft-xipruHa. Tor^a BTa jtBymsa, mienaa pacnpocTep- 
tuxx xpujbaxx, onycKaeTca aa bth eoctx c(Csa3aHie 6yparb, sanacaH. 
pa3H. co6ipaTejflMH> . HpsyTcirb, 1890, dp. 12) 2 ). 



1 ) 0 Apyrwxi, napajwejflxi> btoK csasRH ci> AH)p6iOTCRoIf o^t HpHH'b-CailH*, 
cm. bi» t*xt> ne n CKa3aBiaxi> GypHTb", nrp. 133. Bt toM se CypRTcnoft ciasirb 
Apyroft BnH30Ai>: cuht» A^TaHi-maraft-MspriiiBa BaTOp-b-cORTO-HsprbiB-b Beaen» 
b* TopoRaxi, 3Joe cyn^ecTBO Moncx-xapa (Maarucb-xapa?), bo oho BApyrb 
HcqeaaerL, h 6aTopi> bhahtb yse ero jeTHmnMi> boat* Be6ecanH; BaTop-b cTp«»- 
jaen. bt> sero t h yCnToe qyAOBan^e naAaerb aa seMJio. He BOBTOpeaie mu bto 
apeAMflymaro paacaasa? 




118 



3TH0rPA4>HqECK0E 0B03PBHIE. 



He6ecHaa xtBa srficb H83Btaa IIp9Hb-Tap6a*i, cnecipwft CTemiott opeix> . 
Bb xpyrHii CKasKait tfiBiau leiarort npH homoh^h je6flKbei inKypBi; 

TBBifl jeSe^H-A^BU BT> TH)pBCKHXb CKa3Satt>, 3aiIHCaHBbItl B. B. PaAIOBHUl 

bt» CaOipH, Ha3UBaH)Tca ny-mrm, r&b nepButf qieH?> wt/ 3HaiHTi» «je6exb>, 
no-HOHroJbCBE xoHVb TLiwxyuih. Bi MOHroibCRm CKassaxi oco6aro TepHHHa 
Aia TdRHib cymecTBi* mb* ue BCTptqaiocb. EcTb Tama HHeHa: A^Bma 
XyHjariHa (T.-e. xyflrb-jaKHBa, cie6e|b HeOecaaa A*Ba?»), bt> GypaTCKoro 
CKa3aBifl (AranHTOBi> h XauraiOBb, MaTepiam o maMaBCTB*, bi cHsBfccr. 
Boct.-ch6. OrA^ia Teorp. Oum.», t. XIV, JV? 1 — 2, CTp. 17), jftBuia 
Xynb-Tatan bt» ojHoit ^apxaTCKoft cKa3Frb (cOiepsH c.-3. MoBroj»,IV, 530), 
uo Ha je6e*HHyio 0Ae«Ay bt> 9Tbxi» Myqaaxi* HaMORa Hfcrb. Bnpoqem, bt» 
jereaxy o XyHi>-Taft»B, noMtmeHayio bi» cOqepRaxb*, 11,106, bxoahti Tela 
o JKAax-b, o6pan\aR>mHXca bt> nnivb, a b* OypaTCBOMi> npeAaHia o npo- 
HCXOX^Hia 6ypaTCBaro uapoAa Xoab-Talxsa — ixa jt&bij -J66ej[i, meuu Xo- 
pnjioa, Boropaa ct> AByxa noApyraia caeTfcjia orb Xoai-XopiiycTa-THHrHpefl 
Ha 03«po GaiUaMTO BynaTbca (cHpsyTCR. Ty6. BfcAOM.*, 1889, J* 47). 
Hxa XyBL-Taft«a BCTpfcqaerca b* cooAHaeaiH cb flbrypearb: flerypeHrt- 
xyHi-TfiftiRH (AiTaHi-ToSqa, bt» -Tpyi. BocToqa. Opa. Apieoior. Oonj.*, 
q. YI, 40) Tokorung, toxorung no-oY.paTCBH— caypaMbi (Castren, Ver- 
such ein. Burjat. Sprachlehre, 201); bi> HByTCRixi CBaaBaxi* qado Ha- 
6ecHbia itBUL cjeTaiorb an seviio Hrparb bt> baa* cTepxoBb, Grus leuco- 
geranus (c3an. Boct. cb6. Ota. Teorpao. 06m.no 9THorp.>, t. 1, b. 3, 
CTp. 74 — 79, 85 i xp.). Cb o6pa30Mi> a^bm-joSca* bi A3ia coeAHHaica 
Hflorxa h A^KomqecRitt xapairrepb; cm. KaTauoa'b, cAi*. yBB3aTeib co6ctb. 
Hxefl'b, BOTpt^aioiuHxca bo II t. o6pa3iv>BT»>, co6paa. B. PaAJOBUirb, Cn6., 
1888, dp. 43. Tpofcaoe hmb flerypeHrb-xyBi-Tailai npHAaao bi c Aits hi - 
too'(h> MyncBOiy nepcon my; bt> Apyraxb cjyqaait XyHT>-Tafi|3Ka hjh CeHre- 
xyai-TaftiBa («0<<epBH c.-3. Maaroj., IV, 406, 534; II, 106; Radloff, 
Proben, II, 381: Konsdajdjy; I, 206 Kongodoi), Tanase ecTb hub My»- 
CBoro nep^oaaxa 1 ). IIpHBtiAeHHbia aabhub upeACTawaForb HtBOTopoe ocbo- 
BaHie Kb opeAuojoaeaiio, mto ci HMeaeHb jl^rypeHrb na boctok* Mono 
coeABHBTbca nuorAa npeACTaBieuie, BO-nepBuiT>, o jeTyqeii, BO-BTopuxi, o 
3J0«i> cymecTBt. Bb MOuroJbCBHXi npeAaaiaxb onacuBaeTca uapb, BOTopuft 
CTpaAaerb orb ftojii^tiH h a^h HSJtqeHia upi6traeTb n secTOBOHy cpeA- 
ctbj; out. Bt*jHTT> yf>HBaTb bl oabomt* BapiaBT't jomaxefi, Bb Apyroxi- 
MJaAeHueBi (c*. c9THorp. 06o3p.» , Ka. XVI, CTp. 94, 118, 119); hs6h- 
BftTdiH) Mia^eHueBb npauHcafla Gojtsub atejyjKa; Bce^ qTO obi> uh %crb, 
ocTaeTca Bb ero opraBH3Mli; ecTecTBCBBuil npouecct H3Bep»eHia OT6pocoBb 
npBKpaTflica; bx m>hxt> <0qepBaxi c.-3. Moaroi.>, IV, 279, noxtmeHii 
orphiB^Ri, noB^AHVOMy, TojbR) Haq.uo ckb3rh o uapt, CTpaAawmex-b no- 
Aoohoh) ase 6<ut^ubio; uapb u^aaab Ceard-xafli. M)atdTT> 6MTb, ci^Ayerb 
B03craaoBHTb ma xaiia Bb TaR0Mi> b»a*: Aerypeari»-Ceure-xyHi-TattABH. 

iKeHCKiil nej>conaasT> CaffH-b-xyHb-TaftwH bt> „04epKax-b c.-3. MoHroji.", IV, 
530; 3to uapeBna, KOTopaa 6biJia yueceaa bt> noa3eMBoe napcTBO ABaanaTHnaTHroJio- 
UUM b ATxnpT»-XHpa-MaiirwcoM*L; ee oeBo6ojKA f teT-b oiryfla KiiTWTT.-xy(„cuH r bKHTafi- 
bb",— Btponmo, no.iAQ'Bfiujee HCKawenie m3t» ApeBiie-aneHecFaro KuTanx-xaH-B). 



Digitized by 




MEJIKIfl <DOJH>KJlOPHOTHq£GKIA 3AM-BTKH. 



119 



Hepeoaaarb, jeTa»mit no B03jyxy h onycRaiomiSca ua seifjfl) no Bfcnjefl 
cut npoTHBHHRa, BCTp-feqaeTca bx 6ywi8cKoft jereHflfc o 6ocTB3aaiE jByxx 
yweiei o Bfcpfc. Bi nocjfcjHee nyTeinecTBie a sanacaj* (orb 6ypara 
6yAAM P. Pa6AaH0Ba), oqeBBjHO, BBasayio jaaailcRyH) lereHjy o 006Ta3aHia 
ApfcflHi-AHBH ei epeTiROHi D&xajioft hjb n&RyjoM. 

Bt 6ojbmoft HHjificKii MOHacrapb UaiaHjapa npaSbin epeTBRX Ilixaia 
(II&Ryia) h ctbjx nponoB^UBaTb yqeme, npoTBBaoe yqeHiH) Ey/UM. Oai 
TopsecTBOBan bo Bcfex*b jacnyTaxi, m sroBaxa acriyrajncb, no am npa- 
AeTCfl ydynHTb. CaEiycoMi (jyxoMx HORpoBBTejero) MouacTupa 6uji 6or* 
Haxaraia bjb Tom6o (roiSorypy). Moaaxa npiBaaajH ki> BopoHy, htiu% 
6ora Maxaraia, nHCbMO, ROTopoe BopoHi jojaceHX 6mi> othbcth ki> Apbaai- 
ABBfc, acHBineMy yejBHeBBO bi nenjepfc . Bt» 9T0MI nncbMft ohh 3Ba u yqa- 

raiff IipsSUTb Bl MOHaCTUpb flJB C0CTfl3aH)H 61 epeTHKOMT.. ApbflHli-AHBa 

npn6Bii'L h BCTynwb bi cnopi. Rx coaajfcHiio, moM pa3CRa3qaRi> 3a6ux , B 
cojepataBie jBcnyTa i sanoMHBi'b ToxbRO ojbhi> oopa3TOHi enopa. Ilaxaia no 
o6pajy CBoero yqema aaqaix OMbiBaTb CBoe t*jo. ApsHH'b-jBBa cnpocnn ero: 
«?to tu at jaemb?> — cGifUBaio cb ee6a cbob jypHwe uocTynRB* , oTBtwb Ila- 
xaia. Torja ApbflHi-ABBa Hanojaajx sojoto8 eocyji» neiBCTOTaME h Haqait 
HbiTb cocy^b caapysB. Tenepb Ilaxaja ApbaHi-jBBy cnpamaBaerb: «9to 
TH rinaemb?» ApbaHi-jaBa oTBtqaeTx; cBt> cocyj* aeqacTOTbi; xoqy cmutl 
bxi>. — <KaB*b »e tu xoieinb, Hepa3yMHtifi>, roBoparb Ilaxaja, <CMUTb to, 

4T0 BHyTpfl, Hdfl TOlbBO Hapy»HOCTb?> — cA MWb »d Tbl> , B03pa3BJl> ApbBH%- 

jbbb, €rpfixB,BopeBanvecHBHyTpBTe6H,xoqenibCibiTbBH*niHBMi»OMOBeHieiii6BO- 
ero Tfeja?> Ilaxaja 6ujt> noS^em h jojaeax 6im SisaTb; oax Mora ieTaTb h 
nojerfeji. Apbflui>-AHBa nojerfej* sa hbmi. Haxaxa jojeTftj'b ao Rpaa caa- 
capbi(T.-e. BHtoBflro Mipa). Apbaax-flBBa Bpaqarb eny: cllaxaja, ocTaHOBBCb! 
Tu xoxerlurb Bpaa caucapu. Eci* He Btpamb, Opoob cbob boiocu Bne- 
pe^x ce6a.> Ilaxaja Opocwi, b ohb o6paTBiacb bi npaxi. Ilaxaja noBepHyji 
Ha3a^i b cnycTBJicfl wb MOHacTbipb HajaH^apa. 3^6b ApbflHX-ABBa 3aT0TOJi 
ero. Bii ROMflart 3aToqeHbi Ilaxaja Hainexi Bet rhrib IaHbiaypa b Taaq- 
»ypa; vreHie hxt> y6tABJ0 ero bx npaBorfe yqema Byjiu; oai Havai-b 
Raaxbca b coqaHBJi cnoRaaHHyw MOJBTByi, ROTopaa a Tenepb iBTaeTca 
jaHaMR. Apyroft Moft pa3CRasqBRi> (HerpaMOTHbii Mouroi bsi RaaaecTBa 
A6ara), nepe^Baa BapiituTi btoH jereHAu, epeTBKa HasBaji AeB^tTofi. 
Kor^a yqeHie Bywu aaqajo pacnpocTpaaaTbca, ero OpaTX ^eB^iaTTa npa- 
mej-b bt» oabbi xoaacTupb b Haqaji yqaTb saax pa3i HanpoTBBi Toiy, 
lemy yqnjx Bywa. Maorie yase o6paTBJB6b rx ero yqeHia). Tor^a Apbaax- 
jBBa, qToSu yflaqToatBTb epecb ^eB^aTTbi, OTnpaBBJCa bt» totx MoaacTbipb, 
r^t nponoBfcjHBaj'b ^eB^aTTa. ^oporoi oabhx qejOB^ax /(ajx eaiy Ronusy, 
flpyroU Hacxo. IIpaineAraB bi MoaacTupb, Apbaui-^flBa BCTynajx bxcoctb- 
sauie Cb AeBaAaTTofi; JlfiBk^rtt uoMoraja mmuib; Apbam-^BBa BbinycTflJi 
BOfflBy, Hbiuifl BcnyraiBCb a y6t»aja, a ApbaHi>-ABBa o^epatajx eepxt 1 ). 

1 )Bi» cTaTfc^AKHpb noBtcTH m AR0pbCKa3aBifl tf (9th. 06. XXY) mm iioct&biijh 
bi> napajjie-iB cb uumaiiH, oKaauBaiomHMH noiiomi* nejiOB-BKy, bojikob'i> 6ypaTCKoft 
CKa3KH, A^JiaiomHX'b to-jkc BojKH-noKpoBiiTejiH BaxoAflTca bt> 6ypaTCKoA CKaaK* 
o roHHMBixi» ft-BTHxt Be*ibMoatHTa6a-HpbH, Ct> o^hhmi» h3t> ft-BTeft BToroTa6a-apb« 




120 



3TH0rPA*HqE0K0K OB03PBHIE. 



y fleB&xarrbi 6t|io aepRaio, cioTpa vb KOTopoe fleB&xarTa Bixftn hicb- 
H6Ha, <nrran in i npi m noMonfr oxepsiBan Bepn bi cocraaaHian. 
ApbaHX-|HBa npojm Ha sepiaio lacio, i oho nepecTajo xaBan coBftra. 
Oiihtb ApbflHi-xiBa noSfcxin AeB&xaTTy. 

iereHxa o cnopft Apbhh'whbh ct Ilaxajoft mxoxitch bi inirt flapa- 
mth: HcTopifl Syuiaia bi Ti6eTt (B. BacubeBi, Byjuisn, III, CTp. 
92—94). ApwrHi-xiBa HasBaHi ApiaxeBa, BitCTO Ilaxaju ctohtb 6pann 
AypxamaiSJa. Korxa SpaiiHi flypxapm8K5ja npi6un vb HIpn-HajaHxa, Tfr 
6ywiCTu He Morn ci Hin cocTasaTbca h, HanicaBt npirjacireibHoe 
DHCbio n ApiajeBt, npiHecJH sepTBy MaxaRaife. Torxa la* cepjma iy- 
npa MaiaKajH Bbuertn BopoHi, n met KOToparo npiBasaai niCbio, i 
on, nojerfcB'b Ha H>n>, Bpywn ero ApiaxeB*. IIpiGuBi vb HaiaHxy, 
yttTOJb Haqan npoxoJsiTeJbHbift cnopi ct> npoTiBHixaii yqeiria Byxxu i 
Tpisxu oxep«an Bepn. ttorxa Aypxapmaaaia xorfeT, n noiomwo aaiJi- 
uaHift y5t«aTB no Boaxyxy; ywejb cBasan ero aaRiHHama h, cxBaTiBi, 
nocaxm n oxHon xpaifc bm£cto Ttopbibi. H BTa Bepcia ROHtaeTca noi- 
Hiui o6pam;eHien epenrea. 

Bt pexaKuiH,8anHeaHH0i mhow, 06a npoTHBHim, jeTara; y flapaHaw leTirs 
TOiLRO oxhhi epenn; oH ApiaxeBt He CRa3aH0, jeTin ji i on Tane 
he ocTaeTca Ha i*ct*. Ecji Tyre, utrb nponycRa, to pexaiuia flapaHara 
6yxen 6««e n pyccRoi GbLiHHt, rx* leTaen tojlro SMfci, a floGpHHH 
in Aaema ocTaioTca na aenfc 1 ). Ecjh mu 6yxen cpaBMBaTb pyeeiyio 
6iuiHy cl SyxxiftcRoft lereHjofl, to cootb^tctbio nepeouaseS 6yxerb TtRoe: 
flofipuHH oTBtiaerL ApiaxeBfc, a smM TopiJHun — Ilaxajt ih Aypx*p- 

Bi pycciot 6u«Ht Ran (yxTO 3iRH><iai0Tca i jpyria 0Tpa*eHia 6yx- 
xittCROft jereHXH, ipoi* BToro 9ni30xa o jeTaHii. Bi GuJiHfc seBnpHa 
(n oxHon cjyqat OBa HaseaHa Mapbei ^hbobboM) sameHa bt> nemept. 
Bi 6yxxiftcR0t jerenxfe Apiaxesa aamaen b* Tiopbiy Ilaxajy; Biipoien, 
ApiaxeBa ■ can cixin n nemepfc oTmeJbHiRon (cai6aBa) f i Bopon 
OTnpaBieHi BussaTb ero isi aToro xo6poBon>Haro 3aToqeHia. KynaBte Aofipuni 
n Ilyiatt-ptR'fe, KOTopoe n napajjeiiHUXi ifccTnxt xpynxi Ohjih-l, Ha- 
npnitpi bt> 6uJHHt o Bacnibt ByejaeB*, iirben ciuen oiOBeufl rpt- 
xobi (vb ptRt EpxaHH), 6hjo 6u, ROHewo, Haravioft cpaBHiBBTb cl omo- 



cBHsaHa TeMa o xp^roi^%HHoeTH f Bwp*3UBaeMoft bst» Tpyna, njuaymaro no p*rb; 
Bra »e TeMa h bt» cRasirfe „ApAasH-BopAKH u , ho bt> »Tott nocjrfeflHeft Tpyni» uh- 
Bert no pfcKfc, boxu KOTopofl BHeaanHO no^Hajincb. 0 Ilyqaft-p'BR'B He roBopHTca, 
qTo6i» ypOBeHb ea noAHfljca; ho bto ecTb bt> Shjibh* o ^o6pi>iH^ n pfcKfe 

CMOpOAHH*. 

ConepHHK-b ^HHrHct-xaHa, nianaHi* TyOyrb-TBHrpH, noBH^HMOny, o6jia- 
Raxi. cnocoOHOCTbio ecjiH He jeTaTb, to ^pyrHU'b cnoco6oifb noxHsnaTbca Ha 
He6o. y PamHfb-dxxBHa o Hem. roBopnTCH, hto oht> Ha 6*joh JiomaiH Bepxom» 
ftaxHJfb Ha He6o. QJaMaH-b cam o ce6* roBopM-b: n Sl xomj na He6o* (Tpyxu 
Boct. Otj. Apxeojor. 06m., i. V, CTp. 159). 




MEJUCIH 4>0JIbKJI0PHCTHH£0KIJI 3ABCBTKH. 



121 



BeHitHi rptfflHaro rfexa, loropoe coBepmaen, Ilaxajt *), bo Bopora je- 

T6HXU, MOKer* 6UTB, H8I0.H1TCH BT» KaKOt-BB6yX*, iota b orxajeBHot 
CB83H CI IITHIteft, HBJfl»mettCfl Bl ApyrOff SuiIBfe 0 Ao6ptIBfe, BM6HH0 0 

ero npoxomreibHott oTiyirfc. floCpHHfl rxfc-To bxbji ott> CBoero xoia, bo 
Bpeifl ero OTcyrcTBia Ajema Houobbtl coSspaeTca ouaxto ero aeHoi; bto 
BpeveHHoe TopmecTBO Ajemi cootb^t ctbj en» TopsecTBy Ilaxaju. Bi 6yx- 
xilcRot jereBx* o6i btovi 3ife jotbti 60o6njiTb Bopora; BipyecEot 6w- 
nni o TopsecTBfe npoTiBHisa floCpuHH iBBtmattT* roj)6i (Pu6h., I, 163; 
II, 17) m Bopora, CHXfln^ii Ha xy6y (BipteBCiil, b. 2, 123). 



!) CeKxa, ht» Ko-ropofi npHeafljiejKajrB Ilajaxa, Kara GyRTO 6ujra noxoara Ha 
xpHcriaHeKyio ceRTy Huepo6anTHCTOBi>, xoTopue npHjaBaja HCKjuoHareJifeHoe 
SBa^eme oifOBeHiro, Kaa-b ^eaoB'BHecKM'o Tfeja, Tasi» h nocy^Li, ojpoRi> h cb- 
XBJiHn^'b; ceirra GyflTo 6u 6waa ocBOBaBa IoaHBOMi* KpecTUTejieMi>, h k*b Heft 
npBHaAJiesaii* Cbmoht>-bojixbt>, KOToputf 6ynjo 6u Glut. nepeuM-b yqeHHiroifb 
loan Ha KpecTHTeJia. 



r. nomanum. 




Mycy/ibMaHCKoe CHa3ame o cb. TeopriN no AT-Ta6apH. 



nPEflHCJIOBIE. 



Korja 15 xfcrb Ha3a/n> HRJKenofliiHcaBiniftcH paooTajTb Haj'b MOHorpatieft 
o cb. TeopriH, kt> KOTopol aKajneMHR'b A. H. BecejOBCRift HCMHoro noajHte 
upeAiOKHJt TaKifl utuHMfl HcnpaBjeRia h joiioaHeHifi bt> CBOHXb cPaaHC- 

KaHiflXl. BT> OOJaCTH pyCCKHIT> jyXOBHMXl, CTHXOBT>» (flpHJOJKeHifl Rb XXXY1I 

t. 3an. Han. Ak. H. JV? 3, 18S0 r.), H3ejrfcjOBareaain» He 6uji> h3b*g- 
Teui opaniHaji> h3b1jctuoh xpoauRa Ta6apn, a toibro nepcajcRoe efl co- 
KpameHie bt> nepeBOAt I^oTeuOepra. B*b uacToamee Bpeifl hh^rctch apa5crii 
no^jHHHHKi TaOapa no jyqiniHi pyKonacasTb. Ho TaRb RaRi cueuiaiacTH no 
BCTOpiH pyccKoft, aanajHoenpiiiieifcROfi h BH3aHTiiicKoft JHTepaTypu, n coma- 

JtailO, 0*T<5Hb pfcpO 6ttBaWPl. 3aaR0MfaI C1> BOCTOqHUKB fl3MRaMH, to naiflT- 

hhrb orpoMHott BB»H0CTii, CTapaieJbHO a o6cTOflT6JBHO nepecRa3hiBaa>mitt 
Maccy xpHCTiaHCKHxt jereuxii Bb pejaBitfHxi He no3jHfce nepeofi iioiobihm IX 
Btna, naMaTHBRT,,cnoco6Hbift bo MHorHXT> cjyqaan> paaaRajbHO H3MtHiTb tfama 
notra o6menpu3HaHHHa ranoTesa, qacro ocaoBaaahiH, 3a HeaufcHieHb jyq- 
raaro, na TaROMt xpynROMt Sasacfc, Kant ocrpoyme i Ha Taam Henpoq- 
Hbixi joBoaax'b, R8RT, cpaBUHTe-ihaaa xpoHoioiifl pnu. BToporo TMcaqeifcTia 
Baineft 9pu, naHHTiiairb cnocooHufl jaTb uaMi> cojhkhuh ochobu jifl pfc- 
raeHia hhmxi BonpouoBi, nepejii kotopmmh hu jo chxi nopi TOJibRO pa3- 
bojhjh pyRaMH, Bee ace dxa nac* ocTaeTcn Ram 6hi He H3^andUMi>. 

Kt> cqaciiK), MejRjy opieHTaiHCTaMB BCTpfcqaioTCfl Tasie B*JHKOAymHwe 
jioah, ROTopue He OTBa3MBaiOTca HHor^a iiocBfinjarb qacTb caoero noacTHHfc 
jparoitfiHHaro bp^mghh — rto He 3Haerb, rbri> y hhxt> ofonapua saTBa jih 
caMocTOHTeJbHHX'b oTRpuriS h RaRt Majo A'feJaiejeS! — ua 03uaK0MJieHie 6oib- 
moft ny6jHKH ci> coRpoBamawi BOCTORa. 0|hu , l hsi> hhxi* aaeTi Hairb Te- 
nepb TOiHbii nepeBoji sbtib cb. Teoprifl no H3J0seHiH) AiraDapH. IIpHHo- 
chm'b eMy Hamy uyCoRyro ojarojapHOCTb. 

CqHTaeaii He jhhihhitl OTMfeTHTb rjaBHtfimia oTJiiia ai-oro nepeBOja »h- 
xia IIoSliflOHOcm cpaBHBTeibHO ci Ttui ero bhaohi>, bt» rrromi aRaxeHKRi 
A. H. BecejOBCKift h HHseuoAaHcaBiniftca 6ujh 3HaK0Mu ci Ta6apa no ne- 
peBojy I^0TeH6epra (KBpiiBqHHKOBT,: cCb. Teoprift b Eropil Xpa6puS> GIIB. 
1879 dp. 13 h cj*a.; A. H. BeceiOBCRiil, 1. o. CTp. 23 i cifc*.) 

l^apb, HyqHBinil cb. Teopriff, 3a^cb HasuBneTCH Aa3aHRa (y Z. Dadyane). 

BdaTH saiitqy: cy«$. 9Toro bh6bh an, coxpauHBiniftcH bo Bctxi> ano- 
RpH*nqecRHib peAA* saria cb. Teopria, ue noBiiajt-b-Jta Ha heb JfaKbRuych, 
ROiopoe npH^aHo bt> joryqeHcaoifb CRasaui o cnamax'b oTpoxaxi (cm. 3an. 



Digitized by 




MycyjlLMAHCKOE CKA3AH1E 0 CB. TEOPriH. 



123 



Boct. Ota. Hun. PyccR. Apr. Oom. VIII, 3—4, 1894 wp. 226 h cat*.) 
TipaHy (bt> ochob£ jeairb hmh A eR i fl )? 

3^tcb, R8Ki> vb jaTHHCKHiT) TeKCTaxi, MyqeBiaarb npe^raecTByeTX npenie. 

B-l TOMHHqy ki» cb. TeopriiD bm$cto XpacTa 3A*cb npnxo^Ti aHreJi> 
TocnoAeHL. 

IlepBaa cMepTb cb. TeopriH npeAinecTByerb 6opt6* ct> Marani. 
Man> nuTaeTca nocpe^CTBOMX fljOBiTaro BaniTKa oOpaTHTb CBHToro bt> 
co6aKy (bt, xpHCTiaHCKHx-b TeKCTax*— OTpaBSTb ero), ho Ton> tojbko yTO- 

Jfl6Tb BMT> CBOH) 7Ka?KAy. 

9yi0 HWb 6UROMT> (y Z. KOpOBa). ClOJaCTHRH 3A*Cb H^CROibRO 6iH»e 
BT> XpHCTiaHCKUMli pejaKuiflarb 

CHJbHuft BHxpb h ysacu bi npHpon*, HacTyniB'iiie nocifc BTopofi CMepTH 
cb. TeopriH, Oiasre noAXOAarb Kb uarafe*T> AyxoBHuarb craxairb, HeaeiH 
KaKaa jh6o jpyraa nojHaa peA^Kuia ffiaria. 

9nn3o^ r t o BOCKpeceeia HepTBeuoBi *o nopa3HTeibHOCTH cxoaoht, cb ja- 
thhcrmmi TBKCTaMH. FoBopamifi 3|tcb HasuBaeTca IOSuAby a He Tubil, 

KaKT> y Z., I BT> BH^y 6lH30CTH 9T0ft *OpMM Kt JbbiuS^ Jovis JftTHHCKHXli 

TeKCTOBt, h AOJaeHi B3BTb HaaaA'b CBoe upeAflOJomeHie o iiepBOHaiaibHOCTa 
•opMU ci T. TapKa6iHHa, npefliaraiomiit renpriio BOCRpecnTb MepTBeuOBt, 
ecTb, 6e3i> comirfcHia Tranquillinus TajJEKaHCKaro TeRda. 

IlpH TpeTbelt cafeprH leopriH 3A^cb pojb arpaerb He KOjeco, RaRi» bt> 
xpBCTiaucKHxi> pe^aKuiaxi,, h ue KOiecHiua, KWb y Z., a Hfrrao BpoA* 
ea KaTOKt, yeaa?euHbifi KUHaiaiatfH. 

McTpeOieHie haojobi> nepecRa3auo o6cTOfliejbHte, ?fcMi> y Z.,ho TaBKe 

6JB3KO HT» XpHCTiaHCKCMT) peAaKniain>. 

Ka3Hb ijapRijH 3AfcCb iipeACTaB-MeTTb, M0»eTT> 6uTb, nponycK'b (bi> xpHCT. 
peiA. OHa ooe3riaBjeua). 

Ka3Hb fl3bHHHK0B'L H KOH^HHa lyqeHBKa H3JM2KeHU BA^Cb OCMblCJeHHfce, 

HeaeiH b* cjaB8HCHnxi> h jaTHucRHXi) Bepciax^: TaMi HCTpeSaeHie Myra- 
TeJeft npeAinecTByerb CMepTH cb. Feopria h BBjaeTca TaRBMi o6pa3oarb ne- 
jfcnoft BCTaBRofi; wbtb orueBHuft Aom&b, nauaeiuiu ua^rb ci He6a, B03- 
bymuMTh sjo6y b3uhhhrobii, ROTopue h y6BBaiOTi CBflToro, aoR oHwreib- 
ho^ HCTpe6jenie Bit saKjeoqaeTi* pa3CKa3i». 



A«HpA»Hcii, EaRb roBopaTi, 6uji> oahht* H3T> 6jaro?ecTaBMxi> pa6oBi» 
BomiHX'b poflOMi, H3i> IlifjecTHHU, h shii> en^e npa nocj^AHHX'b yveHH- 

a ) T. e. cb. TeopriH. ITpoH3HoiiieHie ^^asHp^jKHCt^n ^mep^mucb" oxunaxoBO 
HM*en» oboh ocnoBaein, 



A . KupnUHHUKOOb . 



AT-Ta6apn A6^y Asaoapi MyxaMHeAi> 6eHi /(arapnp'b bi cbo- 
eMi coiMHeHiH „Xpi)HHKa o npopoaaxi m uapaxi w (BO II tom* 
1 copia, ct. 795 — 813, no hsa. J. Berth h Th.Noldeke) 
roBopHti: 



WMTie AmMpAHtMca. x ) 



Digitized by 




124 



dTHOITA*H<l£CKOE 0BO3PBHIE. 



aaxi Hci (t.-c Iecyca, cuhi Mapii). Oh* 6hit> tynuon i npiofiptiu* 
Toproweio ctojuo, wo le mibso Be Hysxajca bt> noioim, ho xaaeyx*- 
jiji on CBoero xocrana 6fexHUii>. Oxiiastu Aupxnci OTnpaBuca 
Mycyji, rjrfc, lan nepexaxb uani> H6ht> Xaiijb eo cjobi Cajaiaia no 
paacnaan Htai-Heaaia 6eH*b-)lyHa66era h xpyrixi yieaurb, uapen tow 
taut Ha3aHa, lOTopuft yxe &iaxtxb bcc» Cipieft i OTjiqajca cbocv 
HaAMeflHocn>» ■ BucoKirfepien. Hap^BH* ci co6o» Parana anoro He era- 
Bin, ipoMfc 6oroBi. no BTOiy 6jaroiecTHBuft xyn Asipisiet e*b ho- 
HHorBHi BtpHum cspuBaji cb°h) Btpy; obi noHMJi yieaie Auoctojobi, 
cptjn BOTopuxi obi npeaje iui. ¥ /J«ipx*Hca 6hjo HHoro xenon i 
orpoiBafl ToproBJfl; ho ohi oqeHb mexpo paaxiBPit huoctuhio, i 6mbbji 
Taiie jbi, aorxa oh* pasxiBan Bee cboo iiymeciBO Hy Hero aitero yxe 
He ocT*Bajoeb; Torxa ohi bhobb 6paica 3a joproBi© i, Ban Tcibio, 6h- 
Bajo, BosbieTca, npi< OpfcTaerb BXBoe 6ojbme npemHaro. Tbbobo 6ujo ero 
xaTepiaJBHoe noiOKenie. Obi jh>6i» pa6otan» i npio6pfrrarb jeoLn toil- 
bo jjh pa3xa«ii muogtuhi, b* npOTiBHon xe cjyiafc oh* npexno?na.rb> 
6u Mahoctb CoraTCTBy. 

B(HCb, ito6u iHor(6ojKBHKH He npraHUi eiy HeopiaiHOCTeft sa ero 
Btpy, in ito6u ohh He coSiasiHii ero, ohi ho xoBfepaica ixb noipo- 
BiTeibCTBy i oropaBi jcb Bi caiioay Hycyja co cboihi GoraTCTBaii, Hart- 
peBBHCb noABecTi m uapio c*b rfci*, ito6u tojlko oxiHb btoti uapb 
6bui ero noBMHTeiei'b. Bi to Bpeia, Korxa Asnpxxic* opiinerb bi aa- 
p», nocjtiHift B03ct^aji (Ha TpoHt) b% Kpyry cbohx* Beibion; 3x*cb, 
no ero npna?auiio 1 Ouj* pasBexeH* oroHb, nparoTOBieHu Bet opyxia nuT- 
bh h nocTaBJtHa CTaTya AnoiiOHa, npexi BOTopyio npiBOXiJi lapox*, m 
Toro, bto He xoTfen eft noBJOHHTbCH, wji Ha orn* i noxBepraw paa- 
hux* nuTKaHi. yBHjifemb, hto xtoaerb uapb, Amipxsiffb Bf-siynjca h 
xaji ce6t cjobo QopoTbCfl sa Btpy; Bon» BHymwi Buy uaHSBHCTb Kb m- 
pio i ptmmocTb CopoTbca ci HtHi>. IIpiHeceHBUfl ci coooh) 6oraTcm aih 
noAHeceniii i^apn obi paa^an cbohmi ejHHOBfcpuairb, He ocTaniBi y ce6a 
Hivero; a CopoTbca cb i^apen, oh* ptinixb He Dpi noion^i jeBert, ho 
mepTByi co6o» &ir BToro. 

BuSpaBb MOieHTb, xorxa uapb 6uji wb cubHon ntBt i ciyn^eHii, 
A>ipASBci noAomeii vb Heiy i CBa3an: <3Haft, vro tu, p*(h» aai pa- 
6obi, He BjacTem hi hb^i co6oft, hi h8At> ipyrm, no Haxi to6o» 
Bon,, Eoropuft npaBin ito6oI i xpyrm. On Ton, Bto coTBOpm 
Te6a, DHiaeti Te6i, xapyen si3Hb i ee OTHixaerb; Qwb nocuiaen re6fc 
Xo6po, i mo. A Tu Bu6paii ce6& oxho iai Ero TuopeHift, no Ero npiia- 
aauiv coaxaHHoe, nyxoe, ntioe, lOTopoe Be roBopirb, He biaiti 9 ho 
CJiimiTb, He xcserb xtaaTb hi jo6pa, be sja, KOTopoe He sax^Hirb Te6t 
Bora. Ero pasyKpacu'b tu 30jotoii» i cepe6poii i co&iasuixb m uapoxi; 
exy tu ct8jt> noBJOHHTbCH, a He Bory, HasfiaBi ero Soron, i sacTaBjaeiob. 
pa6oBi Boxiixi any noxioHHTbcai . 

H HHoroe noxoSaoe ciaaaiii i^apv A&apxsicb o Bejivii Bora, o cjbb! 
Ero, i o tomi, wo He ciftxyerb nouoHHTbca ixoian. Bucjyman Bee 




MycyJIBMAHGKOE CKA3AHIE 0 CB. DEOPHH. 



125 



sto, aapt cnpocHJi, AnRpxsica: cbto tu « OTByja tu npHmeji>?> «fl 
pa6x Eoarift, OTBfcqaxb 6ht>, ccuhx pa5a h pa6uHi B;o, cavui umoKaHt 
■si Ero pa6oBT», eaxutt 6*jHuft hbi, hhxt>; evl npaxa a eoTBopeH* h n 
semio OTujy> . SaTfen oht> pascBaaai* uapio, qio ero npiBei) cio^a n kto 
owl. Ilocifc STOro AsipAsici npi3WBaji> uapa noRiOHSTbCfl ucuHHOMy Bory 
h oTBasaTbCH orb noniOHeHia Hjojain*; a uapb npiatiBaji /faBpjsBca no- 
KJOHHTbca Tovy Bjojy, KOToparo can noMTan, ■ cxasaji evy: cecii 
TBoft Bon, o KoTopoMi, tu jynaeinb, eto'Ohi Uapb uapett, TaaoBB, Rasi 
tm ero 001081%, Torja Omjh 6u bhahu ua xe6t Ero jfcaHifl, oojoSho TQMy, 
sail moh A^aHifl bejhu Ha oxpysaiomHi'L Meea i^apflxt. flMEpjaEBCb OTBfe- 
teji: cCiaBCHT. h BeiflKi, Bon. Hami! Kj ki tu Mosenib .cpaBHHTb 
TapKa6iHHa h to, ito oht> npio6ptrb, ciywa Te6t, — a TapEa6iHBi» Btjb 
saHHMaerb cauou BUCOHoe nojomeaie bt> TBoem rocyjapcTBfc, — ci 0jie» 
h rfurb, tto oht> aaciyarBXb y rocaoja Bora! Hiifl 6uji npocTOfty qeiOBlurb 
1ut> npocTys) nnmy, nfcuiROMb ioahit> no yjsijair b; no SjarojaTB se Bosiet 
mh optica nepbflMH h cb*tomv hji qejoafcEa CTa-irb anreioirb He6ecflti«» 

h 3eiHUMi> i jeTa.n> ci> aHreaaMi CsasH mhS, nasi tu Mosemb cpaB- 

Hurb TBoero. BeibMoasy MajatiBTuca e noayqaeMoe ert> no TBoeft ebjocte 
ftiaro vb Mecciel, cuhomt. Mapii, e jajJoBaBHoe eMy no Bosiett huocti 
(jaro; h6o Bon bobbuciji Ero ua*b bc^ih juoibMH i nocTaBHit Ero i 
Ero Hapojrb npairtpoii» jjib apaBOBtpBuxi>» . Tyrb ohi» pa3CKa3aib eny 
»HTie Meccii i o AapoBaimot Eiy Boroin, mbiocte. cCEaasa mt TaEse», 
npoxoiwm oht>, <KaKi> tu Moseinb cpaBHiTb MaTepb 9ioro Bjaroro flyxa, 
EOTopyH) Bon U36paji> jjh Ceoero Ciosa, KoTopoft yTpo6y Oht* ocb3thjt> ajh 
CBoero flyxa, KoTopyw fiorb npexnoqen Bctm seHan> h nojyqeHHyio Eid 
narpaxy sa cjiyseHie Bory — c*b Ie3aBeibio h cb Tin, ito osa noiyma 
OTb Te5a? Oaa 6uia oiuoft nauii, o^Hoft Bfcpu cl to5om>, 6uia Moryn^e- 
CTB6HH0H) uapaqeft, ho Bon 0CTaBHJT> ee, — h co6aEH pacTep3a« ee bi> ea 
XEJin^t, JB3ajH eii KpoBb, jhohuu h bojkh pacTacBau ueuu e« Tftja> 
Uapb CEa3aji»: ctu pa3CEa3UB^e.ub mh^ o toii>, ito Ham> He h3b*6ctho; 

OpHBeXH MHt 9THIT> XByXb My»ett, 0 EOTOpUXl TU yOOMflHyJl, TT06U MHfc 

yBi^Tb ext. h nocj^AOBaTb HXb npHEtpy; eoo a He BfcpH), hto6u bto 

MOT JO 6UTb CpejH J»xeft>. A«HpX«HCl OTBtTEJ'b: CTU Be BipBLDb BCI^X' 

CTBie TBoero caxoo6ojbnjeHifl; stexx me XByx*b jio^ef tu He yBHjnuib, 
h ore Te6fl He yBEXflTi* Mfi TtTh Hopi>, no Ea He 6yxenib nocTynaTb, eaex 
ohe nocTynajQ. Tow TOJbEo tu yjocTOHmbca ysptTb exi JHqa>. I^apb 
CEasan: cmu npEBejn Hauie ocpaBjaHie, h hevi HCHa tboe Jomb; e6o tu 
XBacTaxca rfen, ?ero He Mor*b xosaaaTbi . Svrkwb oht» npexiosnii A«ipx- 
SHcy he Bu6opT>— noxBeprHyTbea nuTEaMi, eje noEiOHETbCfl AnojuoHy e 
nojyqBTb sa eto Harpajy. AsHpASECb otb^teji: cecjH Aoojjohi B03ABEri 
He6eCHuS cboai e t. a. (oh* nepe<iECJHii bc* x*flHifl Bora), to tu npaBt 
x xaeuib Mat xoSpul costTi-, eciB se Hfcrb, to norE^HE, npoEJETut 
HeqecTEBeui* ! yciumaB'b, eeei dohocutl Ajrhpaeeecb ero e ere 6oroBi, 
uapb CEJbHO pasrHtBajca e npEEasaji, BOSgBErHyBX xocKy, npEfiETb Kb 
nett AasflpjiBflca e qecaTB asexfesBUMB rpe6HflEH, pa3jBpaH ero Tfeio, o6je- 
safl paHu yEcycon e o6na3UBafl ropimeft. Ho, bbjh, qTo Bee bto He 




126 



3TH0rPA*HqECK0E 0B03PUHIE. 



MoaeTx ynepTBHTb ero, uapb nDHRa3an> bGht* bt» ero rojoBy niecTb pac- 
KajeHuui'B AO-6*ja Gojbinin> asej'fcsHHX'b rBosieft. IIpi 8T0Mi» M03n Axipx- 
3KHca t6K*l HKb tojobu ero, ho CMepTb He Hawynaja. Torxa uapb npixa- 
384% npmecTH 6ojtmoft MtAuuft ROTea* h pasBecTH noxi hhmt> oroHb; 
Korxa KoTeix pacRajHjea AO-G&ia, obi* B6Jkrb SpocHTb bt> Hero flwipAiRHca 
i 3aBpuTb, noKa ROTejb He ocTHHero. Ho Bee »e ^KflpwHCb ociajica trhbt*. 
nocifc BToro uapb npi3Baii> ero i cRa3a.n»: «tto tm cRaxemb OTHOCHTeibHO 
HCDbiTaHHui'b to6oh) MyqeHifi? — cfl Te6fc CKasaji* , otb^thji oht,., <tto 
ecib Eorb, KoTopuft cHJbHte Te6a; Oht> oSaer^HJi mh* hoh CTpaAaHia h 
AaJT> mh* Tepnfcuie, 4to6u yOtxiTb Te6fl ht> cupaBe* jhbocth mohit, cjobx> . 
IIocj* 9thxt> cjobi uapb ncnyraica Aypuux'b nocjfcACTBift oti BToro air 
ce6fl h cBoero uapma h pfcunuca uaBfemi sanifOMHTb ero B*b TiopbMy. 
Ho HfesoTopue h3t> ero npH6jHweHUMn» saHt-ma: cccjh tli ocTaBimb ero 

Bb TH)pbVb CT> HtKOTOpoft CB060AO&, TO OB*b 6yAeTT> rOBOpHTb Cb Hapojoirb 

h, Moaen* 6biTb, BOSMyTBT'b ero npoTHBi uapfl; nodTOMy npHRaacH, vro6u 
bi Tioput noAEeprajH ero nuTRairb, He ^aBaa roBopHTb cb Hapojox'b. 

H, no Dp0Ra3auiH) uapa, JJatHpAffiHca bi» Tiopbut eojotrhjh ihuomti Kb 
nojy, npHBflsaBb sa pyKH n sa Horn aeitsubiMH utnanH ki> idTupeirb 
weitsHunii Rojam, a Ha cnHHy b3Bi\ihjh MpaMopHyio UHJHHApoo6pas- 
ayio rj«6y. 9Ty rju6y opaJHCb HecTfl 7 qeJOBfcRb h He MoriH, satta* 
14 h TOHse He MoriH, HaKoiieuT> 18 ee npHHecJH h brrojlhjh eHy Ha cnmy. 
H tbhi /(sHpiuci npoBWb Becb fleHb. KorAa *e HacTynnja Hoib, nowaji 
Eon CBoero AHreia (h 9to 6ujo nepBMft pm, hto /faHpAKaci nojyqHXb OTRpo- 
BeHie h BHj'fejrb aHreioBi); aureii chaji cb Hero RaMeHb h okobh, Ha- 
noi jt>, HaRopMHJii, 6jarocJORHi , b h yrfcmHJ'L; a yTpom BUBeji ero H3T* 
TBopbMM h cKa3ajn>: cornpaBJHftca Rb TBoeify Bpary h 6opaeb ci HHirb sa 
Bfcpy; h6o rocno^b Bon TeGfc roBopHTx: pa^yfica h Tepnn; 9 6y^y Hcnbi- 
TtiBaTb Te6a bt> npoxojseme 7 qepesi OToro Hoero Bpara. Ohi noj- 
BepraeTT> Te6a pasHUHi MyRaifb h uempe pa3a y6beTi> Te6a; Tpi pasa 
Bocipemy Te6a, a Bb neTBepTbift npHvy tboio xymy h B03Harpaxy Te6a>. 
He3aMtTH0 &ia HeBipubU'b, jlffinpAWHCb noHBBjea Measly hhmh h CTan npi- 
auBaTb an, kt, Bory. c^TKap^HCb-iH tu?> cnpocwb y uero uapb> . c/Ja, a 

/llKHpAJKHC'bi , OTBtTHI'b TOT1,. cRto BhIBeJ f> TtOH B3T> TIOpbMU* ? — cBblBeil 

M6HH Ton,, 4ba BiacTb Bbirae TBoefb. ycibimaei oto, uapb npimejb bt> 
apocTb h uoTpe^oBarb Bet MyqBTCJbHue cHapflAU. llpa bqa^ 9thit> opyxift 
ero MyvtHi'a, /(sHpAffiHrb cMyTHica, ho Bcsopfc oBjra^tJi go6oh) h rpoiKO 
CTai*b ynpeaaTb ce6a bt> Majo^ymiH. 

noc-j* 9Toro ero pacTHHyjiH memny pyNa CToioaMH h, HaiHHaa vh rojOBU, 
nepenBJHJH ero uo-nojaMb; Baas/ijio nojoHHHy p«3pt3HJH Ha HtcROibRo 
qacTefi h OpociJH bt> poBi>, r^t uaio^HJECb JbBbi, qHCJioxi ceMb. 9ro Shut* 
OAHH-b H3*b MHoroqacitHHUib BHflOBi ero hmtobt>. Ho, no BHymehiio Toe- 
no^a Bora, JbBbi He TpoHyjH ero T-feia, iipeRJOHHiH cboh rojOBU h CTaji 
Ha sa^Hia ianu, RaRi 6u oSeperaa ero ott, paciRH^eBia. H TaRi odaBajra 
AffiHpASHCb ao Benepa. 9to 6bua nepsaa CMepTb, soTopyio oht, ncnuTaj-b. 
HoibH) TocnoAb Bon co6paiT, rjckh ero ifcja bm^ct*, BOCKpecHJi> ero, h 
uocjajb aHreja bmbccth ero H3o pBa, HaRopMHTb, uauoHTb, SiarocJOBHTb 




MycyJIbMAHCKOB CKA3AH1E 0 OB. TEOPHH. 



127 



k yrbmHTb. Ha yTpo AHreii BOCBiKKHyjt: <o, flatipj«HCb!> — «fl>, otb*- 
thji toti. kuren upojojataji: <BceKorymii, KoToputt coTBopHii A^na 
■3i npaxa, npHBasajb H3Bje*u> Te6fl iso pBa, CTynafi Rb tbocmj Bpary, 
SopHCB ex hhm*l sa Bfcpy h yMHpatt Tepn£jHBo'> H boti, Korxa bjojoho- 

K40HHBKH HpaSftHOBaJI CMepTb fl«Hpi«BCa, OH* BH63BIIUO flBHJCfl CpejH HHX'b. 

cKaKt btotl neioBtK^ ooxosb Ha j(sflpx»flca>l roBopBJi ohh npo Hero 
Apyn> ipyry. cOnb oti hscb He CRpoeTca*, cBa3aji ijapb, cBfcjb »to cajib 
AxBpxsBCi! Pa3Bfe bu He BiXBTe ero cnoROlcTfiia jyxa h npeneSpeseHifl 

Kb H3M r b> ! — <A &1 i CBa3a4T> /jMpflRHCb, cBTO fltfl CTB HTCIF HO v. Bu, He- 

qecTHBbie, Hajpyrawcb Hajo MHoft h yHepTBBjH mchh. Ho rocnojb Bon, no 
MHiocepAiio GBoeMy BocspecHXb MeHfi. 06paTHTecb se kt> 3Tony Eory, Roto- 
pult noEasaj'b Bam cbob *fyjeca!> 

yciufflaBTi 3to, ohh roBopHJH jpyrb ipyry: cb*pohtho iapo/r6ft OKoiijo- 
Bajb HamH pyxi ■ rjasa, Taxi tto xu He noaein, ero ojoj^Tb, co6epen*b 
BCfeii HapoAteB'b cTpaHbi>! 

Korja ohh co6paiacb, uapb csasaai naBHOMy bs-l hhxt,: cnoKasi Mirk 
canoe 6ojbmoe mi tbobxt* qapo^ficTBt!> ^apoflfctt Bej$xb opi»ecTH 6tiKa, 
jyByib eny n ojho yxo, h I3T> ojHoro yxa crajo jBa. 3aTiMT> ohl jy- 
Hyjb b% API roe yxo, h bm£cto oj|Horo 6biKa CTajo jBa. IIotomi noTpe6oB3Ji» 
nmeHiHHbiH sepHa b, noca hxi> npHHeciM, 6008X81% noie; sarfcM'b uoctflji 
nmeHHuy, b, Korja . HHBa co3p*ja, oa r b co6paj% jsaTBy, BUMOJOTHib, cmo- 
joxb, 3aM*CHXb TftcTO, HcneKb xj*6b ■ citn ero. Bee no bt» owe* qacb. 

Hocj* dToro uapb cRa3ajv. cMosemb jh tu o6paTHTb 9Toro qeiofifefsa 
(yia3MBag Ha /tsepjaHca) bi MBOTHoe?> 

— cBi>.KaKoe?> — enpoewb HapoflM. «Bi co6aay>, — otb^thji uapb. 
cHpHKaxHTe npHHecTH *ainy ci» boao2>, cKasaji Hapoflfcft. Korja npHHecjH 
lamy, oht> ayHyj* Bb Hee h oGpaTHJCfl Kb ijapio eo cjobrmb: «npHRa*H 
AacepxBHcy BMHHta 9Ty Bojy> . H AmepjcasHCb BbiiiffJi »ce, ito 6ujo Bb Hamt, 
xo XHa. <BaKX th ce6a qyBCTByeuib?> cnpocaji ^apoxtft y AsepxsHca. 
cOieHb x^pomo, oTBtTHii* nocj^XHit , «h oqeHb xoTKn* nBTb, h Bon, yrc- 
jBXb 9THMb mob) aaiKjy, iTo6u a Morb SopoTbca cb Bama> . Tor^a vapnA^fi 
oSpaTHJGH uap» h cxasan: <ec*H 6u tm 6opojca cb HejoBfcKOMb, uo- 
Ao6ubiM'b Te6t, Thi HnB'fepHoe no6^AHJb 6h. Ho tu Oopenibca go Bcevory- 
manfb, noBeiHTeaeafb HeDecb h sesua, cb I^apeii, napeM, RoTopoMy EtTb 
paBHaro> . Kor^a qapoA^fl kohmmj^ cfoio ptib, oahbl h.^ npH6jHneHHux'b 
uapa, KOToparo C^Jte Bcfex* ysasaji, Hapoxx^ BCTan, h CKa3ajb: <6yneTe- 
ji bu MeHH wyinaTb, ecjH a Bam» CKaary HtCKOJbKO cjobt*?*— cfla, 6y- 
ieMb>, oTBfcqajH ohh BCb. Tor^a OHb Ha^aj-b TaKb: cbu Ha3UBaiH A*flHi« 
BTpro qejOB^Ea kojaobctbomi, h AyvaeTe^ tto ohi OKOJAOBajb Baron pyKH h 
rja3a, TaKb mo Bam, TOJbRO R«aaiocb, ^to bu ero Myqnie, a Ha caMOUi 
A*j* Bamfl iiKiTKH eitry HHitro He cjr&Jaji, tbkl uto brmtj TojbRo Rasa- 
joob, no bu ero yGnjH, a Ha canoib OHb octajch irbbi. Ho pa^Bt bu 
bhaIuh Rf r^a Hn6yAb, hto6u RaKoft-ja6o qapox^it Morx OTBpaTBTb OTb ce6fl 
CMepTb, hjb qToou OHb Morb ojRHBHTb nepTBaro?> 3aT^Mi» obi,, cpaKHHfaa 
hxt> MapoAtficTBa ci qyxeeaMH /{xepAsaca pa3CR83ajb bmi cj^Ay^yio iCTopiio: 
cOjHa 6*AHaH seBmiHa, ycjuuxaa^ npo Asepjsica h ero qyxeca, npninja Rb 




128 



3TH0rPA4IttRCB0E 0B03PSHIE. 



Heiy Kb to Bpexa, Borxa oh* 6hii wb caion crfccHeHBOMi nojrxeHui, ■ caa- 
aaia eiy: cfl 6fexHaa seHnpiHa. y Mean 6uii exflHCTBeHiuil 6un, lOTopul 
cocmjai* Bee xoe BMymecTBO h Bee Moe npomrraaie; bow ojaanju a 
Daiaia Ha Hem>, oai oaoifexb; a boti a npa/nia ki Te6fc ci npoob6oH>, 
ito6h th nosajfcji Meafl h nonpocm y roenoxa Bora okhbhtb loero 
6uia>. AsepABHGi saaiaKaii h eTai* HOJHTb Bora yMBJocepxHTbca aax* 
Hex) h osiBiTb en 6uk8. IIotoii, a»bt» eft na.iRy, CRa3axb: ccTynaft Tyxa, 
rx* naii> TBOit 6hrt», yxapb ero bto! naisott co cjobemi: coxxBHGb no 
C0H3BOi6HiH> BceBuuiHaro Bora*. - cO, fl«epjMGT>!» B03pasua OHa, yse 
nponuo HtCROibRO xHel ci Toro BpeneHi, Kara Mofi 6uki» oROjfcii: xojsbo 
6uti>, ero pacracKaiH x*Kie SBipa; h, Rpoirt Toro, a oTOHb xaaeno anray 
orb Te6a> . — cHawro* , cia3aii> flaepxJRacb, «eciH th Haftxemb Tojbao xorb 
oxhhi ero 8y6i> h yxapaaib ero 9Toi naiaoi, oh-l ossaBeTb no coiSBOieHiH) 
Bora». H boti> OHa ompaBiiacb Tyxa, rx* nan ea Smki, a nanua Tan 
orb Hero oxaai pon> h boiooh ci ero xboctb. Cjosbbt> BMtcrfe, OHa yxa- 
paia no hhtb naiKolt a CRa3aia to, qeiiy Hayqiii ee JfaepiMci. Buki ea 
oiui a OHa CTaia ohatb naxaTb Ha Heii»>. 9to h Maoroe xpyroe BHCTa- 
Binib BeibHOJKa, Kain> apryieaTM npotiBi hx* aeBfcpia. tHai tbomxi 
cjobi bixho», CBa3*JH no jonoi iobbhrr, cvto tu nociyinaica yieaia 
fl«epx«aca> . cCi» Tfixii nopi, Baai a yBixfeJi sroro ieJOB*Ra> , B03pa3Hn> ohx, 
cxtaHia ero noaasajKCb unb bt» Bacinett CTeneaa CBepn>ecTecTBeaaHM».— 
cMoserb 6uTb> , CBa3au Tfc, <oht> co6ja3HHJi Te6a A — cjja» , otb^tbji 
Ton, ca Btpio bt> HcTHHaaro Bora i npn3HBaH> ero bo CBHXfcreJi Toro, 
qro a OTRa3UBaB>Cb noRiOHaTbca Banian* 6orait» . Torxa uapb h ero npa- 
6iiseHHbie bckoibjh, Hanajni na Hero ci Kaeaajaaa a oTptaaia y Hero 
nauRi, pacnycTHBi wyx'b, ito oht> yiepi orb vyxu npe»xe> vorb 

BbWOJBHTb CJOBO. 

flas-ei, BH^a, wo HjioionoRJOHHBBE cBpuBaH>Ti HGTHauyH) npnnHy CMepra 
BeJbvoax, BucTynaj-L nepe^i* Hapoxoxi i oTRpuxb eMy, aaai 6hjo x^io, 
paacKaaaB* eiy h p^a noKoiaaro B^ibHO»H f Ojaroxapa vexy 4000 ieio- 
pfcRi noci^AOBaji ero B^pt. cOa* 6uji xtlcTBiTeibao npaBi wb tomi, 
vro nponnBtAUBaxb> , roBopaja b% aapo^t, «xa nonaiyeTii ero Tocnoxb 
Bon>l» Ho uapb Beitji nepexaaTarb HOBOoSpan^eaauxi, Haxto Ha hhxi» 
obobh, noxBeprayTb nbiTxarb, aaxpyraTbca naxx hexh i nepe6aTb b&xt> 
AO nocitxHaro. IloKOHqairb ci hhhh, uapb bshjch sa Aacepxuca. cMDjacb TBoexy 
Bory, hto6m Oai Bocapecaji* axi, Taat Raai tu npaiHHa ui oxepnli 
cRasaA ohi AsepxsHcy. cBorb xaSpan ua hhxx jyvnyio yiacTb>, OTBtTiJb 
^asepxasaci, <E36aBHBi hxi orb Te6a> . Torxa oxhht> h3t» BeJbxovb, no ueHi 
HaxsJBTbici, CRasaxb Asepxsicy: cth xyMaemb, Asepxxic-b, tto Taot Bon 
eoTBopaxb Mipi h Bocapeuiaerb JKjefr, a nonpomy y Te6a oxnoro ?yxa: ecia TboI 
Borb ero acnoiaarb, a noB*bpa> n Hero, noBtpa) Te6t y i isfiaBJH) Te6a 
orb nuTORi mohxi exHHOBtpueBi. Boti mu ciixairb Ha 14 Rpeciaxi, ne- 
pexi Haaa ctoiti cwjb, a Ha homi — Sorojiu, TapeiRH h xpyrifl xepeBHH- 
lua Bema— Bee bto hsi pauaubix'b poxoBi xapeBa. nonpoca Taoero Bora, 
?ro6u Oai npaBeii Bee bto wb nepBOHavajbHui m bhxt», wo6h ohi 
6tbjh seieabna a m momi 6u paaJHUTb xasxoe xepeBo no ijatoy, no 




MycyjbMAHOKOE CKA3AHEB 0 CB. rEOPriH. 



129 



Jicrtan i nxoxan>. Asepxncb oTBftrm: <th npocimb x**a, Tpyxsaro xjh 
Htci» raTo6ot, ho jja Bora 9T0 jento> . ^sepxMCt noMOiucfl Tocnoxy h, noia 
ohi 6ix$u enje Ha cbobxi xfccTan, xpecia h nocyxa oo CTOion aaaeae- \ 

H*JH, nyCTHJH KOpHH, OX^IICb KOpOH), 06p0CJH B*TBHXB, UOXpUlXCb JBCTbflXB, 

unfifkMM i xaJi iijioxh, Tan wo saxjoe xepeao mosho 6iuo ysaaTb no 
BHjy, no UBtTy i no moxan. YBEj&wb bto, flunHixi Bosxyruicb h 
totl se MafcuiTUCi, lOToputt npocm *yxa> bshjcb ero xyniTb, CKasan: 
<h npoyvy aroro lapoxta, tco6h ntiTtfa faiia. jih Hero HanoiiHaHiem ero 
Mpo|ticTBa>. BsflBi xfex>, ohi, c/rtaau in nee ♦irypy Ha-noxo6ie 6uia, 
nycryi) BByrpi, noMt cthtc JbH j ro , Hafixn ee ho^tlid, cbhhuomt,, cfcpoft h 
xumMrcon, nocaxan Tyxa flaepxxica h pagBen nox* btoI wypoi oroiib, 
noxxepsBBaa ero xo rfen> nopi, noia Bee, ito 6u jo BHyTpx, pacwaBiJiocb 
h cxfemajocb. Tail inori6i flaepxam. Bibto Bpexa Eon, nocjan ciibHtii 
BtTepi, KOTopui xaraan *epinifl tjw, npi sen 6eanpepuBH0 rpeifcn 
rpon, csepKMa iojbih s men ciibHuM xo»xb cpexi myxa i xpaaa, Tan 
hto ae duio bixho hh He6a, hh sexu. Bee ipyron norpyswocb bx Tiny, 
i Tan nponiJO BfceKoibio cyTon, sorxa Heiisa Omjo paajHWb xua h 
how. Torxa nocian Bora CBoero aureja Mmaiia, BOTopuft bsaji &?y 
irtxHyH) ♦irypy, rx* tow* flxepxxicb, noxian ee h yxapim o boxjid. 
Pasxajca cTpamHiift rpecn, on BOToparo bc* shtbjh Capi* npimii m» 
ciibHut CTpaxi h nonaxajB Ha sexjio; Tpeen »to» m> oxih* i tote 
ate iaci> 6un yciuman Bcfexi. $irypa paaCuacb i Asepxun Bumen 

IBl H6H — 91810X1 

Rorxa oh* ctb» roBopiTb nepex* mnxuam, Tbia paactaJacb x obb 
odomhxjhcb. Oxhhi 831 hit*, no HxeHH TapiaOjua ciaaan: cflxepxMm! 
xu ne 3Haexi, bto TBopm bti *yxeca, th hi TboI Tocnoxb; ecu bto Ohi, 
nonpeoi Ero BOOKpeexTb aanurb noBoffixsoBi; bi anrb xoruaxi nepexb 
to6o» jesan nama noBolHBEx; Htooropuz'b xu 8Haexi, a xpyrie yxepja 
eme xo naci; nonpoex Tocnoxa Bocipecxrb in Taxxxx, BanxH ohi 6iui 
paHbme, x xu 6yxen paaroBapiBaTb ci hbxh. Cboui BHaioxuxi xu 
yaiaexi, a HesHaKoibie pasciaayrb Han npo ce6a.> Asepx»cb cxasajrb: 
cCkojbio pan Borb 6uji> b% bsmt> cHiexoxiTejeHi, noKasuBafl Ban Cboi ly- 
xeca, xm Toro, hto6jh oCjiutb Baci bi HeBtpii, vbxi bu saciyxiBaeTe Ero 
rH*Bi>. 3aTtab on npixasaxb orxpuTb xomih, co6paTB kocti, o6ioxbi 
Koerel i npaxi, x cian xoixTbei. flabniuii He ycnfeii cxtxaTB hi 
oxHoro XBiseHia, san noiBUiCb 17 HejOBtn, bi «cj4 BOTopun 6uio 
9 sptJHX'b xyxei, 5seHn^m i 3 xajbwaa. flxepxxici* oCpatucfl kl caxoxy 
cTapoxy isi hiii n Bonpocon: cciapeux, Ban to6h 30ByTi?» — <MeH« 
soByro K)6iien> , OTBtTin totb. — cKorxa th yxepi?> — npoxoisan 
jlsepxxxci. — cfl am, oTBtoan ciapeui, bo Bpexa Taaoro-TO x TBKoro-TO> . 
GocuTau i oHa3ajocb, ito ohi yxepi 400 itn ioxy Haaaxi. Bixa bto, 
uapb x ero npH6jxseHHbie paseymxan* wo ho oeTajoob yse hh oxboM 
hjutxh, Koiopott-6bi ohh He noxBeprajH /Jxepxxica, ipoxt rojoxa x samxu^ 
i ptmxjxcb Ha bto. Gii btoid ufrihw ohh H36paji xomhk-l oxiofi 64xhoI 
CTapyxi, OTKyxa on He ion ytosaTb; y btoS CTapyxx 6un cun citnoi, 
uyxott, 6e3Horift. Amepxuea saBiioqiii Wb btott, xoxxn 6eai nuqixnxTbH. 

9taorPA*l«IKCKOX 0BO8P*aU£ XXVI. 9 




130 



8TH0rPA*HqEGK0E OBOSPttHlE. 



Hyvmutt rojoxom, ohi oSpaTHjca kt> GTapyxfe h cRasan: cnftrwH y 
Te6fl wo-Hityx* noftcTb vji noniTb?> — cH4n»> orofeTua Ta, <RiaHycb 
tioraira, y Had y«e HfccKOJbKo xaef Htn. hi name, hi mrrbff; h noftxy 
h nonpomy jua Te6a Tro-HH6yxb nofccTb>. — c3Haeou» n th 6ora», capo- 
cm ee flaepxMCb.— cflai, OTBfrnija ona.— tTu npaaHaeuib Bro?> — npo- 
aojataji oht>.— cHtrb) . Torxa oh* nproBaib ee nowoHiTbca E*y, h oHa yst- 
poiiaia h oTnpaBtiacb noHCRBTb xia Hero mop. ^ourb ea onipajca Ha 
jepeBHHHHft ctoj6i. fl«epx«iab CTaji MOMTbca Bory i caopo aiOTb ctoi6i» 
aaaejeHfcrb, ■ Ha Hen Bupocn BceBOsvoxHue njoju h oboiijh, lane jaGai) 
h *acojb. 

Ha 6toj64 Bupocia 6oibmaa BtTBb, Roropaa noxpma cboimi JHCTbHHH 
XOHHirb h Bee, ero oapymaioiqee. Rorxa oh* Eymaj* bti moju c% yxo- 
BOJbCTBieMi, CTapyxa BepHyiacb joiioft h, yBHjfcB'b, tto npoMonuo b* ea 
oTcyiorfiie, BocaJBRayja: <a Btp» b* Toro, Kto HaKOpMHJt Te6a wh xom* 
rcjoja! IIonpccH 9roro BejHiaro Bora acivfcjirrb Moero cuaa! — tllpHHecM 
ero ko Mat uo6iiael— npaaasaji oht>. Korxa OHa sto Hcnojema, ohi 
nivHyjb evy bt> 06a wa3a m tot* npo3pfcjrb, xyayi* Bb 06a yxa i rjy- 
xoTa ero nponaja; cHCirfejH eaiy h3ukt> h.hom!> npoxonaja npociTb cTa- 
pyia, <Bnrb Te6a B03HarpaxiTi!> — <OdaBb bto, 160 HacTanen i*& aToro 

BeiHKift X^Hb.» 

Oxaasxu uapb 001001% nporyiOTbca no ropoxy h, saff&THBb xepeBO, cm- 
?aj*L croimi> cnyTBHFaMi: «fl Bisy axtcb xep«BO, KOToparo npesxe Ba 
BTon Mtcrfc ho 6hjo!> — <9ro xepeso, otb^tajh ohh, cBupowo xia Toro 
Boixyaa, KOToparo th xorfci* yiiopiTb rojoxom, a obi bt» CBoe yxoBOJi- 
cTBie ten ciaero h Ropirerb 6*AHyro seamany, x* RpoMt Toro icu^jui 
ea CHHa!> Torxa ijapb npaia3aii> paspyinaTb jonb i cpy6HTb xepeBO. Korxa 
co6ipaJHCb ero py6iTb, obo no noBeitaia) Bomiio bucoxio h o6paTwocb 

OMTb Kb CTOJ&b, ROTOpbltt OHH H 0CT8BHJH. 

A jfcepjacica qapb npaR83ajrb pacTHHyTb jui^omiki 3eMjfci npHBasaTb rb 
qerapen sojavi. 3artM% owb Beitn cx'&iaTb bbtori, ycaxeHHiii no 
noBepxHOCTi RHHsaiain 1 hosbmh, anpeib bt» Hero 40 6urobi h nporuaTb 
HX*b ^epesi Asepxsaca, HOTopui 6ujt» TanaMb o6pa3oi-b paspySieHb Ha Tpn 
qfCTH. OxHy i3i hi xi uapb npaKaaaji c*eib Ha ornt, a 30 jy nocian 
6pocHTb bi nope; Eor^a 9to 6ujo icnojseuo, nr oiumaiea rojoct c/b He6a, 
rOBopanjit: «nope y Bon npHKasuBaeTi Te6t ftepeib stott. 6jaroyxavn^ift 
npaxi; 3. ueim BHOBb BOcapecBTb ero!* B^Tepb, nocjaBHuft Borovi, H3- 
BjeRb sojy H3i» Mopa h co6paib ee wb oxho i^cto wb Taaon Bixfe, Rail 
■ npearxe. 

IIocjaBHue yBix&iv^ wo aoja sanieBeiajacb 1 He ycnftn yttTH, Kaxi 
Bcreib H3T> aojbi AsepxffiCb siBoi; CTpaxayBb ci co6a npaxi, ohi npieoexi- 

HHJefl 1Tb HIHl H OHH OTHpaBHJHCb BMteT* H?3aXT». B03BpaTIBflIHCb R*b 

uapio, ohh paacaasan eny 0 roioc*, ROToput ero oshbrji, h 0 Bfwpfe, 
lOTopuf ero co6pan. 



*) Ilo cJOBani> A6y ^sa*apa v Jjrfa — pecTCBie, BO^Hii^eecJi bt» CHpiH; 
sepea ero ct.'baoOhu. 




MycyjILMAHOKOE CKA3AHIE 0 CB. rEOPHH. 



131 



Torja uapt cnpocm: <He xoieinb-ia tu, Aaepxaaei, coriacaTbca Ha 
to, too jig Haci o6obxt> Oyxerb jyqme? Ecjb 6u toibko jiapoffB* He tobo- 

PHJI, *ITO TBI B3flJT> BCpXB HaflO MHOH), fl HOClfylOBail 6u 38 TOfiOH) H 

noBtpaxb 6u Te6ft; ho tu iiohjobb6b. iotb oabbb pas* AnouoHy, hji 
npaaeca any xotb o*Hy oBeray bb aepTBy — saTfen, a ejfcjaio, no Te6* 
yrojao.> y&iumaBB npejjioaeflie ijapa, Aaepjaaci aosuiftiB caibaoe aejame 
yHiwoBiTb HXOJia bo Bpeaa aepTBonpaaomeBia h bb Hajeajt, hto uapb 
npaaerb iCTHHHyio B-fepy, Korja Syien* yaaiToaeaB ero hjojb, ofiaaayxb 
N ijapa h csaaaxB: cecia Te6* yrojHO, BejH MeaffKT> TBoeay ajoiy, a exy 
nowowocb 1 npifleey aeprBy!* Uapb oSpaflOBaica, nojomeiB b*b eeiy h, 
jiou^iOBaB-b ero bi» pyw, vb aora h bi rojiOBy csaBan: ca Tpe6ya>, 
q?o6u tu npoSun »totb jeab ■ BTy Hon bb xoomb jom* h Ha xoet 
uocTeiH, cpeja aoeft ceaBB, *to6u Te6fc oTjoxHyTb on hhtorb h ito6u 
xfojH BHjkia, Ban tu safe joporb.> H uapb OTjaj* eay bb pacnopaae- 
BiecBoIxBopeui, ByxanepeoAiaJcaAasepASHCi. Ho*bb> Aaepjaara craji io- 
jiTbca h nfctb neajiiu. y Hero 6un npeffpaoauft roioci h, Korja aeaa 
napa yciuxaja ero n*nie, dm BOjymaBaTbca, i oh* He saafcTaxb, Kara 
oaa yae CToaia aa hhmt. h njaxaia. 

flaepaaacb npaaunaiB ee K*b Bfcpfc bi Bora, h oiayBfcpoBaja, ho obb ee 
npocaiB eipuBaTb nosa cbow B*py. yxpoMi paao ero noBeai bb Eananje 
noiioHHTbCB iffoian. Meaiy t*mb CTapyxa, B'b float aoTopoft 6mjt> sa- 
HjaweHi /(aepjaacB, ysHaBi, ito flaepaaacb, co6ia8Haxca a npejnosei'b Gjara 
aipa HCTHHBott Bfcp* a «rro paja BToro obt» OTnpaBBjea bt> saname noKJOHaTbca 
axojaMi, nomja Tyia ae, aeca Ha nieiaxi CBoero cuaa a ynpesaa flaepjaaca 
3a oTCTynHBiecTBo; HapojB He 3aatuj > b ee. Boftja bb aaname, flaepjaacb 3a- 
MfeTBib bb nepBuxi pajaxB eTapyxy ct. ea cuhomi hb nieqaxi a no- 
3Baii> ai ce6t ero no aaeaa. Tot-b Baesanao aaroBopai'b, xoth xo caxb 
nopi ohi (uxb Rbwh. 3artMb oa*b cifcsi cb nim uaTepa a noraeib kb 
j^aepxaacy, xotb paHbme aaaorxa He CTynaji aa cboh aora, 

Eor^a aajbWb noffoinejcb K-B^aepxaacy, nocxfcjHii npuasaii eay : cnoft^a a 
U030BB bo aat 9Taxi> axojOB'b.>9Ta bjoju bb qaejt 71 cioaja Taab aa sojotuxi 
noxHoaiaxi*; apoHt btbxb baoiobi, bsu^hirb noRioaajacb Taxae coiauy 
aiyat. cKaai ae mh* o6paTaTbca b-b axojaaB?> cnpocajB yA«epxaaca aaib- 
laKi*. <CKaaa>, otb%tbh» obb: c^aepxaaci aasjaHaerb bbcb aaeuewb 
Samero TBopua npajTa kb ce6i.> Ho 30By aaibiaKa axoiu DORaTajacb rb 
Aaepxaacy a OTaia nepe^B aaai. ^aepiaacB Tonayii. aoroa>o6B somjio a bc£ 
oaa npoaaiajacB. 03% ojHoro a^oia Bucaovaxb H6jbci (flbHBOJB) a no6t- 
aaiBMaHoAaepAaaca; BBBTOBpexa noojtiail cxBaTBJB ero aa nyfo a boc- 
HJHKHyjrb: «o npowamtt aeaacrul Ajnl ^ro sacTawaerb Te6a ry6aTb 
ce5a a jauett? Pa3B* tu ae SHaemb, m Te6t a arrejaai TBoaai> yroTO- 
Baai axi!> HSiacB otb*tb*b: eeja 6u hh* npewoaajH aa Bu6opi — 

BJaX^TB BCtMB, TTO fla H U0ff> 3eMJ6H), BIB C06ja3HBTb XOTb OJHOrO 

WJOBfesa Ha oxaaii mbfb, a upeflnoiexb 6u btot^ aar-b a nojyqaji 6u 
crojbKO yxoBOJbCTBia a aacjaaxeflia, CROJbao ae noiyiami bc6 TBopeaia, 
BatcT* B3aTua. PasB* tu He SHaemb, «to Bon> npHRasajB ToBpiaiy, Ma- 
iaaiy, Hcpa^aiy, bc^mx aHrejairb a cajaax HeSecBUMi noajoaaTbca 



Digitized by 




132 



aTH0rPA4>H?ECK0E OBOSP'BHIE. 



TBoeiy nj»*Ky Ajaiy, a a OTRamca i Haaorxa hc 6yxy iDxan horjo- 
HflTtca; b$xb a BumeHii!) Torxa Axepxuci oniycTMi ero; ci rtxx nopi- 
HOjicl 6ojrfee He npaTajca bt» ixojobi F8t onaceHia npoBdjama h, rbri 
roBopan», i Bnpexb fle Syxert npambca. 

Baxa see 9T0, uapt oSpaTixca a-bflxepxxacy cocjOBan: <tu n6x8Hyjrb 
HeHfl i norytoji mohxi 6oroBi!> cfl bto aairfepeHHO w%Jt*n>, OTBfrrijnb 
flxepxxacb, cjjfl Toro, ito6h tu onoMHwea h hobbx* BaROHem, wo ewa 
4>u m 6ora 6un xfeicTBircjbHO TaRRHH, Rani tu roBopamb, to ohi 6u 
san^iTEJHCB on HeHff. A Mexxy Tfcm> tboi 6ora He mofjh SopoTLca xaxe 
co mb ok, cia6u» ieiOBtKOMx,HMero He iitiomBix, xpoift 6iaroxaTi Boxief .» 
Borxa flxepxxac-B orohirji cboio p4%, saroBopwa ijapaija, h6o Tenepb Ha- 

CTyniJO BpBMfl ICHOBfcxaTB OTRpUTO CBOH) Bfepy H npHfiaTB H3OTBHK0BI 

ri Bory. nepevHCiiBi set lyxecHua xftflnia ^sepjSMc a, oaa BocaJiRHyja: 
tiero xe enje oxaxaeTe bu oil btoio qeiOBtaa? PaBB* tojbko Toro, itc6u, 
do ero MOUTB&, seHJfl norJOTua Bacx i bu norifiji, Rax'B h Baron bxoju! 
Bepernect, CeperaTecb bu!> — rfope Te6t, AjeacaHxpaS OTBtTHJi ijapb, 
cKaKt CRopo — Bcero bt» oxny hoib— coBpaTwi Te6a BOjme6HBRi ceil! II 
xe Sopoica cb hhht> ceMb j*rb, i ohi He nor* mgha coBpaTiTb*. — 
<IIpaBxa,> Eoapaaiia oaa, «ao pasBfc tu ho Bixainb, wo obi no6txaJ% 
Te6a BiacTbio, xaHHof evy Boroi*!» PasrafeBaaaui ijapb Bpaaasaji pac- 
naTb ee aa to! -xe xocr*, Ha Roropoft npexxe pacnaaajm flxepxxaca, a tbri 
ate HecaTb ee xeifc3HHMH rpe6Baia; noiyBCTBOBab-L MyseHia, ona npocaia. 
Jfaepxxaca noMOiiTbca Bory o exaneaii ea CTpaxam*. cBsnaHi hb He6o!> — 
cRa3aj*b eft flxepxxtcb. 

OHa nocMOTptia i yju6uyjacb. <0nero tu yiu6aembca?> CDpocan. ee 
AxepxxHCb. cJJ BH«y naxo aaott xByxi aHroJOBi,* otb^tb ja OHa , caoTopue 
xepxm He(ecHyH) sopouy, oxaxaa, aorxa xyma mob BUJOTHrb hsi Ttja, 
xa6u yRpacHTb ee siot RopOHoS i BOSHecTi hb ue6eca.> Rcrxa Tocnoxb 
Bon. opaHHii xymy ijapHUH, jjxepxxacb da jt, Ha roi^hi h Havan MOJHTbca: 
tBoxe, tu HsCpaji, mchh ijh otbxi lcnuTaHiff, xa6u HarpaxaTb Mena co- 
o6pa3HO saciyraxii My^eHHROBi Tbohxi; ho, o, Bose, hojidcb Te6*, He xal wsA 
yaepeTb, noaa ho OTOHCTHmb 9T0iy HaxieHHOHy Hapoxy; nomia eicy Taayio 
aasHb, xaRoft ein[e ae 6ujo npartpa, hto6u a Mon yrtraaTbca i yxo- 
BieTBopaTbca Tbocd Ra3HbH>. Tocnoxa! Ilpomy Te6a ycJumaTb MOJHTBy bch- 
aaro, rto HOJHTca Te6£, ynoMaeaa noe hma, h Aaposaib eMy yrfeineHie i 
o6jeneHie> . Sorxa flxepxxacb OEOHiaxb cboio MOJHTBy, Bort nccjiajii na asuv- 
hhkobx orHOHHuf xoxxb; bi rHtBt i uo6fe hsuibhrh OpocHiacb Torxa aa 
^epxxaca ci aeqaaa ■ y6flJH ero. 9to SuiaieTBepTaacMepTb, o6tn^aHHtfl 
^sepxsHcy Boron. 

Borxa ropoxi co bc6hh ero xaTejaia crop*ji a ocTajca oxhhi neneix, 
Tocnoxb Borb nepeBepHyji bth m^ct8 BBepxi xhohi h xoiroe Bpexa eme 
noci* BToro buxoxmi onyxa cnpaxHut xu»; Bcaail, noxutnaBini* btims 
XbUfom, 3a6oitBaJi, Raxxutt oco6cbho» 6ojt3HbB). 

Bato yBtpoBBBmixi bi ^xepxsica a noraCmaxi cb Han 6uio 340O 
iMOBtob, h xeaa wpa, xa noxuyaTi ee Bon. 



IlepeB. M. 0. Amman. 




My Cy JILM AHCKOE CKA3AHIE 0 CB. TEOPriH. 133 



FlpMMtHaHifl. 



Cmaa> Heo6xoxmi» CHaSxiTb gboM nepeBoxi* HftaoTopuuni npnrtia- 
siflMx. Ilpesxe Bcero aocHycb apa6cKot ♦opMu rpdiecuzi h^chi. 

Apa6cait ajMBirb nfterb oco6uh HaiepTaHia (T.-e. 6yiBu) aia 060- 
SHaqeBia Bctn> coriacHun SBycoBi, ho ibi nacHuxi sByaoBL ofioSHava- 
»tch 6yKBflMi tojlko xoirie: EpaTKie Ha nacbKfe ho Bupaaawrca 1 limb 
noxpaayafcBaioTCH. Taaaa CHCTena rpa*Haa, joBoibHO yxoSHaa xia ciobi 
wcto apaCcKHii, nponHomeHie BOTopuix apa6y ibb^ctho, npexcTaBiaerb 
Soiunifl saTpyAHdHifl, aorxa apa6y npaxoxaTca nepexaBarb CBoen aaSyaoio 
cxoBa HHocTpaHHua, n tomi> *hcj* co6ctb6Bhuh H«6Ha. quareib, urta 
nepex* co6oi, Hanp., HaiepTame «Ttpmh» (STpujjuo'v), cicopfte Bcero npo- 
mn «CaTapiaH>, noTOMy vro raaoe opoiSHomeaie cooTBtTCTByerb jyxy 
«ro flauRa; h ecia nactiiji swaerb, *to6h maTeib npoasBocb bto rpe- 
qecKoe hmh cKOJbio-o6yxb no-rpeiecaa, oh* xoueffb HanncaTb: «HcTpyiyH». 
TaKurb o6paaoH , b > Bcrpfctaa bi apaScaott TpaHoapHnijii mjh hi ycTHoro 
apa6cKOMii npoHSHomeHia Eaaoe-iHGo XHOOTpaHHoe hmh 9 mu hb xojurhh xy- 

MBTb, VTO Bl> H3blK*, H31 KOTOparO BTO HHfl SaHXCTBOBBHO, OHO BByiMO 

HenpentHHO Taxi-ate. Oicioxa BBiaeTCfl oieHb noiesHof BembH> — cxtJaTfc 
HtKOTopua pasi>acH6Bifl Hawerb co6ctb6Bhuxt» HxeHi in, cJKiTiH flaapxaacai . 

AwNpAHiMCb. nsmeTCfl c/J«px«HC>, Giosapb cEht&6 yjb-xijax «x 
acxa Hib-ai>jax> npH3Haerb, aaai npaBiimufl, weHlfl: 1) J(«Bpx»3c (no 
HOBtfimeft ♦OHeTHffh bto Moaen, 8Bywrb h <jfaepx»uc> ), 2) /(*ypjaijfa 
(AsopixHc), 3) ci o6ohmi apaTxxxx «x> nocifc 0601x1 4) c*b 

xpaTUMH cy> (<o>) nocitoGoxxi tx»>. KpoxtToro oieHb o6uwa *opira: 
«/faypx»E> (flaopxaw), 

A&3&Ha. Roeeifloe spaTKoe «a> (iHaqe: te» ) i3o6pa«eio (yxBot, lOToptx 
Moserb HflTaTbca h cr> (jaT. h). Ho xpyraro pyaonHcan, ijapb Hasu- 
BaeTca c^axaaa> h cflaMHa* BfepoaTHO, ae«xy cj{eiift> ■ cjjasaaa*, np«- 
MeayTOiHoi craxiei 6mo tflaiiaHw. 

K)6HJIb . Bl OXHOMl H3t MaHyClpHQTOBby HOeiySIBDIIXl JelxeHCRUTb 

■dxaTejflX'b Ta6apH, bto hmb nimeTca <fiy6ub> , kbiobob HanepTaaie mosho 
npoHSHecTb TaKij, kbii npoHSHeoi a, h Kpoit Toro He icBjuoiaoTca Treme: 
H)Ba6ujb, Hy6uJb, HWafcib h t. x* B% xpyraxi MaHycKpanTait n Haqaj* 
1H6HH ctohti H6 6yKBa «S> (oHa H8o(pasaeTCfl HOCpeXCTBOMl 3y6i(a CI 
noxnicaHHHuxH XByu TO^BaMi), t tojbko 8y6eqx, bi cuy wro bo3xooho 
3x*cb npexnojaraTb ho ToibKo d> , ho Tarae oxHy i3i citxyromaxi. 6yxB%: 

6, H, O, T. OXHHI H31 Xaay CBpH DTOBt , XfttaTBHTBJbHO, IHtOTb 3X%Cb <T> 9 

noTOMy-TO y ^0T6H6epra: cTy6flab> . EcTb, H8K0Hem> 9 h Taioi MaHycspinrb, 
rx* noxi c$» h noxi> <■> Hferb Haxiesan^HX'b Toqen, a n KOHb«ony 
<ib> npicoexnaeHa lepTova, n cuy Hero aBiaeTca HanHcame: cfiyceKi 
<=K)ceK, flycea, fluaca h t. n.). H31 Bcero caasaHHaro BUTeaaerb, wo 
npo*. BapnivHHioBX sorb 6u ct, isB^CTHuvb npaBOMi He oTEaauBarbCfl on 
«Boet npesHeff raaoTesu (<Ty6ub»). 

TapKa6xHHa— bto Haa6oi*e ecTecTBeraoe apaScaoe npoHSHomeHie Hani- 




134 



dTHOrPAttHIECKOE 0B03P2HIE. 



otHin <TpK6iiH&>, KOTopoe y nepBaro BanacaBmaro WTajocb, aojkho 6mb y 
«Tpai6H Jiaib , T.-e. Tranquillinus. Oahb ( H3b pyvonacei x«er* ireaie: 
«Tpi6jiuHHa> . OqeHb eftpoATHO TaBme^wo yBasaBHbixi apaScEum aaiepTa- 
HiflMB nepexaeTCfl hmb: Taraclinus. 

MaAHUMTbicv IIinieTCfl cMxkiht'ko i cMxixt'ho . Bhtb iro«erb, 
bbxo sxfccb Bflxftrb Magnentius? ui Maxentius? 

Aihumohv Hanicaso: Atuyfl (SByaa h 6jkbh tn> j apafioBi b*ti). 
06iMHoe npoH3HomeHie — cA*ajjyfl> . 

leaaBBJib — HsSuji. 

AxeKcaHApa— HoEBjpe (HeiaBxepe). 
Kpoifc npaBBABaro oTflomeflifl n apa6cKoi TpaHCKpiniUH qysBib hhohi, 
lacjtxoBaTejan TeoprieBoft lereaxu noieaHo 6yjer& ■ ci*xy»njee CBtxtnie: 

HHorBHB cbohib wpTaMH reoprii TaSapieaa CEasaaifl npi6iB«aeTca n 
Xuxpy (BBaie: Xaxupx, Xasupi), i no&TOHy ♦oxbKiopBCTH it> cbohhi hscjIi- 
AOBtflifln o reoprii npiBieKaH>nb Taxate MycyjBMaBCxifl caasaflia o Xuxp*. 
Bi BSBftcTHoi cTeneaB bto oneBb ocaoBaTeibBo i aoien onapaTbca jane 
Ha aBTopHTeTi BBBftcTBaro leEciKorpata tapyaaSaxi, EOToput rosopm, wo, 

BO MBtBiH) 60JbmBBCTBa JH)|eft, XttXP* 1 ASBpXSHCX — BTO OABa 1 TE-MO 

jraocTb ($Bpjsa6axa m* n XIV b.). Ho totb se 4>ipy3a6axi npi- 
6aBjfl6Ti>, tto BtKOTopue OTOXAecTBjifliorb Xuxpa cl npopoEorb Hiiei 
(cHibflo), a Apyrie lyMaiorb, no Xbixpx xhii bo Bpeaeaa MoHcea ■ 6burb 
ero npiflTeien. IIoeifcxHee TOJEOBaaie (ero npExepauutaeTca, xesxy npowm, 
Xapips n cBoei cCaaxcEoi MaEant> ) impTb ce6fc onopu xaae bt> oxhoxi 
Mtcrfe Bopafla. IIpoTiBi OTOsxecrBJeaifl Xujpa ei Hjiet roBopm oxbo 
M'fecTO y Reiajn>-yx-x>Ha A6yjb raaaBMa, xiBmaro paabme flipysaSaxH, 
aBTopa <Cy*ittcKott TepmHOJorii> ; owb onrtaaei-b, vro Hiia — chmboji ©e- 
pioaBOCTB, Torxa Easi XbijpT>— chebo.it> BeceibA. HefaabiHTepecaa apaScEai 
noroaopsa: <owb — cjobho luxpv. Beax* DpHcyrcTByerb, bcb bhxito>. 
(noroBopxa npEBexena i y *Hpysa6axE). TaiHepi, o6paTiBmH BHEiaHie Ha 
SHaveHie hhohh <Xtixpi> (caeieHbrib) ebb tosx^ctbo ero Cb nepoflxcuMi 
cce6s>, npiyporaj* Xuxpa bt» •pflrilcKOvy <£a(3aCto^> ■ oTcioxa m> Mnrpfe. 
Cm. Hammer: Geschichte der schonen Redekiinste Persiens, Wien 1824. 
Gp. H3C4ftxoBaflie WindischmaDn'a: cMithra>. 

B-b 3aBJB>qeflie Bocaycb bo HOBaro, iohbjho, Bonpoca o Ton, HacsojbEO 
BftpHO Hona coxpaBHTbca y AT-Ta6api xpiCTiaacEaa ospacKa jereaxw. Ta- 
6apH nepnaxb CBtx^Hia y afifli-XaMBxa, a Torb— y CeiaiaTa (capiiua IHe- 
jflie?), a totx — y B6Hi-Hcxaaa i cxpyrixi yieBuxb* . Sflam*, hotoh- 
HBFb cXHTifl Amipxsica> — tott» so, tto h TaSapieBuxi anoipa^OBi ofrb 
licycft (KOTopue, sairtty hhhoxoxomi, yse nepeBexeBU Ha pyoosit asun 
■ opHroTOBjesbi B-b neuTM oxhhmi hsi hohxi yieBBBOBx); a bx hbxs 
cemiTCBifl aieHa HBjaioTca bt> tbboS rpei^HsapoBaHHot •opirt, loropaa hohb 
nosasiJBaen,, mo HciopHXi, npexmecTBeflBux TaSapx, ntn> nepexb 
co(ob) rpeiecByro pyxomcb. 



(HflTaHO bt> 3$tc%xaHhi fiocTOHHol Kommhccih MocKOBCKaro HMnepaTopcsara 
ApxeoJorHHecsaro 06n*ecTBa). 



M. A. 




floc/itAHee MHtHie pyMWHCKaro yneHaro o npoHcxomaeHiM Ha- 

3BaHifl „B/iaxV. 

(Ar. Densusianu. Originea cuventului Vlachu. Revistacritica- 
literara, anul 1894. nr. I, pag. 1 — 15). 

n<WB neHdm ^Boioxi" — bt> CTapiHy, „Baiaxi tt — bt» 6oi*e nwxnee 
Bpeifl, pyccrie SHau sneiei coBpeieHHoft PyniHii, Sea* paajiria 9tho- 
rpameciaro h noimtecKaro xfcjeRia lesxy MoixoBaHau, HaceiannjiiK 
BOdoiHyio nojoBiHy imsecTBa x eocfcxHia ci Bin semi: ByxoBHHy, 
Bcecapa6i», flofipyxsy, t. e. TeppnopuD npesaaro BHasecTBa Moixaaix, — 

H C06CTB6HH0 BaJ«I8MH, SITeJflMI BaUBXHOt HOJOBIHU ROpOIOBCTBa H COC*X" 

hhxi ei him* 8eieib 9 t. e. Teppnopii npesHaro BuasecTBa Baiaxix. B* 
pyccsm naiflTHiKaxi Ha npoTsatemH i Horixi b*kob* ojobo ^Bojoxi" Bcrpfc- 
qaeTCH Bcerja nowi c* oxhhitl m rtn se aiaieHieHi, sanp. Bojoxh, 
seiia Boiocciaa, saiOBU Boiomoirie, rpaxftra Boiocciia, asun Boiomciril 
k t. n. flpyria HasaaHia iiohbihihgh bt» nesxHee Bpeia h bctp*™h>tch 
Becbva pt^BO. Taxi, Hanpixtpi, bi ibb&cthok csasaHii Beoxopa KjpH- 
Utma, fyttjn HaauBaeTGfl BoeBOxot Myn>BHcnun>. CosByqie cjobx ^MyraaH- 
ciil tt ■ „MoJxaBcaii tt xajo «icjb npo*. 6. By&iaeBy cKasaTb, tto „Myn»HH- 
cboh) semen) y hbcb bi CTapiuy HasuBajn MoixaBiH)" (PyccKaa XpecTo- 
MaTia; eTp. 222-a); vh to se Bpexa ^HyHTaaan tf HaiHBawrb ce6a sHTeji 
aanajHoi hojobihh KopojeacTBa, t. e. co6ctbcbho Baiaxi, Kara sitbjx 
ropi, ropqu (pyx. muntii = ropa). MyHTfliiami m HasuBanrb i Moi- 

A0B8B6 BOCTOIHOl IIOJOBHHM KOpO J6BCTB8 . A HaSBaHlfl „MOJXaBia a „HoiffO- 

B8He tt nOHBjaeTCH napaxy ci „Bojoxh" tojlko bt> XY1II rtKt, paflbme 
se BCTptaaeica coBepmeHHO cjyqafiHo h ae Bcerxa nocjfexoBaTeJLHO, aanp. 
y pyeciixi naioiHiiOBi. 

0 npoiexosxeflii caioro Tepnaa „BiaxT» u eynjecTByera iHoro caiuxi 
pa3Hoo6pa3BHxt Teopii, hbi soTopHi* hi oxhb He xaerb ceptesHo-HayiHaro 
oSucHeHia. B% CBoet oran»fe „0 npoHCXosxeaiH cioBa Biari." Ap, fleHcy- 
maHy, npoteccnpi Accsaro yuBepcHTeTa, xaer& hoboc oSiacHeme, aoTopoe, 
Sjiaroxapa 6oraTOny naTepi»ajy h yxa^HOiy nojbSOBaHiio m, ycTaHaBii- 
Baera HeooMatHHO BtpHoe npoiexosxeaie eiosa „Bjaxi> u h nosBoaaeTB 
emaTB ce6a h noeiftxam MHtaieM-L. 

Gbow erarw pyniHCKil yneHuft HauaaeTi BaaBieHiein, qio Bcfc 
nowH icTopiiH, nicaBmie oPyMHHia, npexiaraii cboi o6iacHeBia HasBaHia 
^Biaxi", loropoe conpoBOsxaer* PyMUHon ci He3ananaTHHXT» BpeieHi xo 




136 



8Tfl0rPA4H*IECK0E 0B03P«BHIE. 



Hadoamaro BpeMein. Ho Bofe bth Teopia xHrepeoHH tojlxo no oBom ca- 
nin cMtiu«, h noxwb KypteaHiiro, npexaoiosemfln. Oxhi npois- 
boxiii giobo „Biaxi a on uohi piMCKaro noiioBOXija ftiaara, npociaBiB- 
maroea oboimh ho(%xbxh n xpeBHdl flaiia, xpyrie — on repnuicira 
cjobi: Bam, Baaaa, BaiicKH, a oxnai nicaTea npoasBOxm x«« on 
ciOBa Latini, roBopH, no npiCTaBieuen n aamrfe ciobb BByxa V no- 
lywjocb cjobo Vlassi. flajfte, oxhi npouBoxan ciobo „Biaxi a on xpeBHO- 
iTajilcsaro nieaeHH Bo&cbobi, xpyrie — on raiibcaaro Yotcae Tectosages 
(Caes. Bell. Gall. VI, 24), Tperax — npocro on ram, Keprran i ero 
npexmecTBeHfliKi— on xpeBHe-repMaHcaaro cxobb Valh, ito naim pa6i, 
nflTue on CJMBflHcsaro aopHfl wad (BiaxtTa, Biaxi=rocnoxHHi), mecTue 
on jaTiHcsaro npHJaraTOAHaro validus=ouobHul, cextiue — on roTOsaro 
KopHfl val=rocnoxeTBOBaTi> i t. x. HaaoHem, HaaTe, a aa um Toiamen 
BHxan bi» cioBt „Biaxi» a aopeBB, oSnjiit c* caHexpiTeKim mlecha=Bap- 
Bapi. Aohucjh mcaTejei 6oi*e hobhxi x*»n peayibTani Bpoxfc npi- 
BexeHHun ■ HayiHaro BHaieaia He niton. 

Cboo iscJtioBaHie Ap. /JeHcymaHy Haunaen XByia BonpocaiK, koto- 
pue epasy eraBan saxaiy Ha HayiHO-apimeciyH) nowy I xuon Hanpa- 
BjeHie Haiajy pa6oru. 

Bonpoci nepBHi: ito HasuBan i Hasusaen renept Pyunia Biaxom? 
OaaauBaeTca, ito can PyiUHU Hiaorxa He HaauBau ce6a Biaxan, a x«u 
aToro y ran cynjecTByion TepxHHu: PyttiHi, ApywuHi — B* Boirapia, 
Pyxepi — bi* HcTpia i Poxapi — b% xpobhocti. Biaxanse HaSMBaa>n Py- 
muhi cocfexHie nysie Hapoxu, ianp., Kbiu\u roBopan Bajan, daBflHe 
Bojoxi, BdHrpu— Ojaxi x t. x. BTopol Bonpoci HBiaeTca jwb can co- 
don: noqeiy PyxuHU He HdsuBann c©6a Baiaxau? Ci nepBaro se Bariaxa 
■osen noBa8BTLCH 9 tto ciobo jBiaxi* Kifeen oto-to ociop6nTeiLHoe x** 
PyxuHa; to se oaasHnaeTJH h Ha canon x*i*: Bajan— oiobo (paHHoe, 
HacvbnuHBoe. Tan, Hfenuu co ciobohi „Bian tt coexuuuon canue hoxoct- 
Hue anBTtTu: riynuft, ifeHiBut, BOHDiil Bian. Taaia se HasBaaia hosho 
cjumaTb a bt» BeHrpin. CaKcoHuu HaauBaion PynuHi bi» HacitmKy Bio- 
xaxH i EiemaiH. Tasot se enicjn bto nposBime uten ■ y xpynx% 
HapoxoBi h n xpyraxi CTpaaan, cocfcXHin cx PyvbiHaHr. Kpoaipi, 
Aaisauii, TepiioroBHHfe, Bocaia i HcTpia. Basao euje to, <ito isi BGfixi 
poHaHCKixi uapoxon oxbh PyiuHH nojy^ui Taaoe npoaBan^e i yxepsi- 
Bann ero xo nociftxanro BpexeHi. GapamiBaeTca: sorxa ciobo „Biaxi a so- 
HBUOcb BnepBue? 

Bi naHHoucaixi Xariaxi, citxoBaTeibBO bt» kohu* IK Bfiaa, PyiUHu 
bi nepBul paa-L HaaBaHu BiaxaHH (y Dumler'a); ci Team se Haaaa- 
Hiexx HBJ8H)Tca ohh vpm cTOifcrie no3«e, a hhchho, y BisaHTiieiaro 
xpoHBCTa KoxpeBa (ed. Bonn. II, p. 435). C* T*rL nopi> HasBaue 
9 Biaxa u BCTp^iaeTca see *ame a qan^e. Ho x*fl Toro, wo6h ciobo cxftia- 
loob OTHorpaoaiecKBirb TepHaaon, Hy»ao, ito6u caxo bto ciobo cyiqe- 
CTBOBajo paHbrae. H Bon, aBTopi HSd^xoBaaia bbxbtt. ciobo ^Biara" b% 
BaasaHia npexH^cnfl r. KoHCTaHTHaonoia, a aaT&n lacoeaa h lyxoTBopiol 
Hbohu Biaxepacaot (BXa^pvai); a sto Ha3BaHie BCTp^aeTca y xpoHtcra 




0 nPOHCXOHmEHIH HA3BAHIH „BjIAX'B tt . 



137 



Kasma HcaBpilcxaro, i. e. bo BTopol hojobih* V Bin (ed. Bonn, 
p. 475), sarbm — y Aran*, Ilpoxonifl i j xpyrixi, a oxui xpoHicrc>— 
haxiiepi roBopm,, wo „ BoHOTaiiTHHonojLcxifl npexitcTta hojhh Bjbxobi" 
(BXc^ixov y^voO (II, p. 106 j. CjfcjOBaTMMO, cjobo „BjaxT» a , cxfciaBmeeofl 
TonHqecKHMi TepniHon, cynjecTioBajo eme paHtme. 

GpexH noxniceS Jiirb, yiacTBOBaBmirL Ha coBtofe m» Capxufe t. e. 
bi 347 roxy f*OTii. Miriobiblion, p. 1423), UTacTCfl — „Antenodorus, 
a Dacia, de Blacena.* 9to— hmh oxHoro ist nan enicvoaoBi flari*, a 
cjobo „de Blacena" aBTopi cwraenb npoiSBOXHLiMi ori BXaxoc, rtn 
BtpoaTBte, vro A«Kia— poAiHa pymaHciaro aieieHTa. HHTepecHo, wo cjobo 
n Bian 9 a sail OTHorpa*H*ecKi* TepiiHt, noflBxacrcfl hb $paKilcio-HjJipit- 
cbohb noiyocTpoBft, t. e. Tan, rx* pucii* ajeieHTi conpiaacaica ci 
rpeiecim. 9to saoTaiuflerb aBTopa HscifexosaHia xymaTK o rpeiecion 
npoBCxo»A6Hii caMoro cioBa „Bjaxi" ■ ofipaTBTbca n rpeieoxm aBTopan. 
IIpe»x« Ibwb npacryniTB n B3ucsaBian bi wot oSjbcti, aBTopi ara- 
biti> Bonpocv nooj*XHaa xaTa, conpoBoaxaBmaa aasBaHie „ Bjaxi" — cpexiHa 
IV Btsa; pan npajnojoaeHO rpeiecxoe npoicxosxeaie cjobb, jaHHaro na- 
poxy jaTHHesaro npoicxoaxeHia, Bonpoci HBjaerca can co6on> — Heitaa- 
ji Hafcri 9to cjobo Tan ■ Torja, iorxa Tpeu BnepBue noaHaxoiuiCB 
ct> PamaHaMi? 

Bifccrfe ex noaBieaien Phmjahi aa nakan icTopii Ha HTaiittcBora 
nojyocTpoBt, ero »»Hy» wctb Haceiawra Tpexi - kojohhcth, x«Binie 
xaase HasBaaie saHuaeioi i» TeppHTopii, a ihohho — BojhboS Tpeuii. 
y BaTOHa CTapmaro (234 — 149 r. jo P. Xp.), bi oxhoni oTpuBKt, 
coxpauiBmeMCfl nepexart iCTopua fljiHia, roBopiTca (XXIX 1,7), *ro 
TpeKH cuTaiOTi Pbmjhh* Hapojon rpyfam, BapBapan: nos quoque die- 
titant barbaros, et spurcius nos quam alios opicos^ appellatione foe- 
dant. Bi> stoii Bupasenii hohhthh bc* cjoBa, aa iCBJioieaien oxHoro 
ciOBa opicos, BOTopoe, yse no nepBOMy Barjaxy, xojbho osHaiaTb 6paHHoe 
nposBime, HacMtniKy. H*ciojlko iter* j cxojiacTOB* — BBHHTUjiaHa i 
HtaeHaia noxTBep»xa»TT» bto BnaqawtHie: aceo, wo y TpesoBii, b«l in 
BjaccK?ecKy» eme anoxy, cjobo omxo; osHavaio: npocTan, Hey^i», iy- 
jkhki, BapBap-B h t. u. Taioft se to^ho chucji MMterb cjobo opicus h 
y laTiHciixi nicaTBJei, Hanp. y rejjia (Noctes Atticae, II. 21, 4), 
B3i BOToparo aBTopi iscJtxoBaHia npiB0XHTi» Tpn OTpHBaa. Tan kbbx 
Bbtohii He HaauBaen npaMO Toro npo3Buqa, soropoe TpeBi x&u Fihjb- 
Han, npa nepBon SHasoicTBt ci hub bo Bpeia boIhh, a roBopirri 
tojbbo, hto npo3Bime e^e ocKop6iTe«>ete cjobb opicus, — to Ap. fleacy- 
fflflHy daBiTL Bonpocb: ho xorfejt jh ftaTOHi ynoiUByTb o cjoBt „Bjaxi> tt ? 
y ApHCTOTOJH, Bt nepexait oxHoro rpamiaTHxa XI Btia— Suida, naxoxm 
noroaopny: 9 ffe3nojie3Hn>e, HtbMb Baox^. „^t^BopaT^ M , nepex^erb rpaMia- 

THKT*, fl RT0 OHO (t. C CJOBO) B3AT0 OTt HBSBaHia pi>l6l>I 9 HOXOSeft Ha COM3 

(atXoupo)), HacTOJbio HHBOHy uenpuioduou, vto ee He fen xa*e co6aBi. 
Apyrie npoHSBOXHTi (bto cjobo) orb m£cthocth (oSjacTi— ^wpiov) b6jbbb 
Byn, HOciBinet HasB^ie Bjaxia (Biaxeia), o HOTopot ynonHaeTii Apa- 
cTOTeji,. H b* AjeicauxpiH €BjaxeBBOiioHi»> HasuBaaca poxi aajora, soTopuft 



Digitized by 




138 



8TH0rPA<DH1ECK0E 0B03P3H1E. 



uiaTHJH acTpoiora nam npocmjucu" (Michaelis Apostolii, cent V, prov. 
65). Taxin o6pa30Mi, bc£ Tpa oCtflcaeaifl ciOBa ^Biaxi^ ja»re> bb pe- 
syjbTarfe oxao b to «e. Tait Kan bt> oGibcth r. Kyn, HOciBmeft, no 
ApHCTOTenD, aasBaaie Biaxii, suo mew, KOTopoe BnocjfcxoTBia aa3UBa- 
joct OcKam, to HBiaeTCH bosmosboctb npexnoiosHTB, hto cioBa Satoaa 
citxy era OTaecTi kt» Tta% se Ociain,, KOTopue paatine aastiBaJict Ohh- 
xau. Ciobo opicus aBTopi cdiaaeTi ct> iMeaeiTB CoriHH njoxopoxia, 
seau CaTypHa, KOTopaa bt> pnicaol MHOOioria nasuBaiac* Ops; a Tart 
saisi 8T0 se iia Ops BBJfleTCfl tbeso co aaaHeaien terra = 8enia (y 
Bcijopa— Orig. VIII. 11, 59. XIY. 1,1), to bt> aasBaaia opicus aBrop* 
Bixarb cbhohhmh cjobt»: MysHift, noceiflHHHT», semex^jem. IIpiCTynaH. 

oftbacaeaiio HasBaHifl h^cthocth BXaxeta, BCTptTHBmaroca bt> OTpuBKt 
b3*b ApHOTOTejfl, aBTopi BHnHCMBaeTt leTtipe cioBa est> Hcixia, rpaua- 
TflBa IV Btia: BXd$=jio>pi<;, t. e. npocToft, BXaxs(a=jiaXaxt<z, BXdxa= 
eviot itpo^aT©8Ti, BAax£t)£t=8tatp(pst,jjL(Dpa(vst,vo)8p(D(; it rcotsi (H. Stepha- 
nas. Thesaur. gr. linguae) . To se SHaneaie btixi ciobi> &mn i cio- 
iapn HOBtfimHrb yneauxi — BtMemaxi h opaBuyscEBX*, i iBTiacKit rpaM- 
MaTEn II B*ia OecTt; Taxi hto mop* HacifcxoBaaiff npexnojaraero, wo 

y PlMJflH1> 9T0 CIOBO CyH^eCTBOBBJIO BBpaBB* CX JaTHHCKlHH oxaosaaHymm 

CJOBaHH: stultus i xp. 

Bt» pesyjBTaTft isuciaaift Ap. fleacymaay, oiasHBaeTca, hto ero nepBO- 
aanaibHoe npexaojozaeuie uamio ce6fc onopy, t. e. hto cioBa fftaE i irctxtf; 
BnepBue noflBiiiCB t8mt>, rxt TpeiH BCTpfcruacB gi> Phmjahsmh, i hto 
o6a bti cioBa— cihobhmu. 

TaBHML o6paaoMi, BecBMa bohhtho, hto ofipasoBaBHue h nporamieHHue 
rp8EH HastiBajH bt» aacftrfenjEy „BiaiaMn a aeByibTypaHii a aenpexnpiiM- 
qiBhixi PiuuHi-seiiJiex^Jibi^eB'B, bbbbmh obh Oujb xo no3XflHXi> BpeMeHt. 
flaifce aBTopi saMtHaeri, no bto ocaopSiTej&aoe xjh Phvisbi nposBame, 
Ban 6yxTO HCie3aeTi, no spalaet irtp*, Be BCTpfcnaeTca bt> naiaTHHBaxx, 
na npocTpaacTBi <roro Bpeneaa, nosa Pjiii 6ujb chjlboI x«P»«bo1. 
Borxa naji> Pin h BOSBUCHiact BasasTilcBafl Hinepia, nposBume cBiax , L> 
cBOBa BucTynaen h BeptXKO noaBifleTcn y BBaaBTificKixt ictoperobl 
TaKiix o6pason 9 bto nposBin^e conpoBOsxajo HasBasie Phmjabi toibbo 
bi nepBoe Bpeia mx-l icTopiqeosot kbsbb, xo t*xt> nopi nona bt» cBoet 
nojBTHiecKott h lyibTypaofi svsbi PHwaae 6lijh BapBapana b% riasaxi 
o6pa30BaBBi>ix , i> TpeEOBi). 

CjftxyeTB npa6aBHTB, hto nama „noB*cTB BpenflBsuxi j%ti> u noBHuaett 
eioio „Bjaxi» a caopte, bbki 6ojte o6w/iu zmnoipwfiuHecKiti mepMum^v. 
o6o3Hasaen ant nepBOHa?aiBHoe saceieEie HT8jificaaro noiyocTpoBa. TaK*b, 
nepeiHCMH aapoxw, npoicmexmie otb BOitsa A^eTOBa, ona roaopiTi: n A«e- 

TOBO Se BOX&HO H TO: Bapfl3H^. BoJLOXOBe, PflMIBHt (Htimt, Kopii3fl) t 

BenexHua, ^paroBt a npowi" (JItT. no HnaTCB. on. GOB. 71 r., ci*p. 2-a). 
BecBMa npaBXonoxo6ao, qTo „BoioxoBe a cjysHTi of^wb TepiHEon x^fl Tpext 
nocxfexyHmjHX-B BasBanitt napoxoBt, Kasi OTpacieS oxnoro i toto se nie- 
■ohi, h hto bti Tpn giobb o6i8CBfl»Ti o6mee BasBaaie Boioxobi. 

Korxa Pm CTan x^psaBot, Korxa wb Pan nepenua i rpenecBaa 




0 nPOHQXO«#SHIH HA3BAHIH ^BjIAXt*. 



139 



xyjBTjpa i Puiflne wan o6pa30i»HHKurL Hapoxon, to cmucji npo&Binja 
9 Bian u yTpamcfl h ciobo bto He BCTpfcnaeTCH bi npiM^Heeii m> Ha3BaHiio 
Pumhhv Eorxa Tpeican npixoxxioct GTaiiHBaTLGfl ci xpyrui nieveHami, 
TasHn 86 Hesy JLTypHHHi, xaxnm 6ujh Pjuubho bo BpeMfl nepBaro ex hmmi 

3HBI0MCTB8, OHH T0X6 XEBaJM BMT, npOSBlH^a, WCTO — CL T*Mi S6 CMHCIOHt, 

io nposBime „Biaxi> tt ocraioct *&Pumaahomu 9 kae-l nepeonaHOAbHiAMi nace- 
AeuieMb HmaAiu. Borxa Tpeu chobb nosHBBOM i jicb c* npoCTflKa«i-3eiiiex*ib- 
uam h nacTyxau flyHaicioi iojihu, roBopiBmm Ha tomx rpy 6on npocTOMt 
BSHKft, BOTopul cymecTBOBan y Pheihhl bt» riyxxxi lrtcTaxi, vb x«- 

POBBHU 1 npOBHHIjiflX'b 1 KOTOput CHHTRJCH HBHIOMl T%Tb XPCBHHXl 

HiajiioBi, KOTopun TpeM nposuBaiH Biaxan i Onnaira, — Torxa ghobb 
Bocxpecio npoBBinje, xaaHoe rfcn xe PiusHan THCflqeifcrie TOMy Ha- 

88X1. HSBfcCTHO, TTO UaBHHl BieMBHTO COBpOMOBHarO pyMHHCKarO BSHKa 

eocTSBifleri npoeTOBapoxiwi laTHHCxii H3un>, nepemexinift ipero xoiohi- 
ctobi xi xaxiftcxin nieneHan i coipaHiBmiitcii vb CBoet nepBOHaqaA- 
Hoi ocTort, Siaroxapa xcropnecvHn m reorpamecun ycioBiam. Ta- 
Km o6paaoMx, PyiuHU noflBiBnriecfl b-l riasarb rpexoBi ipera mhoto 

BfeKOBT,, KaRT»-6u yXBpSBlH 3B 606ot 9T0 npOSBBHje, TkWb fioifce, WO 

yse xpeBBie BiaaHTiftcxie xpohhcth ewaiorb PyiuHi wr&ihR hcexmh 
koiohxctbxh (Cinamus. YI. 3). Ho o6pasy bhshi, saHXTiflirL h flsuxy, 
PyiniHU HanoiiHaii t*xb Pkmihhi, xoTopuxi Hcaxift, aBTop* IY Btaa do 
P. Xp., HaauBaoTi npoeMxaiiH h DacTyxan. ^Boti noieny * , roBopm Ap. JJeH- 
cymflHy, ^Baiaxi y BHsaHTilijeB'b sHawr* oxho ■ Tose, no nacTyxt, a bto 
ToxxeeTBO, Kaii> xoxasaHo paHBme, irteTi cboo Haiaio b% CTapoxaBHia 
BpeieHa, enjc m> HTaaii" (cTp. 14-a). 

GitxyeTi npM6aBiTB, wo ci T*in> ae BHawBiera ciobo „Baiaxi» a , „Biaxi a 
nepenuo h bi ciaBHHCsie aburh. Tara, Hanp. bi cep6cK0Mi> h3mk* oho 03Ha- 
qaen> nacTyxx. IIpHBexen HdOTopufl Htda mvb rpaioTi: bt» rpanorb boih- 
Karo synaHa GTe^aaa HexaHi, xaHHoft XiiaHxapcKony loaacT. Ha AooHfe m 
1199 roxy, roBopiTca: „a BLceie BJaxt. pd(170) (apxiM. JleoHixi. HcTopn. 
OnacaHie cepficKoft uapexoft jaBpti XiiaHxapa. ?TeHia, 68 r., CTp. 122-a). 
Tame h bi xayxi xspcTBeHHuxi rpaiOTaxi X1Y BtKa: w a ce Bjacn, koixb. 
e roenoxiHB xpajb npixau. cBerts i^plkbh u (ran arc, crp. 25-a), 
uepBKBH L CB6Taro Hhkith w oy Bbbaxb cb coju i cb jioxbbh i 6B Bjaxt a 
(Tan are, crp. 33-a). 

Bi KOHi^t CBoero uci^xoBaflifl Ap. AeHcymaHy oSpaiqaerB BHnaHie 
hb to, hto bi A«pHK*, bt» toI YBCTi TyHico, rx* Tonept aesHTB ropoxi 
Kanapn, eme vb xpobhoctb cymecTBOBaji ropoxi oi HaBBaBien BajaxiH 
(Hofmann. Lexicon uoivers.); Taat, no KpatHei itp*, nepexaen bto 
HasBaflie apa6ciift lOTopHBi Mapiojil. 

H botb, npoiBH^e-HaeMtraia xpobhixb ■Taiiltcxix'B nieveffB ocTaiacB 
sa in noTOMxan, cobpcmbhhumh PyiuBao. HHTepecHO xawe, wo rpera, 
xaBmie HTaiiBaHi bto npoaBBme, h vb nocj*xy»mifl BpeMeHa Ba3UBan 
m oduuxb moAtno PyMt*m, u^xOBBTeiBHO cmucjt> BToro cjOBa MfteTt 
rfeCHyw OBABB ci xapaRTepHCTisot xpoBHaro Haceiema HTaiii. ^axfee, coBpe- 
■eHHue Tpeu Bajaxami Huorxa ho BasuBaiorB xpyrie napoxu povaHCiaro 




140 



3HT0rPA*HqECK0E OB03P-BHIB. 



npoiexosxeHia, Hanp. ftraibBHiieBi, *paHuysoBb, ian bto xtiamn jo 
em nopx repianiuj, Hasusaa m pasauu MeaaMi: Vallas, Valiscas, 
Valchen, Velsch. Ctohti jh bi cbass bto noaxHee npo3Bime y repiaH- 
U6Bi> 6i ipeBBHMi BasB^flieix y TpenoBi m Eton, aBTOp* oCtmaerb 
no3HaK0EiTb maTeJdi bb oco6oft eTawfe. 

Bi aasuDieHie xoisho yuoMauyib o tomt>, no Fyoexie BoioxaiH na- 
aufiaii oxhhxi toibko PHirjflH'L hii HiaJbHHi^eBi, a He bo& poiaHerie 
Hapoju, Kain> bto f!Umrb Hanp. repiaHm*. HaiHHaa c v cbbj1>t6 JbCTBa nep- 
BOHaqaiBHOi pyccKof ItTonHCi i lOHtag bIkomt* XVII, pyccsie HasuBauro 
Bojoxam PHMiaH-b-HTaibHBueB*. Tan Hanp., csa3aBi o pasc&ieHiii Gia- 
BflUB, ItTonicb roBopBTt: .Bojoxoki 60 HamexoiHMi aa Cjobchu Ha fl>Hait- 
CKue h ctxmm b bhxt> h Hacuaioiiim ira, CiostHe se obh npunej|(ne a a 
t. x. Otobbxho, sxtcb roBopHTCH 0 saBoeBanii PaMjaaaiH uapcrBa TeTOBi 
h rocnoxcTBt m bi flaiiH. Ecjm mu B03bneirb nosxHii naiHTHHK* jurre- 
paTypti nepeBoxHot, Hanp. „JRapThi IIoJbCKifl", nepemexmia cl aanaxa repeat 
Hojbray , to 3X'fecb BCTptTHn h^ckojbeo pascKa39Bi npo Bojoxobi, t. e. HraibHH- 
ueBX. flaii ciaBflucBHii h pycciixi y^eHuxt HfcioTopiae nuTajHCb jaT* 
o6iacB6Hie CJOBy „Bjaib w . TaRiHanp., IDatapHRi npoH3BOXtTi orb Hfeiieij- 
laro Wal, AValh, Wealh, Walsche — hmchh, o6o3Ha«aBmaro y TepMaHueBi 
^eJOBtRa raubciaro hih KeibTCRaro npoiexosxeHia. Toro se MHtma xep- 
sajcfl 1 Illieuepb. KapaM3HHi> cqaraeTb Bojoxobi noTOixaMi xpeBHixb 

TeTOBt H pHVCKBXb KOI0HHCT0B1 BpeHOBH HII. TpaflUd (t. I, npHH. 18). 

Ho iHtHia) CoiOBbeB), BoiiBa — hub oSnjee jih Bcfcx* poiaHCKiX'b Ha- 
poxoBi (t. I,dp. 83-a). r. 9Bepcb roBopgrb, wo „Bjoxb a 03Ha*aJ0 y Gia- 
bbhi KoieBBBKOB'b-Bojrap'b h npoi3BO|HTb OTb ciobb: Biaqm. To se ro- 
Boparb i ApHHOBi BTb CBoeii, „3actieHiH BajtRaucKaro noiyoeTpoBa a h H. Apiju- 
6ameBT>. A. rHiboepxnrb cHaraerb BojoxaMH piiCKHXT> koiohhctobb ijdi 
ponaBH30BaflBuxii TyaemeBi no o6oHMb CKioaan Ihuxa (H. BipcoBi. 
Oiepu pyccBol Hcropneciol reorpa*iH, cip. 114-a). 



A. H. JIuuMupcKiu. 



Digitized by 




KPHTHKA M BMB/llOrPAOffl. 



B. 0. MmiJiepii. Cmct6h&tmh0cko6 onMcawe AauiaoBCKaro 3THorpa- 
<t>MHecHaro Myaea. Bun. IY. M. 1895, 8°, 4+108. 

Hacroanpui, leTaepnin, Bunycxora saiaHmaeTca ODHcame lojueaipl 
AaniBOBCKaro nysea. Bunycai nocBameH* aBerpif exam b 6aixaH6Kan cja- 
BflHan. IIomuio onacaaiH npejieTOB'*, Haxoxanjaxea bi My Be* ■ othogh- 
njaxca vh mn cjasaHan, b* Hawaii sasxaro OTjfcja x«otch Bpaixii 
o6sopi no 9Tflorpa*ii xaaaot HapojHocTM m npiBo^iTca nepeTOH* co*HHe- 
Hii a nsxami BaoaTeAHO bto! aapojBocTi. 9th joCaweHia ocoSobho 
Xia Haci utHHu bx Bfl^y cayxocra h laiopacnpocTpaaeHHOCTi y Haci cb*- 
Xfcaift o ciaBflHan>. |(ia cBtxftHil o 6ut* 0Tx*n>HHi'b HapoxHocTet bbto- 
pon npHBieqeBH, noaaao neuTsuii Tpyxoat, a B6H3A8HHM6 jo can 
nop* naTepiaju, rjasa. o6p. B3% fiynan <Pyccaot 9THorpa*a*ecxoi bh- 
ct8Bkh> (1867 r.). XoTa HacToamaa xansxa, Kaxt a npejHjymia, HasHa- 
qaeTca npeaje bcbto xia ny6jaaa 9 xaxi noco6ie npa oaHaaoiieaia ci xox- 
jeaiqaHB, oaa oxHaxo aoatera ct noibsoi noeiyaurrb a x->a »exaa>maro 
no&iase noaaaaoaaTBca c* cjaBaacxana aapoxaocTan ABCTpia a BajaaH- 
caaro nojyocTpoBa:. cdhcokt, coiaaeHii o hb», xoth aBTopt onacaaia ae 
iMtii bt> Baxy noxaora cnaoxa, Bumen t oxHaxo, hbctojbbo noxoro a 
aaoroAao saxBaTHBaeTt xaaHoe mean, %to, pyaoBoxac* hmx, xokbo bhojh* 
XOdaTOTOo noBHaKOMBTtca ex B36paHHWMi> ma isyveaia luexeHeMi. IIpo- 
nycKOBi, ocofoaao spynaurb, mhob) He BaxtaeHo; noxao, pasBfc, *o6aBHTi> 
tojbxo aoe-<rro; Hanp.: €]Ehbot cp6a eeiaxa> (H. MajaqeBaqx) newaao 
ae wl oxhoI 45 rant* <rjacHaaa>, ho Taase bi 22 a 37 (1867 — 1877 r.); 
Teneps bto coqaaeme bbuhjo a otx*xbho Bropuai, xonoiaeaaun asxa- 
aieai Kb mecTBfe nepBot XHara HOBaro BTOorpata*. sypaaia cep6eaoi 
asaxeiia n Bfcxrpax* (Cpncxa eTHorpatcRH sSopanx, 1894 r.). IIo oSnjeft 
8THorpa«ia CepMa Baarcfce, aexeja cEpaxeBXHa Cep6aia> (toto se Mhjh- 
qeBBia), ero cTapmift Tpyxx cSaeieBaaa Cp6aia>, n xoTopoi «KpajeBBHa> 
aBxaeTca xonoiHeaien. Bx wcj* cepScxaxi rpaaiaTaxx, roxauxi &i& 
ogaaBonxeaia ci asuxon, loauo, noaaao ^aauqa (c06iaua>), yaasaTB Ha 
aaa6ojfee pacnpocTpaHeaHya> a laa^e BGTpftiaeiyB) rpaaaaTaay M. jttBBOBaia— 
Oblici hrvatskoga iezika (Zagreb, 1890). Hra Soxrapcxaxx BTHorpame- 
cxaxx asxaait hobho 6u xoOaBBTL h*6koji>ko; orpaHaqycb yaasamen Ha 
oxho, Ha BOTopoe oepaTan noe BHaiame II. A. laBpoBi; bto — cEmbb 
OrapHHa, eTHorpamecao cnacaHie* , asjaB. bx Pycce A- MapanoBuax; bi 
1894 r. Bunua yse WBepTaa aaara BToro c6opaaxa. 9iHorpa#HH. naTe- 
piaix noatn^aica Taase bi coiyHCsaxx f BaaaaAaxi> , ecrt oat a n sypH. 



cBaSxaoTexa Ha cb. ExueHTii. 



M. Cnepancniu. 



Digitized by 




142 



aTHOrPAGHIECKOE OB03POTIE. 



A. 0. Putt mxi>. HeTupe JieKniM no pyccKoH 9TH0rpa(t)iN. (CUB. 1895, 
8°, dp. 83). Pa6orb, Bacaion^ixcfl o6man» Bonpocofii pyccRoi 8THorpa*ii 
y Haci HeMHoro; rtrb 6oifce npnxoxHTCH comifcTb, ecji hobuS Tpyx* 
bt> btomi HanpaBiemH coBepmeHHO He yxoBieTBopaerb CBoeiiy HawaqeHuo: 
Kb qnciy coBepmeHHO Heuyssaro 6ajuacTa nainei 9THorpa«iHeexott jhto- 
paTypu cjrtxyerb OTHecTH h jeKuin r. PiTTiia. Bupasaa cosaitHie, rto 
'OTHorpa^BTOcriH no3Hauiff, Kb Bemoiy HairieMy ropn h bo Bpexy iiamero 
HacejieHifl, He boidjlh no ch> nopy bt» nporpaxiy Hamnn> epexHHXi ■ bhc- 
mm yqeSHuxi 3aBexeHift>, r. Phttex'l yxfeiflero 9TH0rpawH oxhbko shr- 
qeme HCRJH>me.ibHo npaRWiecRoe. 9rHorpa<wfl, 8Ta «oco6an, najo enje 
ofiiflCHiMafl ■ npaKTHKyeMafl eaysa>, Reo6xoxHMa un toto, *to6h cSHBTb, 
xoth-6h npexBapiTeibuo, no TeopiH, r& HapoxH, r&xx iioxeff, BOTopue ne- 
pex* hhmh, m> riaBHUfl qepra xapamrepa, noibayacb kotophmb, bosmobho 
coBepiniTb qyxeca Ha Bcftxi oTpaciaxi qeiOBfcqecRoft zish*. A ecu mu> , 
npojoiaaerb aBTopi, OTy xyxoBHya) CTopony Ram noflqHHeHHtix'b irojeft 
He snaem x He royqaeirb, to iota h 6yxerb HHBOJjipoBEa^ ho HHRorx* 
mBOJa He xocTirHerb CBoel accHXHjfliiiH h toI bhcoth, *tc6h h Bnocifex- 
CTBii ocTajcfl-6u Ton pyccRit leJOBtai ijh cojxarb, EOTopidt RasaiCH 
CTOJb npiflTHbixi> bt» oSyqeHin, cbohmi HapysHun joceovb i 3aTBep«eH- 

HHlTb HSHROM'b, HltonUUTb CBOt ROpOHb 1 UaqaJO TOIbRO Bl> CTpOrO* yie- 
HIMeCKOfl XHCUBHIBHt* (CTp. 8). 3h8H, TOO T. PHTTHX'b BH^BTL BT> 8THC- 

rpawi HOBJEOWTeibHO co6paHie MaTepiaja, xoTopoe oCjemerb saxaqy sano- 
Hoxatej© ijh JHuy, npi3&aHH0xy ri ynpasieHiio, ■ Birbcrt c-b Tfcirb jaerb 
yxaaaHifl Ha BfcpHUH cpexcTBa n acciMHinpoBaHito pasiHrabixi nieMeH*, 
mm He yxiBHMCH, «rro cbi lemiflxi no 9THorpa«iH» iti BCTpfcqaeirb cji*- 
xyionjee saifcqaHie xoth-6h o xaTapax-b: <TaTapcaiI BieieHTi Hani* neona- 
• cem no CBoeft paspo3HeHHOCTH h MaioiHGisHHOCTi, ecjH mu can He 6y- 
xen ero yBe«qHBaTb> ; noci*xy*>ma« sarfeMi cTpaHHaH xaparrepHCTH*a 
TaTapi flBJfl6Tca x*fl &acb nenoHHTHott: cxaTapHHi naxHerb on KOHCsaro 
Mflca, h napTiio hobo 6pa HijeBt-T aTapi Basxuft npH3Baeri, ito bto He pyc- 
cRie. I^BtTOMi obi seiTOBaTi. HeonpaTem. IlapniH Ha roiOBfe h Bunaxeme 
RiniRH — o6njie nexocTaTSH. Ho owb m> o6mein» sxopoa-b, Rp^noRi i npi- 
roxeni fl ciyxdi. Ero pasBHTOCTb He BejHHa, xoth ohi no CBoeny rpa- 
MOTeH'b, ho 8Ta rpaitOTa maio evy noxoraeTi Ha ciys6ft. MyxaHvexaHCRpo 
rpaMOTy, ci ysRHn BOSsp^Hien, exy b6hji, narb rjhhx; sbtbhi b6htb 
xpyrott bi oxho h to se m£cto He npixoxiTCH, h noTOHy pyccnan rpanoTa 
Bcerxa cTpaxaerb y Hero. TaTapu XBsepTHpyvrb, TaTapu ypoxynyrb ce(fl ■ 
xoth h KOHbine, ibwb eBpeH, oxh8ro xoctbtouo. TaTapu bt» 1854 — 56 rr. 
(ttrajH ci> Ha6opa ivbjuhh uapiiavH, ttoGu ho cxoxhtlch npoTHBS exHHO- 
B*pueB*b, a MaroMeTBHe Boo6nje nepecejHJHCb bi Typuiio. IlycTb ce6t Bet 
noxoSHue dieieHTU nepeHo catch co cboimi CKap6orb aarpaHHoy, T%i*b 
jytine Syxerb Hameny seviextibuy, rbn Goibme rficTa pyccRony Haceie- 
hib)> (cTp. 71). Hu He sHaen, npHroxeHi-jn bx nacTOHmee BpeHfl km 
BoeHHuxi x**ctbiI Rasaqil cTpofl (cTp. 79), citxyerb u npHBiexaTb 
npiHaxiesan^x'b rx cTH>pRCROHy niemeHi noTOMROBi KOHrojoBi no H8URy> — 
(cip. 15) tyBamefi, twb ocoOeHHOCTi I^HBUbCRaro y. RasaHCRol ry6>. 




KPHTHKA H BHBJIIOrPA*I«. 



143 



Kb ciysCft bi Hainel peryiapHoi Bawiepii, no coBfrryerb r. Pmtthtl 
(CTp. 81),— nycTB bto pfcrnaiorb eneiuaiacTM,— mh Jim* seaeux, wo bc* 
noxo6flue Bonpocu, paBHO i Bonpoci, cjfcxyeTMM pajOBaTbca hjm h*ti 
Bucejeniio laroieTaHCKaro Hacejema bt> Typaiio, coBepmeHHo iyaju Haysfc 
BTHorpa^ii, san el lyax* * Bonpoei o tomi, yto bi Poccin mhoio h*- 
Meuraxt pasBlwiKOBt, aoTopwe cnox* noKpoBHTeibOTBon cboixi aoHcy- 

XOBT>... H KOMMICCiOHepCTByfl flJH CBOMXfc TOprOBMIl *apn, bm4ct* CI 

Tin aaHuaioTCH pasBt^Koio scero Toro, hto noiesHO ixi rocyxapcTBy, axx 
Botcsy, CTpaieriH, xinJOMaTia, SojiBinoiy reaepaibBOMy nrra6y> (cTp. 66). 
Bee 3to Bonpocu rocyxapoTBeaaott BaaaocTH, ho hmt> ne itcTO bi jeK^an 
no 8THorpa«ii. Boo6me n jeBiuax'b r. Parma o*eab mbio TOBopiTca o 
coBpeMeHBoi aTaorpa«ii, Tara bbbtj bi Heft mm oTBaauBaexca othcotm xa- 
paKTepHCTHKH pasHax* HapoxaocTeft Poccia, o6pa8eifb Koiopuxt (o TaTaparb) 
mu yxe npaBeJH. Bojbine m^ctb otboxitch aBTopoMi BonpocaM* BCTopiKO- 
8THorpa«iqecBBirb, ho ■ sxfecb mli HaxoxHKi laccy Hecoo6pa3HOCTeft: npe- 
XOOTaBiflem bhobb cjobo caMoiy aBTopy; aa CTp. 22 r. Phtthxi roBoparc-: 
€9Ta aeMJfl Ha3UBaiacb CBaeie», cjobo— no ciio nopy HepamxaHHoe, ho 
coo6passfl to, hto Tan* (no flHfcnpy) HaxoxaTca bi ropaxt a no 6eperaMi» 
ptei, oho Mono noiyiHTb cboo Ha^axo on ciOBa cnumvi, botophxi He- 
iajo i no ciio nopy Ha wrfc Poccia a hombjo OTmeibHisoBi-MOHaxoBii 
iM^eTi i Tenepb cboh ckbth, bi botophxi ■HByrt, nponoBtxyttrb a 
ynpaH>rB>. repoxora (na CTp. 24) Ha3HBaeTCH <OTuevL iciopia l bt. 
qacTBOCTa HCTopia ciaBaaii. «0 HeBpax* pascRa3UBaJi bt> to Bpeva 
(repo^OTy) MHoro; 6yxTO H0*b» ohi oGpanjaiacb wi boirobi, orroro Boj- 
kobhcbi, Bhjkobhuikm h Bbjbomhpt>> (dp. 25). Mu He SyxeM* 6ojbiue 

yTOHJHTB UTBTeifl BUH1CEBU 131b cJUKIjiit UO 8TB0ipa*IH> , HO MU He 

Nosera He BbipasHTb coaaiftaia, tto 6iarojapa sanaBiio rbmsbm pyecsaa 
BTHorpawecRaa iMTeparypa 6yxerb curaTb oxhhmi jramann Tpyxoi*, 
BOTOpuft <rb 9THorpa«ieft HMiero oSnjaro He HMterb a qTenie BOToparo mo- 
aerb xaTb v jamb coBepmeHHo npeBpaTHoe npe^CTaBjeHie o coiepiRaHia a 3a- 
xawx-b HayKH. e. X. 

3emieBtA"tHie (Ilepio^. asxanie TeorpamecBaro Otx. H. 0. Jh>6. Bcto- 
CTB03HaHifl, AHTponojotiM m 9THorpa*ia, no^i pe*. J(. H. Anyuuna 
1S94 1. X 4, m 1895 ». 1, 2— 5).— Han yae npaxojHiocb ynoMM- 
bbtb Ha cTpaHai^axi cSTBorpawecaaro 06osp*Hifl> 061 HHTepecfe, npexcTa- 
Biaemon Ha3BBHHbuii HsjfaHieMi. Kara m bi npeiuiecTByH)^ax , b bubkkbx'l, 
dTHorpa^i HafixBTi h bt. nocj^Hixi J^JVs c3eaieBtx^Hifl> He mbxo utH- 
hhxi aahhuxi, iMtiomaxt MiM HenocpexcTBeHHuft 8THorpa«MecBift hhtc- 
pecx,MJM no Bpafaeft Mfepfc npexcTaBiaioiuHxi pBAi mbtobi, coxticTByio- 
h^mxi pacmapeaiH) spyrosopa npa 8Taorpa*aqecKBX'b Ha6jroxeHiaxi. Si 
nepBOft rpynnt cTBTeft ciftxyerb othcctm pafiora J(. M. roAoeaneea: 
3aM%TKH 0 pyccBoft loiOHMsai^in Ca6apa, noaoftuaro H. M. Hdpumeea: 
Bra HaSiioxeBift naxi nepeceienuaMM bi 3an. Ca6ipa j^tomi 1892 r., 
M. A. JeeaueecKaw: Oqepaa BaprMScaixi CTeneft 9i6eHCKaro y. (npo- 
XOiseHie). yaasaHHua ctbtbh noatmeHu b-b J6 4 sa 1894 r., Vb hmmi 



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3TH0rPA*H*ECK0E 0B03PBBIE. 



crtiyer* npiSaBm hbi noHBiBmixca n J6 1 sa 1895 r. pa6orb— o*epn 
Ba. E.: <HapoxHaa Kooforpa+ia. San ycrpoenu sen* i He6o no 
npexcraueHian HtaoTopun Kpeerban CiojeHcaot ry6.> , — npexpaaro 
picyvnpt bsmix* ipccTbflHi Ba sevjD m hc6o, Heonpe/tieHHOCTb i c6ib- 
tHBoen m npexcTSBieflit b% aron Hanpa&ieidM, m xasnui npntpu 
taro, xan npiBua»TCfl iih nepexfcftmvTCfl ycBOflenu nnnoian cat- 
Xftri* no btiitl Bonpocaro. Pa6ora r. Bi. B. noser* Giynn npnt- 
pon Ma noxpasaHia: HaionieHie eBftxttnii, nojofiiura cooftnperan n 
HamKHoft paCort, in paui*HUXT» rtcTHOcTeft Hamet poxnui— iorJo-6ti 
noBeen n ycraHOBieHiio ittaium ■ Hayuo-Baanuin BUBOgon n o&iacT* 
aayieHi* HapoxHun npexcraBiSHit o npapoxt m ca npoaBjeaiaxi. Orma 
Jf.. B. HwcoAbCKaio: <ApeBHaa GTpaaa Fpapry (Apapan) i crixu accipo- 
BaB&ioHCRoft KyiBTypu Ha BaBB83t» — npejcTaBjaerb iGTopixo-dTHorpatneciii 
BHTepeci; aBTop* Ha ocHOBariH snHoeCpasHun Haxnaceft, asBtcTHurb yaw 
paHbme i oTKpurun ui eann bo spent ero apxeoJoimecKot noftaxu 
n 3aKaBxa3i»e, eoBepmeHHOt 60bm*ctho n A. A. HBaHOBCxin no riopy- 
qeHi» Hni. Moos. Apxeoi. OCnjecTBa, B03CT8HOBJaen xpeBHi'i nepioxi icro- 
pin yaaaaHHUxi rtdHOCTei, HaxoxiBmnxca aa RftcKoibso Bfrton xo P. Xp. 
oojn> SHaqHTeibHun BJiaaien aceipo-BaBUOHGKol uaBBia^ujii; BMfccrfe 
n Ttn amropi CTpeniTca onpextnTb i npex&u paonpocTpaHema ototo 
BiiaHia. 

Hn craTet 2-tt rpynnu onrfrnm pa6oTu: H. Kacniucnaxo: cBocxoa- 
xeme ROBBOfl n Kapaaopynfc*, ci xonoaHeuen on pexamia: <Bogto?hh1 
ruxyiynii ■ ropnaa 6oj£aHb>, i <reorpa+B*eciit o63opi>, — noMfenjeHHUH 
n J* 4, a m nonfcnjeHHun b% H 1 (1895 r.): A* M. EepnemeuMa: 
<reorpa«HfecKifl yoiOBia h npnpoxa ApreHTHHCiol pecnySmgi, H. J. fleop- 
cnaxo: cIIoteXKa n ropHyio *acTb Byxapciaro xaucTBa i CanapxaflxcKoi 
o6iacTB>, fl. A.: «0*epn Eopea i ea OTHomeHil n BiTan ■ flaomi> 
(crtxtHiH npeuynpcTBeHHO aTHorpa*H*acKia noMtnjeHbi bo II ■ III ria- 
Baxt yiasaHHol ctbtbi), h K: «0rwb ofrb XI Kourpeocfe Htneqain reo- 
rpaton n BpeneH*>. 

KHiarxa 2—3 «3eMjeB*x*Bla> sa 1895 r. naxaaa nox* pex. A. H» 
AflyroHa i B. B. BorjaHOB*. Bi 9Toi ehhsk^ mr Haxoxm, Kan 1 bi» 
npexmecTBOBaBmHn Xtt BToro laxaHia, naoro HHTepecHiixi naiepiuon 
qacTwo nenocpexcTBeBHO 9THorpa*i?ecKaro xapairrepa, wctli) artamHit 
kocbchhoo oTHomeHie n Hamet Hayrfe; lax iicaa nepBUxi OTH^aen 
He6ojLmyio i»6onuTHyH> sairtTKy 0. M. Ulapiopodcnaio: t06% arcanp- 
cKHn nacbHeHan> (n tb6j . pic). C. H. IDapropoxcrift vntn bo3KOshocti> 
jhtoo iioshs KOMBTtcfl h c6Ji3iTfcCH cb DKarapao, aHBymHM na p. flcav 
hoI, i ysHara ynOTpe6iaeMHfl hmh nacbieHa. 9th nH&»M6Ha, BOTopua bm- 
pt3HB8H)TCfl Ha 6epecTfc npH noMoma Hosa, coeTaBJUiiorb HCKX»«TejbHya> 
npHBUierii) x^Byuien) BOTopua 9thht» nyTen Bupasaion cboh vyBcrsa 
n noioxun Jioxan; Kan shbo, Tan a coxepxaHi'e in HewcasHo. 
ABTopi npHBoxm Htcaoiibio o6pa3uoBi» ixi; apoift Toro Hn npHBexemi 
n o6paauH ToproBuxi 3anncon H>aarHpoBi, KOTopue &in cocTaBjeaia hxi 
noib3ya)Tca niKTorpameft. Ba. IoxeAbcon* vb <3aMtTKan o HaceieHii 




KPHTHKA H BHBXIOrPAGlH. 



145 



JkyTcaoi 06iacTi» eoo6maerb apaTKia CB$x*Hia o pyceanxi HayTaxi, 
TjHrycarL i laMyiaxi, marnpaxi, qyfiaBipx'b i qyaqaxi. 

Bi BTol-se bbbkk* c3eMieBt/[iHiH> nortmeHo osoflqaHie paSora 
M. H. Jeeaneecnaio : cOqepaH KipriacKin denei 9x6eHcaaro y.»; Ha 
BTon paai aBTopi lacaeTCfl cyeBfepift BiprH30Bt, snaxapet, o6paxoirb npi 
peajeBia, ifcqeHia poxunaxa, GfiaTOBCTBa a cBaxb6u, oSpaxoBi OTxtxeHia 
hbObtki seHaTaro qjeaa ceMba (m. X), oOpaxoBi npa norpetteaia, cocra- 
saaift bi cia^Kait i 6opi6ft, ooia Ha b j HBaeTCH Ha xapaiTepfc aapraaa i np. 
(ri. XI), oimcuBaeTi ozoTy ci acTpe6oire Ha yroai, noexaaie o niaHerfe 
Beaepfc (c3yrpa>) h np. (XII). Donyiapao HsioseHHHt eqepai A. M. 
EepnemeuMa: «8asHb bi naitnacaxi War. Aiepaaai (ct» 8-a> pic.) 
3HaK0MMTi ci xosalcTKeHHun 6htomt» rayqo. Bi ctbtl* A. A. Hea- 
uoecnaio: c03epo roaia*, Hocamett reorpa*nqecaii xapaiTepi, qaxaTejo natt- 
ffin HHTepecHHB BTHOrpa+aqecaia cafcxiHia o coBpeaeHHoat x xpeBHeirb 
Haceieaia 6eperoBi oaepa (n. IY). Hsi ociaibHuxi cTaTef otm4twtb 
0. B. Mapmpatfa: cBeiaaaa Cafapcisaa bh3M6hhocti», ea reoipamecaia 
ocoCeaflocTH a ea aHaieme xia xoaalcTBa i sacejreaia CTpaHHi, xaifce 
MHTepecHuf , aaai h bi npexmecTBOBaBmnxi fl?JV?, leotpcu/SunecKiu o63op^ 
noeBflmeHBbift Ha btotb pasi VI HesxyHapoxHony reorpa*aqecKOMy HOHrpeccy 
bi 1ohxoh4, h HeipoiorL A. B. EiacfceBa. HaaoHem,Bi npuoseHia noafc- 
njeaa oOmapBaa paSora ft. H. Anyuuua: cCyma. BpaTiia CBfyrfciria no 
oporpatia*. jj # x 

A^TaMCKin CtfopHMKi*. Bunycai I. Baxairie 06mecTBa lariarefei 
HswfexoBaHia Anaa. Tomobi 1894 r. 

BunyorL oqeBb Corarb i HHTepeoenb. HepBaa CTaTta— J5T. Soffnuna: 
IIpiiiECflue KpecTiHHB Ha Ana* — npeKpacao pacyera bl HeSoibmom i 

HCTOpaieCKOM-B OTCpKt 6hIT0BUfl H, MaBHUXl 06pa301Tb, BKOHOHM. JCIOBia 

SH3HH KpemHHi Amu, ycioBia, wl oS^evb oieHB He6iaronpiflTHua x** 
6ojfte hxh xeHfce cnoKolaaro HecrfccBHTejbHaro cymecTBOBams; 6htb mo- 
m&rbj aorxa o rtxi ae BpecTtaHaxi 6yxyr& co6paHU laTepiaiu i ibcto- 
8THorpa«viecxie, HaaBaHHuft Tpyxi npoiben xajeao H6 jhiuhiS 6b%ti hb 
yMCTBeHHuft h HpaBCTBeHHut hxt> ooibki.— Cjftxyron^il oiepffb — H. Hay- 
Moea: Cap6ucai» (6htobub aaSpocBH) — xaeTi ottotjhbuI 6htoboI MaTe- 
pian o B3aBMHHXt OTBomeHiaxi BaprnaoBi h pyccsixi n RysHei^BOiii OKpyri; 
vh xaHHOHi* cjywfc, xopomo o6pHCOBaaa pycsxaa ceJibCKaa BiacTb y KHprasa, 
pyco.Toe ayjaqecTBO Tara se a, Haaonei^b, oxhh*b b3t» anaaoxoBi jidSbb h 
peBHOCTHj ejOBHBmiftca bi Taaoxi opiraHajbHon coqeTaHia xapaaTepoBi, 
BaKi: aaprasi, pyocaii Byjaxi, aecqacTnna aeHa aapraaa h ctojeko ase 6es- 
neqaaa xeaa Byiaaa. Bca xpaMa pasurpuBaeTca Toze oparHHaibHo: xapmi 
mcthti bi ♦opMt lOHOKpa^cTBa, Byjaxi npeciftxyeTb aapraaa cyxoai, ho, 
ohi nepBut se bbhobbbbi, nonaxaerB BnpccaRx, BapoqeMi, bt» bohi^ 
xohi^obx, TopsecTByers xon^yHCTBO h ciaxocTpacTie Eyjana, a 6$XH0xy 
HHopoxpy, yroxy bxbh ipaciiaHCTBa, pa30HBaa>Ti sasHb. — ^aibHftimaa 
CTaiba — A. KayMfficma: 06n^aHHue nopaxaa BocToqHHxi BOJOCTei Tom- 
CKaro OKpyra i cftBepo-sanaxHoi uojobbbh MapiaHcaaro ospyra — xaen co- 



8TS0ITA4HYE0K0H 0B08P«H1S. XI TT. 



10 



Digitized by 




V 



146 



8TH0rPA*HiflECK0E 0E03PBHIE. 



JIAHUff HETepiail J(JH ISl^XOBaUfl 06m»HH H6 T0,II>H0 B*L 6fl ifcCTHoS fOpife, 

no I bi 6fl HCTopmecKOMi* pa3BiTii. Ha diorb Bonpoci bi Hamem> «yp- 
Halt yase ho part ofipamaiocb BHaaame, i Bcerxa BUccasuBaioc^ noawa- 
me BHAfrn, xw&HtfinyiD paapa6oTxy ero. 3x*cb noaa co6paai Marepian o 
topMaxfc 86HJ6BiaxtHifl 9 xoToputt npexcTauaarfc enje h tot* HHTepect, wo 
coftpaai «aa caaoMi acxox* naTpiapxaJbHaro nepioxa sibhh Ca6apa>, 
TaKT> KdKi Ci6ipciafl aeifcsHaa xopora i npHmme nepece jemju bco b* apaerb- 

HHCKOlTb XOSatCTB* B3H'I>HHTT> paXBBaibHO. — flaifctt BXyTl 6^6 H*CK«1BH0 

CTaTett, KOTopufl Tail bjb aaane Kaca»Tca ChtoboI o5cTaHOBU HaceieHia, — 
bto: %. Mauqpa: jLnaftcrie cepeSpaaue pyxrasa; H. Eaaapunoea: Xo- 
jepHaa anaxeaia vb 1892 r. bi> CytyHCxon saBoxfc; A. Hedaeeutcaw, 
Eparail owpa* xoiepHO* onaxeiia b* EapHayjfc 1892 roja; (6e3* ueu 
aBTopa); HaTepiaiu no nepeeexeaiio bt> AiTalcait oapyn wb 1888 — 92 
roxaxi (asTopi OTHftiaero HfcaoTopue HBTepecHue ♦aKTU o xapasTept ne- 
pecejeBift: cayaaiHioxii, eeyiaqHuxi, HepaBHoitpHuxi l t. x*)> 2. 
Ki Bonpocy ofo AiTaftcaol ofinjaafc (aartTaa: aBTopi yaasuBaerb Ha 
3itHiioropcKit Kpal, aaai yxo6aui jjh HaSnoxaTWH, i6o Ha npocTpaacTBfc 
Xbjxi — Tpcxi BoiocTei ciofli(6HTp apo Ba Ji&L Bcfe bbxu o6maaaaro BiajfcHia 
Ha Axrafc).— flajrfce ixyr& pa(>OTM no 6ot8hhb% h HOTeopoJoriK, h B* bohu* 
noMtmeati cMaTepiaau x*fl 6a6jiorpawi AiTaa* (1891—93 r.) h cBpaTiii 
onera ooBtea o6meciBa 1. H. A. aa 1891 — 92 rr.> . 

TaaaMi o6paaoMi, bch aaara nocBflqeHa, iuaBHbm o6pasoarL, ooBpe- 
HOHHOHy nojoaeaiio cTpaHH, h 3to tosb neoGxoxuo ■ x*h HsoitxoBaaia 
paurafauxi BBomiul ayjtTypu, HOTony wo ovoab wcto hothbhoc na- 
CToanjaro 8acTaBiaen> xoiro iscj^xoBaTeia TapflTbca vb 6e3iOHeiHun> ra- 
noTesax* k Teopiaxx, uaaorxa ne xoBexan^axi BoeS asoxioitflt x*> 

nocj^XHaro cuaa. jg^ a £ m 

MaTepiaau no apxeoiiorin KaBKd3a, co6paHHue aKcnexmiaMi HHnepa- 
Topcsaro MocaoBcaaro ApxeoiorH^ecaaro OSnjecTBa, caapaseHaun Ha Bu- 
coiaime x^poBaHHua opexciBa. BunyOKi IV. cXpMCTiaHCKie nanBTHMKii» , 
rp. y Ba pobom, MocKBa, 1894 

HacToaiuiS Bunycai, cMaTepiajOBi no apicoioria KaBiasai saKiDweTb 
n ce6t OT^eTB rpa«aHB II, C. yaapoBot. AsTopt noctmaeTi i nsyieerb 
EaBKasi ci 1879 r., aorxa Haqaiaci, noxroTOBHTeibHua paoom no ycrpott- 
cTBy apxeoiorHeeaaro ci%3xa wb Tawacfe.Bi 1886 r. noaotHOiiy Tocyxapa) 
UmepaTopy AieacaHXpy III, Aep»aBHony HoKpoBHTejuo HocaoBcaaro Apxeoio- 
mecaaio OSiqecTBa, yroxHO 6ujfo nosajoBaTb aa aaojtxoBaflie EaBaasa x«- 
Hesaya) cy6caxiio, a cava rpa#aaa ptmajacL Ha coftcTBeaHua cpexcTBa Hanpa- 

BBTL CBOH UOftSXEH BT> Tt nyHKTU, H3y WHie BOTOpUXl MOrlO 6il flBHTLCfl X<>- 

noiaeHieH'L a npoxoJseHien paGort y*eHuxi oacnexai^ift. dlyTOBiaa aa- 
MtTKH no RaBaa3y> rp. YBapoBa yae aaxaja b*l ABjrb BHaraxt, a hmh* 
Kb IY tom4 cMaTepiaioBi no apxeoioria» crpynnapOBaia x^hhuh no xpacTiaa- 
caan naiaTHaaaMi a i^epaoBHUMi coapoBamaM*. ABTopi npa aszoaeaia 
pacmapaen nporpamy onHcaua xpacTiaHCKHxi xpeBHOCTel. cEcia nox* 
BTan 1H6H6HI, — roBopan rpa^aaa, — noxpaayirtBaTB OTxtiSHUd nauBT- 




KPHTHKA H BHBJIIOrPAGIH. 



147 



hiki uepRBs, KARi 9T0 cxftian A. H. naBAHOBi wb III t. cMaTepiajojrt* , 
to BODpoci paspfcmaerca aeebia cKopo h a&motcb xjb Befcib flcmn; ho 
a cJsmKon BHoro pm 6wa Ha Smart, MHoro ofofesxRia jmeiii, sacro 
sacixHBajacB wb caraxi OTxaieHHiin ero saioyiiait, *to6h nxfeTb cuy 
h seJUBie OTHecnicb n onicuBaeMux'b nan HTBHRaro , Kan wb OTrfibHO 
bsathmi eAinmaMX, oioseHHun r*l KaiHfl m apaiepa, 1, WJTB cKasaTB, 
OTOpB&TB, OTvysxub hx* cbohhl caRcaBieirb on Epafl, Wb ROTOpOlTb OBI 
nocTpoeHU, on siTOiei, Roropue hxi> jh>6htb h yBasanrb b, HaKOHeAi, 
otl t*» npexami, KOTopua o6i Bin cjosmucl h ROTopun 6^ihctbohho 
iHoria Mn »thii» navflTHiROBi oSasaflbi CBOHMi cy o^ecTBOBaflieii h coxpa- 
HeBieu xo flamero BpoiOBH. Ecjr noHHMan> EaaneHOB*aie apiCTiaBCBie na- 

MflTHIKI> Wb TfeCHOITb CMHCJrt, TO H6 past HpHXOXR<IO0b-6bI OCTaflaBlRBBTbCJI 

i aaxasarb ce64 Bonnpoci: yto x&iaTb xajBrae, wo noxienrb Hoexy onicaeuo 
■ tto crtxyerb rsi Hero BbrfpocBTb? Taioe HeacHoe jib ho 3HaiomHXb KaBRaaa 
nojoaeaie paamaoTca noTOMy, tto hri**, Ran Ha KaBRasfe, ho aartiaeTca ra- 
Roe Bceo6mee MOJRTBeBBoe BacTpoenie, tbb&h hco6xoxixoctl bosxbtb XBajy Cos- 
xaTeiD, Taaaa noTpe6BOCTb npiBOCTi eiy bt» aepTBy iacTb rtrb seiBbixi 6iarb, 
BOTopim Ohb, Bcenorymii, Harpaxm chhobi mxi rop*, ynjejift. Mo- 

UTB6HH06 BaCTpOttflic 9T0 BbipaK8eTCH T&MK MH0r0UCJ6HBUXR itCTail «0- 

jitbii h yexBHeaia, ROTopua bu BOTpfrieeTd »pa Bamarb t6b£3xaxx: Tyn 
CBan^OHBaa ponja, Tarn otxAjmoo xopeBO, ooBanjeBBoe iROHoft rji 6esi 
OHof , Tail BaicBb hjh npecTon, otxIubho cToanjift Kpecn in oxbr sa- 
MtTBaa 6asHjHiHaa uepKOBb bo MBorax* MfceTHoerax'b OceTiH, XeBcypii, 
IIIaBmeTiB, Paw. H Besxft T*«e npiKMenifl, tc-rb HOUTBOHHoe oSpan^eaia 
wb <xwy>, cb. reopriro, flyxy i CosxaTejuo BeeieaHoi, siBiTOjLHOiy, 
B08pa»xa»n^eHy Havuy, much o ROTopora gacTaBjaera coCapaTbGa noee- 
jhht> wb 6oite rjaBHuft 13% btrxi nyHRTOBi BecHOio, npn BOsposxeBu 
npipoxu, hii oceHb», nocit yfiopai coiet h BiBorpaxa>. Ha BaBRaat 
TpyxHO orxtiHTL flSHHccKie nauTHREi orb xpRCTiaacRHXi, aainecBie o6hwh 
on npa*AHOB0Hi& Bamix'b cbhtuxi. CBflTBiame PeRon bi Oceria ewaioTi 
sa asHHecKoe Ranin^e, ho oho nooBameHO cb. reopria), xase, no npexaBia>, 
nocTpoeBO m a, He aafta Baxa xpaeTiaBcaaro xpaia, BMtmaen Wb ee6t 

BMtCTft CL poraVH SHBOTHUXl HO KBIO RROH%, BOCBOBUXX CBftiel, W&MJh- 

Hiivb h np. Bi> BepxHeft Part wb xepeBBt Ticia, wb B^CRoibRin maraxi 
orb HacToame* ceibCRoi ijoprbh, BaxoxvM'b TaayH)-»e HajeHbRyio i^epROBb 
Toro-se 6a8uraaro Tina, saBaieBHyio poraMH, Grp^iaMi, nocyxoi, h Haxi 
Bc-feMa BTiin npRHoraeHiami noKoiToa RaHeHb-npecTon ci yTBep*xoHHuirb 
hr Beii KpecTOH'b. Bb Toi-ae Part, wb x* C<pv, uftiOTea verape hooo- 
HHtHBO xpicriaHCBia uepRBv, oxhr is-b rohxi nooBan^eaa «ApxaHrejy> , 6esi 
xaJbH'bttmaro o6o3HaqeHia ero hhohh: Be ecTb-ia bto nocBameaie TOHy-ase 
cHeb^xoHOMy Bory» , ROTopoHy BosxBarajacb npecToiu x»*o Bb Tpeijui xo 
yTBepsxoHia xpactiaHCTBa? Bb jojhh* p*Ki lua, ho x^*3»aa XO TarBi y 
paxon cb xpaaorb uapmu Tanapu, cToan pasBtciCTue CTapue xy6u, 
ctbojli KOTopuxii o6mot8hh HBTflMR h Byx6Jb». Bb Ca*apt 15 aBryda 
zRTejR Axaiquxa ■ ero ORpecTEOCTet siByn bt> xpaiaxi, 3aRaiuBaB>rb 
(iuKOBi h 6apaH0Kb, sapan, m»a)rb, fywrb. $pecia, iRpamaiomia Hyaacai- 



10* 



Digitized by 




148 



aTHOrPA*OTECKOE 0B03P*HIE. 



ccf xpan ■ pteflue HOBOOTacuIlafejbxifieBira xpaxoro noSpasaim cqe- 
tin oxoni, npexaaia o aoTopuxi coxpaHiiieb on» xoHCTopneenn Bpeaen 
rpjaii. Hraopaponarb oth aueHifl BOBoaxoaHO — hojoSho tony, mi ni 
laxosen npoBecTi ptsiot rpaHHxenxy himb i npoflBieBiaxi'cosHaTeAHO 
xptCTiaHCKHMi. Aojxho npoaiBByTbca ixeei, tpo noaxfifcftnria xpaeTiaHciia 
wopy MflHig, bobboxbxhb hb Ttxvae ropaxi, vh Tfcxi-ae ymeibaxx i aano- 
b%xhu» pomaxi, bboto hboo, ian BfeBiaaie i OGBameBie BapoxHux* B*po- 
aairil i npexaBiI, BOero foro, ito xfeCTBue sitcjh aim ropi ■ ymwit 
npDUUH j»6irb i yBaxaTb BfeaaxB: ctojlio npi tbkbxi ycjoBiaxi on- 
eaue same woman omaT&ea Bfepnorb i nepexaTb noiaya) xapnay may- 
laexaro Bpa*>. 

TaKai cunannHafl m nrapoKaa toto apfcHia npi o(aopt numnoBt 
Bnomft BUxep«Ha rp. FiiapoBot. Tpyxi ea oSflBnaerb A6xaaia> — xpaau 
CiHoea KaHonna, n Aixaxauxfe, ea p. BsuCb, n luxaaxfe s xp., Te- 
lyascxit moot* 6jui Gyxyia, Eojiaeypciyio 6amH» i A6xaacKya> ertay, 
onyoKaa IlmyHiy ■ flpaBXH, aoTopiia tain onHcara r. IlaBJHHOBun,; bto- 
pot OTxfcit nocBameBi A|«apia: moot* vb ApjaByrt, wpiOBb 6jh3i 
Xyia ■ b% Cxbht*; Tparit OTXfcai o6BBnaerb Ro6iiaH0toe ymejae (3ap3ia f 
ryje, Baja, Craja, Ga«apa) i IIoexoBCxil ywcTon, (Kaia-fioiH*, Mepa 
■ xp.); leTBepmt nooBanpHi Part (rioja, Mi, Hmopiunflxa i xp.) i 
TepificioEy ytaxy (Pynci, Atcbb, Hkoptb h xp.)- A. Xax—on. 

C6opHMK*b HaTepiajiOBii am onMcaHin MtCTHOCTOft n naeaMHV 
KaBKa3a. Hax. KaBiasoKant yie6B. oip. BunycHN XIX h XX, 1894 r., Tt#- 
Mr*.— XIX B&inycKi «C(opH»a laTepiaioB* x*a onacaaia MtorHoeret a 
nieiest KaBiaaa* oocron-b m xayxi OTXftiOBi, bsi KOTopuxi nepBul 
noraaujeKb damn icTopiKO-roorpatnecaapo coxepacaBia, a BTopoft aaaiaK 
uerb pa6oTU BTBorpa«neciaro xapaaiepa. Bi 1-ft otx. boolib: Oiepsa 
HCTopia rop. Tonpi-Xam-IIlypu, E. Bosytciaro; Hai xpeBBOCTel ceieuia 
9eBaxw, E. Meinx-HIaxaaaapoBa; GeieBie Copi, CBan^. H. Miflxen;C9i. 
I^aieixmiXK, A. TBtcaiii; M^CTe^io KaBpaiu h ero oKpecTBOCTB, 6. Xy- 
cMBaxse. Bo II otx. nortmeBH: HiepaTifloaifl caaaM (qacion 12), co- 
(paflfliu H. A. BaouBEOBot a xpyrau; IIpirtTu h noBtpia rpysiflt Te- 
jaBesaio fbs. % Taw. ry6., OTenaHoaa h 6 ciaaoai, paaauu iiqaHaaa- 
nicaBBuxi; EapTBeiboiifl h'&chh CBanj. Haaxaia h yivreia 6. RaxaBxapa- 
oibiji; KapTBeiLCKia lereBXM, coo5meHHua flftcxojbBia aaropaia; Apxaaoaia 
exasaa (uojohi 6); CBaxbSa aaaresypcBixi apaaai, r. MftiiKb-IIIuflm- 
pOBa; CaasKB, nocioBn^u i noroBopEH saKaBBaacain TaTapi. 

B*b I OTx&ifc XX Buayoaa «G5opBBia» aaKJUoqaiorca CTaTbi onacaTeis- 
Baro i 6uTOBoro zapanapa: H. T. floipieBa— cdepexoxi lepeai Povcait 
i MancoBcrift oepeaaiu* ; T. AaaHbeBa — «KapaBoraIqu, ax* hm m 
o5pa8i> Bisifli; K. XawypoBa— Bypxa, vepru m xapaaTepa h 6ura. Bo^ 
II OTXftifc noirtmeBM T6K6TU BypxcBie, TaitifflBBcaie, apxaBGio-TaTcaie, 
eBpetoBO-apaieleaie a aicopcaie. Ki saMferafe Kb alcop^im TeacTan 
npi6aBiefla n oOiqaxi wpTaxi #OB6THia alcopeaaro B3uaa x ero as6yaa 
epaBBiTeibio cb aKaxexnooaoS TpaBcapanipel. CapiloxiME 6ymia aanv 




KPHTBKA H BHBJUOrPA*!*. 



149 



man Teacn ncx* sarjaBiem cHoMomb Bora i aepa> , npi ten BwSpaaa 
He Taxb-aasuBaevaa Bearopifcaciaa ai6yBa, a aao6BTCBaa, ftoifte mxa/UiuM* 
ywauro capojoran bi Poccia m sanaxaol EBpoafe. OTxtnaun npaio- 
seaien aaneiaTaax pyccKo-afcopcBii i aftcopcxo-pyccsift GJOBapb, eocit- 
Bieaaiit BajaraeBHMi h aaBJDuiomii vs> ceftt xo 12000 mob*. Tyrb- 
se HaneiaTaBi I Bunyoai clfaTepiajora x<u icropanv reorpa*aqe«aro 
cjoBapa BaBtasa* E. L BeitxeBSayaa. Pexaxiiia cG6opBMia» npaaaxieanr* 
ODBiTfloxy y»e HBxaTeiB) MaTepiaioB* no ia6apxaacE0My aausy — JL T. 



Bpe tteH h m K*b 3CT7IAHACKOM ry6. II, aoxi pex. A Xapysuua u A. 
Andpiatueea (Peaejob, 1895, 8° Grp. 226+npaj.a — z). Bo BTopon Tort 
BpeMeununa ni aaxoxan pax* craTei, aafoMuxb v cepbeaaul OTBOrpa- 

♦flqeCBlt HBTOpCCi: OXIBT> 181 JyHfflBrLSPaTOKOBT, 6iITa 96T0EM0B* ID.IO. 

TpycMam HortCTHXB bi BasBaaHon Toirt XBfe otbtlh: «Hcaacrie, noiy- 
Bfepmi vh doTJHBXCBot ry6.» i <npoB6xosx6aie HaceiaBia Ha o. 9sej*, flaro 
h Moafe> . HauioBajBHocTb acascBarb noiyBfcpueB*, Ha«jfl»mirb afecaoibao 
xepeBOHb y 9yxcaaro os. i xo BacToamaro BpeiieBi ooxpaaiBmarb n &aa?a- 
Teju»Hot CTentaa pyccBit HaiwL a opiBceiaBie, He Biiaoaeaa eme buojb*; r. 
Tpycaaa*, Ha ocnoBaHn npexanitt h xaafluxi aauaa, noiaraerb, wo nojyBfcpm* 
SeTJuiHxcKot ry6. nepecejaiacb bt> 9cTiflBxi» asb-sa HapoBH, wo ohi, aa 
HeaflaweAHiin BCBjaraoBiava, noTOHxi xpoBHel iyxa, lenoB^uBaBmie 
npaBocjasie h 8aa* HTeibao yrepaBinie cbo! mm b apaabi. ^HCTO-pywuxb 
nepeceieHKOBiy SisaBmm ooxa hs% cocfcxHaxi ryfopaif , 6hjo Heaaaia- 
Teu>Hoe BOJneetBO. Ha acTiaaxcaoi no*B*, cpexa npeo6jaxaa>maro ibto- 
jateeaaro 1 saTfcn JioTepaflcsaro aacweaia, aavaica oSpamd npouecc* 
sccBHifli^iH nepeceieaijeBb 01 WGTO-acToacaara aacejeBien, aenoBftxv- 

B8BMBMT> JB)T6p8HCTB0> • ABTOpt OOOT8p0JCfl C<)6paTb I ofeeXBBHTb I0T0- 

paqeciia xaaaua, aacaarauaca 9Toro bo Bcferb oTBomeaiaxb BHiepeoaaro 
yrout doTJflflxcsot ry6.: spiBoxiTi ozncaaie CBaxeSBHib o6uiaeBi, paa- 
juibhx* ofipaxoBi, DpiypoqeaBHxi» n pasflun apaaxaaaan, cyeafcpia h 
npaitra, atciOABO o6paai^oBi saroBopoBi, saraxoKi, caason, 
xaiteae — 6ojtmot cnicoai 6oi*e yuoTpe6iTeiBHUxi cjobi i, aaxoHeiii, 
m^cbhx-b h iB^fluxi ihcbx ■ npo3Bin^ii. IIpexocTaBjuui oneitfajHeraMi 
ptmaTb Bonpocx, wtxy»Tx-« conacaTBca c* HHtaieMx avropa 0 aaipo- 

aaJlBOCTH HCaKCKHXl DOiyBtpE^eBX HJB Vh 1HXI XOJSBO BHXtTL pyCCHXTb, 

no^BeprmHxca BCToacaoiy Biiaaia> ? otm*tbht», wo pa6oTa r. TpyciaHa 
aBiaoToa b% Hactoamee Bpeaa caiun noiaun Tpyxon, lOTopul Korxa- 
ju(o 6ujt» nocBflmaem bto! He6ojf»mof rpynnt Baceieaia, bo Maorax* 
OTBoaieaiaxi p*3B0 oua^aromelca orb npeo6jaxa»maro bi ry6epeia btho- 
rpamecBaro aieveaTa — bctobi. He leate iHTepeceai ■ xpyroi Bonpoei, 
paspafiaTUBaemai K). TpycnaHon 9 — 0 npoicxoBxeaia aaceieaia aa 0. 9seJt, 
Aaro ■ Moa*. 9to wru-ocTpoBHTaae aaanxeibao ounattTca bo norixi 
OTHomeaiax'b orb bctobi laTepuoBUTF, — 6hjo xaBHO yse HOXHtiaeno 
H8Cji*xoBaTeiaHB; H). Tpyeiaa*, aa ocaoBaaia Tonorpa^HiecKan xaaaun 
m xaaauxb aauia, cTapaeToa BOicraflOBBTb BCTopi» nepeceieaia aeron ci 



JonaTaeoKOiy. 



A. Xax — o&b. 




160 



9TH0rPA«HqECR0E OB03PBHIE . 



■aTepaaa Ba noMasyTbie ocTposa, a Tame h o6ibcbitb npoicxoaxeaie b*- 

BOTOpUXl OJOKb, SaiMCTBOBaHHUIT, OCTpOBBTBBHMB J •BBHOBl I pyCCBBXl, 

bo Be Bcrptiaromixca bt» xpyraxi bctobckbii aaptaiaxi. A. CoAodoenu- 
me* vb waTbt cffiaiame bctobi^b* bt> ero boctcubbbobi piasBaTia* paa- 
pataTUBaerb BBTepecHtie vaTepiaju, aacawmieca nuni* bctobi, cotipaaflue 
in n 1892 r. bo Bpexa nofcsxxa bi 9cTJBBXcEya> 176. ci BTBorpaw- 
lecxoi itfta»fl>; airropi Ba ocBOBasii cymecTByEHnaxi tbhobi auiiqi bb- 
lepnjBaerL ncTopii> pasBBTifl bctoboroI bb6ii. Ki craTbt npajoaceao 22 
picyiua. ABTponoiorneciBMi B80J&xoBafliaro aaxi ocTau nocaameaii no- 
BAflpBflftie Vb npuoaceflia MTepiaJH A. Xapy3una: cEi aaTponoioria 
Baceieaifl 9cMaBxc«oft ry6>. Hayveauo Ectopia b xpeBBOOTei ipaa nccaa- 
npflu paCoro: 0. K. Tu3wn: OaraTaa xpaBBBro npaBOciaBBaro xpaxa 
vb doTiBBxeiof ry6,», oiojo Httxaiera bt> Ieaeflcxorb npaxox*, rx* no 
npexasiio xo GtBepaoi boIbu sijo pyceaoe Baceieaie; J. Xansem\ 

OCTaTKB BtoOTOpBIXl XP6BBEXI 8BIIK0BX Vb 9cTJHHJCK0l ry6. 9 B H. Xaptf- 

3uta: 06sopi xoiyiiOflTOBi, oraocflmaxca Kb BCTopiB EuTiftcxaro spaa e 
xpaaanjaxca vb Mocbobgebxi apxnBaxi MaaacTepcTBi HaocTpaBBbixi J&rb 
n IOgtbiub. — Yfbiaa bb CTpaHiuart CBoero Bsxaaia Be xaio nfccTa GTaTban, 
nooBfl^eBBun B8yidfliH> npomiaro b coBpeneHaaro 6uTa aacejeaiH 9cTiaflxia, 
MftcTBui CiaTiCTiiecKii Kobitctb npaBoearb cymecTBeBayH) nouay aa- 
meny OTe*ecTBOBfcx*Biro; xti bo noate» noBTOMy Be BupasBTb ateiaflia^ 
hto6u nporpatfaa, npaaaTaa npa Esxaaia cBpeMeaaEBa*, se iBKtaajacb 
KoMiTOTon b npi isxaflia jait>HMniHii> BbinycxoBi. 

B. A. HtyKOBCKiH: ApeBHOCTM 3aKacniMCKaro Kpa». Pa3BajiHHu 
CTaparo MepBa. {Mam. no ApxeoA. Pocciu, 143d. Hm. Apx. KoMMuccieto. 
J£ 16. CUB. 1894. 4° CTp. 216, ci» 39 pacyflB. vb TeaeT* b 8 Tafti.)- 
cPasBaiiBii CTaparo MepBa> npexcT*B<iHior& nepauft Bunycxt cMaTepiajoBi 
no Apxeoiorii Poccia>, socBH^eflauft BsyieaiH) xpeBHOGTeB SaxaMiiiGEaro 
Kpaa. Sain* a npejtnecTByH>mie JMsJSfi cMaTepiaiOBi> , BasBaBHoe i3*asiie 
Apxeoi . EoHBecii OTjaiaeTca sara coxepaaTeibBOCTbB), Tart 1 BBfemflim 
HSflfljecTBoro • Tpyxi r. ffiyaoBCBaro, BeoMOTpa aa sanattie, BOTopoe xaen 
eny y noBBXBHony, BCBJa>iBTeibflo apxeojorflvecxii BHTepeci, Be jamem* m 
cepteaBaro saaieflia jia dTBorpata. fiayiaeMue aBTopoMi naBflTBBBa npi- 
naffiesarb npeaiyn^ecTBenflo ki* BCTopBiecBoxy nepiojy »b3hb MepBa; BTony 
omeaBiH) r. XyaoBCEBMi npexnocjaax o6mapHutt BCTopB«<iCRift otepra MepBa, 
XO nepeaeceBifl ropoxa Ha hobhh Btm (cTp. 3—94). 9toti ovepsi npex- 
msimrb Bosnoauio noiaut cboxi catxtflijl, BSBjeqeBBuxi aBTopon bsi 
BayneHifl nepBOBCTouBEOBi (apein. boctouijxi nacaTejefl), xacaTeibno 
Bcropia MepBa, ROTopony Btinaia xojh arpan Buxa»my»CH pois Vb bcto- 
pia A3iH, bt> ocofieflBOCTB Bb nepioxi saBoeBaTejibflaro XBameaia apa6oBi>, 
a BnocitxcTBii b TaTapx. HuiocTpauian kt. bto! erpaHBi^t TpeBomaoft 
Boropia Asia ciyxaTi i3y«ieHHMe, onacaHBue a Bso6paaceBBue r. ffiyvoB- 
cbbvi apxBTesTypHue b MorajbBue naHflTBixa CTaparo MepBa, co6pasie 
npexaail coBpeaeHBHxx mBTeiel 061 btaxi ocTaTKaxi CTapaau. 9rBorpa#i 
Taxaxi o6paaoHi» no xysaerb Bosvosfloerb Be TOJbEO B3yiaTb npomioe apaa, 




KPHTHKA H BHBJH0rPA*IH. 



151 



noGKOJbKy oho coxparaiocb vb niOLMeHHtm i BemecTBeHHHXi noxsenmrb 
uaMflTHBKan, ho HaniTHTL s Tfe BjiflHia (i BHfcnraee BupaaoHie nocifex- 
Hax%), KOTopufi BBJfliiCB peryiHpyH>mimi b*l ciosHot i xo BacToanjaro 
BpeMeHH exBa«-Ji cl xocTaTouoi xoTajbHOCTbio H3yqeHHoft xaTepiaibHott 
ByjLTypt Bamero BocToaa. coaaxforia), r. SyRoscRoxy He yxaiocb npoaa- 
b6cth Goi-fee ocBOBaTe JtHuii pacRonoR* b*l ropoxamaxi, Ha KOToptra ctowb 
XpeBBift Mepex; exRHCTBeHBtia pacKOUM na Tflypi-Eaie, Mfecrfc HaaSoite 
xpeBHaro Haxosxenia MepBa, 6ujb, no HeaaBiCHmwrB ott> aBTopa o6eToa- 
TeACTBan, cinnKon HesHaweiBHu ■ He houh gara 6oiLmiui peayib- 
TaTOBi; ho jase bth cpaBHHTeiLHo HeMHororacieHHiiH naxoxRa, xo6hthh 
pacionRaiiH Ha Taypi-Baie, aacTaaiaiorb Baxtebca, wo 6oj*e cepbe&Htia 
Hsej^oBaflia bt» btovb HanpaBieflia He Syxyra SeanioxHbi. BaxHoe BHaqenie 
Xia apieoiorii H3yqenia naiiaTFiROfii 6ht8 m HCByccTBa xpeBHHr* oSffra- 
Tejet cpexaet Asia npasHBHO wb Hacroamee Bpena; ho h bt» HHTepecax* 
9THorpa«iH mu He vosen ho noaejaTb, wo6m sa Hsyieaien ■CTopnqecRHX'b 
naMHTHiEOBi> xpeBHaro MepBa, — sapieft, ci lOTopoft r. JRyROBCRii cnpa- 
BHica m% SiecTanp, — nocifcxoBaio bosmokho caopte i HsciftxoBairfe xpa- 
Hanpxca bx 8e*j£ xpeBHOdei; wyqeHie axi, cjtxyen, Hax*aTbca, hoho- 
serb ptmHTb oGntfe sonpocu o xpeBHixi RyibTypHbccb BjiaHiaxi Ha 6mtl 

HtROTOpUX'B HapOXHOCTOl PoCCiH H BT> qaCTHOCTH XaCTl B08H0MH0CTB o6l- 

flCHHTt npoicxosxoEie Toro m hhoto npoH3BOxcTBa, rocnoxoTByion^aro y 
BtKOTopuxt I3*b Hacsxaion^HX'b Pocciio RoqeBtixi h noiyaoqeBUXb Hapox- 
HOCTeft, ROTopaa bt» cboohi BHfemHeirb 6uTy xpanarL MHoro ottojocrob* 
CTapaHu, to^ho yflCHHTL aoTopiia 9THorpa*ia 6e8i hohoh^h apxeoioria exea-jH 
Syxen aorxa-Hi6yxB Bt coeToaaiM. jj*. X. 

TpyAU Pa3aHCK0B ApXHBHoR Komhccm, XI (PaaaHb, 1895 r., nox* 
pex. 0. X- fizoHmoed). Bi> qaci* HHTepecHUXt pa6on>, ROTopua co- 
eTaBiHHvn* coxepwame Xl-ro t. «TpyxoB% PaaaacRoft ApxaB. BonHccia> , onifc- 
qaen Tpyxi %. lepenuuua: «M*CTHaa CTapiHa. BopKOBCBii HorMbHRrb> 
(cTp, 103 — 167), Hawaii eme vb BHnycst tTpyxoBi> aa 1894 r. Ha- 

XOXRH Vb BopROBCKOHT* MOriJbHHRb 60J*6 IJH Hefl'fee HSBtCTHH B6tHl HHTC- 

pecyioiqHMca HsyqeHiexb pyccRaxi xpeBHOdefi; ho r. QepenHiffb ho orpa- 
Hraica cofipaHien'b h onHcaHien cuporo naiepiaia, bi o6inapHOVb roih- 
qecTBt xoSuTaro *n pacKonRa HaaBaHHaro HoniibHHRa; ohx CTapaeTca 
paspa6oTaTb 9T0TL vaTepiajb h xatb eny ocB^eflie. 9adb BToft pa6om, 
ycn^niHO BBinoiHaeiol aBTopou, noaBRBuiaaea vb CBtTt bi> II t. «Tpy- 
X0bt>» RacaeTea sonpoca qpeaBuqaMao HHTepecnaro, Raai x^a apxeojora, 
nxsjb h x*a 9THorpa«a: r. ^epenaHHii Ha ocaoBaHm pesyjibTaTOBi pacRonoai 
CTpeMHTCfl x*Tb OHHcaaie oxesxu xpeBHirb o6HTaTeief , octbhrh ROTopuxi 
noRoaTca bt> BopKOBCKOM-b MOTHJbHBR^. Mbi bx caMHrb oSb^hxi TOprax* 
nepexaxan naBHiae bhboxh aBTopa no BTOMy Bonpocy. Gyxa no coxpanaB- 
mHMca ocTaTRai'b, Myofccnyio odeoicdy mojkho B03CTaB0BHTb n cift^nomemi 
bhx*: xoMamaaa oxesxa, noRpoft ROTopott, b^pobtho, HY&Jb cxoxctbo 01 
no^yaa^TaHbevL bib RatTaaoirb, dariBaiacb noacom, o6mkhob6hho yapa- 
meHHun HeTauaqecRHu Sxaxaaa a npasaaHa. BepxHaa, Buxoxaaa, mop- 




152 



3TH0rPA*H*ECK0E 0B03POTIE. 



CTfiHafl oxemxa Macon* He CTflriBaiacb. Bport Toro, eorb ooHOBaue noiaraTfc, 
ito csepn rot oxexxu hochihcb njami m xpyrot bixi thsbjo! Bepxsai 
oxesghi, KOTopafl sacTeriBaiacb npasiMi a •i6yjanH. Bos&rtxnoe paapy- 
meHie roiOBHuxi yCopoa-b h o6ysi ysasuBaerb Ha npHroTOBJeHie in mzt> 
■aTepiaioBX, jeno yHiTroxaetfuxi TifcHien. Opyaie cocTaaiaio noiri 
Heo6xoxuy» npiHaxie«ocTb MyaiHn; Harfoifee pacapocTpaHeHHUii th- 
oan opyaria 6mi hoii, Tonopa, RoubH, xponu, CTpfciH, npaqn ■ *eu; 
nocjfcjaie map npavue, ci ocrpien Ha oxHon lessifc, t* «e— o6oa>xoocrpHe. 
K* uciy yKpamemft, HOCMura xystiHan, citxyen oth6Cth melHiu 
rpoflu, •■6yiH, Koai.ua (hscto enapmHaa) h 6pacjiera; nocitxHie ho- 

fflUHGb Bl KOIHTOCTBfc OXHOrO Ha ifcBOft pyK*. MeHCK\U KOCtMOMh COCTOHIL, 

noBa^iMoiy, H3i> HHSHet oxomxu, Koropaa, CHOTpa no xocTany, jfeiaiacb 
in AHflHot , mepcTHHoi Hii xionfaTo-6yna»Hoi tk&hh. PyKaea btoS oxesju 
6kiih iJHHBue, xozoxHBmie xo KicTei pysi». C*>pn Biott oxesxu Haxtoa- 
Jiacb xpyrag, rose mepcTBHaa, cnycKaBiiiaaca xo KOjfeH* in hbihopo hub; 
Hoipot ea, no npexnojoaceuiio aBTopa, noxoxan Ha noiyaa*Taai>; ra nojojy 
€£ npnmHBaiH sa lojeui Meiaia 6poh3ophh KOHycoo6pa3HW<i i niocsia 
TpaHeaieciXHUH npiBfecxi, bt> Bijfc cmomaoi 6axpoiu Boipyri »6i«; 
Kport Toro, leTauiqeciia yipameBia npiniHiifjicb, enje Vb pasHMXt m*- 
cTaxi h>6eh. Orb oSysx ci^xobi ib coxpaHiiocb; iro lacaeTca roiOBHUX-b 

y6opOB*B, TO XOTfi B03CT8HOBITL GOpXy HXl 1 H6 UpeXCTaBIHBTCB B03X0S- 

Hbun>, ho tCTb 0CH0B8H16 noiaraTb, ito *opia HX* 6uia pasHOo6pa3Ha, H 
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Boropufl npiBpfeniajncb n roioBHOxy y6opy; xaifte yapameHia aerosol 
oxesxu coctohjh isi osepeiif i*b 6yc* hih HeTaiisecKixi npnirbcon, 

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IlCTfeD 131 4-Xl 6|)OH30BUX'b 6yTHJioo6pa3unx , b npHBtcon. 9T0Tb BUXh 
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poirb; KpoMt Toro — KOibua h Cpacjera; noci^XHie BCTpfciaiacb bi sou- 
lecTBft xo 6-ti bi oxHoft voraii. IIpexveTOBi oSxxoxa HalxeHO 6tuo 
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Hit 6urb xpwHHX'b oSHTaTeael HacitxoBaHHoft h&cthoctr. R% cmbfe r. 
^epeoHHHa ho npaJomeHo, n coaaitaia), picyBKOBi; nocj^XHie apie 
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bto cxtiaTt X8xe Tasoe xaTa^Hoe onicanie npexieTOBi, KOTopoe xaarb 
aBTopi. Bo BCRKon cjyiafc mvl ho Moseni He oTaecTicb 6jaroxapHoenio 
bi r. %peoHHay sa npexnpiHarat rii Tpyx%, T&n 6oj4b wo om na 
npiHaxiesifb ki wciy jer»x% v Tan Kan xaa xocTiseHia pe3yibTaT0Kb 
no onicaaiD locnoMa aBTopy npaiwoGb noTpaMTb Heiaio Tpyxa h BpeMBHi. 



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153 



GtjopyccKoe flojtcbe. C6opHin 8THorpa«ivecKin naTepia- 
jobi, coSpaHHuxi M. J(o6Hapb-3anoAtcKUMz. Bun. I. fltcHM nHHiy- 
hobv Gi»npiiox6H!eiii» Kapra g*b. qacTH ytaja h waTbH o roBop*.— Kiewb 
1895. (Ottickt. 131 J r flHBepciT6TCKii r b H3&l>CTii). Grp. XXYIll+23. IJ. 2 p. 

cIItCHH nHHiyKOBT>> Dpe|CTaBJflioT r b coSoft lacTb o6mipBaro 8THorpa*Me- 
caaro laTopiiua, co6paHHaro M. B. $0BHapi» - SanoJbCiu* bo apeMH es- 
ciypcil bi Efcjopyccia jfcTOirb 1890 i 92 it., coBcpraeHBun no nopyqe- 
uiio 9THorpa«iqecKaro OTjfcja H. 0. JL E., A. i 9. CoGipaieja naTepe- 
coBajH Bonpocw, Kaca»miecfl paajuwaux* CTopoai aapojaaro 6twa, bt> tow 
ucife OKOBomqecKaro i Dpmaqeciaro cBotcTBa; OTHocanjRHiica c»ja Ha- 
Tepiajam 6yjyn> 3aBBTu cifcjyimjie aunycKH cBfciopyccBaro IIojrtcBfl*, 
HacToan^ift are nocBanjeBb xapaiTepBCTaafc MfccTBuxi Bapojaui* roBopoBi 
h TBOpqecTaa. Bl btomi sanpaBieaii i cri/iyerb oapejfciHTb HayHHoe 
BHawHio c6opHiKa. 

Bb cneqiaibHoft MrepaTyp* qacTO cjuidhu saioSti, h npHTom ocbobb- 
TejfcHHH, Ha 6t«H0CTb vajeKTOJornecBaro laTepiaia. Bi to Bpeia sax* 
bt> o6iacTR co6ctb6Bbo 9THorpa$a?6CKoi BauHBDTi pa3AaBaTbca roioea 
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Teopit ijh, no Epalaet Mtpt, aopiopauxi BsnaxoBi. 

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ocBOiTbca ci 6*JopyccKoi> p£9b» Toft deneBH, saxaa Heo6xojiMa xia Ha6juoxa- 
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Digitized by 




154 



3TH0rPA*HqECK0E OBOBPSHIE. 



n JHHrBicriiecKoi jaTepaTypott, cEasaBineeca yse bb patoTan ero EOHua 
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BBXtTb bi naTepiajaxi r. floBHapt - 3anojbciaro Ty deneflb xocTOBfcpaocn 
v toshoctb, saaaa BeoSxo^Hna jjh Toro, ito6h hojoxbtb ixi b* ochobb- 
Hie CTporo-Bayqaaro HSCjfcxoBaHia. rflpecitxyfl Bapaxy ci BTHorpatHiecEiin 
itfjain i *HJOiomecBifl, roBoparb o ce6fe cofRpaTejb, a arapaica aamicbi- 

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CKaauBaH)Tca sanacaaBUHi coSipaTeieMx jiibo, ho Ha 600 nfcceHb nocTopoa- 
hbxt> sauiceft nptxoxrrca Bcero 84, Taxi wo cpaBHueibHO yqacrie co- 

TpyXBHROBl HeSHaHHTCIbHO. 

OcTaBiaa nosa Bonpoci o coxepxaHii c6opHiEa, o6panMca CHaqaja 
n rtwb TeopemecRHn pesyjbTaTaMi, e* kbrhmi nparaen co6ipaT&ib 

Bl CBOel CTaTbfe «r0B0p% DHHiyKOBt > . ECJH COnOCTBBHTb CL BTOl CTaTbflM 

rfe He3BawTeibHHa x&HHbia no niHCEira rOBopairb, KOTopua npaBexeHHB* 
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ntceni B3% cSopHiRa o. ByiraBOBCRaro «IlHHqyBH>, to ORaxeTcn: 1) wo 
no CBoevy xapaRTepy h 'siexeBTan orataeHEbie roBopu npexcTaBJHaw'b 
BucoRil aayiBbift HHTepeci, i 2) ito coCnpaTMb npexcTaBM* bi bto! 
daTbt ixi oTfiocBTejbHO nojHyio xapaRrepacTiRy. IloaaBBB* CBoeft aaxa- 
qeM opocitAHTb, rjaBUbirb o6paaom>, clBepHHH rpaHHuu MHCEaro roBopa 
cb 6tJopyccKiiH, M. B. ^OBHapb - 3anoibCRift BanpaBBiea isi DaHCRa Ha 
Ilopfcqbe, 03apaqa, Kparjeeaqa, TeiexaBhi, ByjbRy, BuroHoinihi h xaifce, 
Bi cfcBepoBOCTOHHbiMii cej-aiairb, ie*amiMi Ha H)SBoft ospaHHt Pobahjobm- 
CRaro 6oJOTa. HtcROibEo saMtqaaift c^tiaHe o Dsuoi i sanaxaoft rpaHant; 
fioj^e xeTajbHoe BbiacHeHie cooTHomeHia macKaro roBopa cl coc^xhmi 
bojlihckimh h rpoxHeHCEHHH aBTopi cTaTbH uoyTtmaTeJbHO npexocTBBia- 
erb HayBt 6yxym«ro. 

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■earxy npoqHMi bi> rpynnaxi tn+j, d+i, c+i Ha6jH>xaeTca oicyx- 



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KPHTHKA H BHBJHIOrPA*IH. 



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CTBie o6uiHaro CManeHia, Tan *ro — xodw, patteaa (paseHa), pacnycmw, 
6poc»; 3) ocTBTRi apxaaqecKaro cociaBHaro cnpaseaia Bpojfe— Moro xojy nepe- 
xoofcueamb Mymh\ Moid MOBy mp^moimeamh Mymi (-iMyTb); 4) o6pa30- 
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cupun Marepiaxon, no, koh<j*ho, bi bsb^cthoitb OTHomeaiH peKOienjy- 
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CTaTKOBi ero ipyja. K* hbmx-to mli Tenepb b oGpaTHiea. 

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bto npoTiBoptua, nexocvoTpu, *acro do-hctbh* xocajHbie bi Taion rpyjfc, 
CBBxtTeiLCTByioiqie cKopfce o H-feKOTopoi topohihbocth, ci saaoil nacaiacb 1 
CTaTbfl o roBopfe. Tan, noKpaiaei Mfept, mm ckxohhh cioipfcTb ua MHoria 
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bhi^ji, tto H. B. floBHapi - 3anoxbCKii, HSCxfyjoBaBi cfeBepHiia rpaHmu 
nHHCKaro roBopa ei 6fcxopyccKKifH, npimen n saKiroieeiiD, ito ero mcuo- 
pyccmA ocnoea necoMimnna. Tkwb He MeHfee, on HaauBaers axy mIicthoctb 
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KaKHi'waCo nxeHeHHun hjh Shtobhxi jaHHim? 05* BTon oh* Hinero 
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Ecih me npaHHTb bo BHuanio HenpoxoAHMua 6ojoTa h, bi He^aBHee Bpeva, 
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DHHCKifi rofiopi HHHCBHn, a He MaiopyccKHMi hxh se MaxopyccRHn. 

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TpaHCKpanuia He opeorpa*ia, Kan HtaoTopue noxaraionb, r^ft shboS^ is- 




156 



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ci oroBopKoft ocTaweHM Haraia. He 3aaeHi xaKia eoo6paseaia pyaoBOXirt 
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i yHBTToseHie hit* Ha nacbHt ynpocTHJO 6h Tpyxi coSapaTeja. 

He xaeTb, hi cosaitflifi), pa50Ta r. ^OBHapii - 3anoibcxaro HBTepiaja 
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vb oco6eHHocTa vb cjOBaxi, OTCTynaJDmaxi oti oCbrraoft aci^eHTOBKM. 




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157 



B«e 8T0 H6X0CT&TIH, CI ROTOpME 6H|e MOMHO HOMipiTbCfl H OTH36TH 

I3Bihitl KponoTiiBOCTbH) paSoTti, oSmipHOCTbH) EaTepiaia; BB 06Wfitt 
xaTepian btopl npexcTaBiaerb eo6oi itftaHoe npio6p&TOHie ^iaieKTOioriHe- 
6iot jflrepaTypu, i vb btohi ero naBHoe Sflaieuie. Ho bt> CTaTi>t co6ipa- 
Tejfl o roBopt, Hapaxy ci u£humh Ha6iH>xeeiaEE i tosho! rpynnipoaEot 
•moBt, BCTpftwe** npoEaxE Hsrtn noun BeofitacHEMHe, Bast ombhx- 

HOft CD^fflHOCTbH), DOSaiyf, He6peXH0CTkK) 9 BOTOptM CTOJB BeyMtCTHH BT» 

noxoSsaro poxa paSorfe. XapaKTopn ctekj roBopa Ha now* co6panHaro »a- 
lepiaia cxfciaiB 6u, HasoHeqi, xpyroi iscitxoBaTeib, h coSapareiBCKift 
Tpyx* M. B. AoBHapi-3anoiHBaro He yiMEiea 6h, * peqeaaenTy He 
npimiocb 6h OTEtoan. hctoihogth i ynymema Bpox* eitxyiomErB: 

1) c3to omsepdfbnie (nacHwn) 6uBaen» Ran cjmdcme iem meepdocmu 
eaMExi rjacHMii (xch^ seieHul), TaKt>... 

2) «XapaKTepHum» x« Bcero roBopa ABjaeTCH OTBepxtaie * bx via- 
xoAhuou npucmaeKtb ca: ioatyca, emiTca>. Tan* bi xsyiB ifeCTarb; 
n oxhoitb itCTt 9T0 HassaHO qacTEaei. 

3) J( BMftcTO j bi Ha^runie, Ha^cHJbHMmu— flBjeeie He «oHomecKoe 9 
m*b noBHXHHoiy xyvaeTb coSapaieib, a pesyjurarB BjiaaiH t. *h. Hapox- 
Hoft BTEMOJorifl: HaxB — bb BHa*. BHCineft CTeneHE; Tan bi Sfciopyceaol 
h*ch* ESI Moero coSpama: 



4) HpoTHBoptiifl: <?to sacaeTca ropTaHHHii, to roBopi lafitraeTB 
ynoTpeCiaro exb HarMii, hie cp9XHEiE xue, cmhihuh eo (pAeKcinxb u 
dpyiuxb o6pa30QanifWb\ . H xajBme: «ropiaHHUd cdocoShu CMarsaThca 
bb HtCTH. e xaT. ex.> Owbexho, <rro bb nori nepeipecTHaro Bjiaeia 

K&IO — H 6tlOpyC6EEZl> •OpiTB TOBOpi OTHOCETCH KB TBepXOCTH H MflrEOCTE 

ropTaHHuxi paBHOxymao. 

5) Bt> npantpfc — EbiHE jce yjaHBCKoe — coSapaieiB bexhtb ampocfnio 
nadeofcuuxh oKomauiu. IIomimo cTpaHHOdM Taaoro B3i\iaxa no3BoiaeEB 
ce6* BupaaHTs coMHfcaie, abotbohho ie ciumaiB co6flpaTeiB bto oe. 

6) Accusat. hoe caHE bb npHMfept: huio moh cbhe — coSapaTejB npE* 
HEHaert sa nominat., a cjobo huhku npHHtpa naiidy ynpviHKu mtMnoio 
huhku on npEHHiaerB sa genit., xorxa oho Jerio oSiacHaeTca aHajoriel 
no co3Byqiio; Tasxe ■ bt. (no) hohb coSspaTeiB bexhtb nominat. bh. dat. 

7) Kara npsMfepu xBoftcraen. %. yaa3aHu: oumia, onmwiMU 9 xb^ 

nUChMOHKU. 

8) Bi npm. — 3a xfauHb Sepaca — cit neHie HepoxoBi, a CEioneHift. 

9) Ha XXIV cTp. HBH8H OHECEa — be. xtoDpEUCTif CKa3aH0 npaiacTitf 
( • Jeacia yuu). 

Eponft Toro, exBaiE eosho eonacrrBOH: 1) ci bossoshoctbio rpynau 
hh E8i rm, Hanp. ohhuhlitu; s^tcL yxBoeHB nepaui aieieHTi — omwma- 
hmtm; 2) ci rpynnoft hh hsb hm: ho ifwa, Jiym<<a; 3) ci OTaepx^uieE'B 
ryfiHot n ojiobB — tyoem*: bi eebh. 6poew — mhocohh^hho cpexHee, Kani 
e bb MOB* rwHrnan (cTp. XIX) (ao xpyroxy noBOxy); 4) ei BunaxeHieEB 



fla aan^iE, hs saftrp&xs 

Hax yoHi nysiia. (Hax — lysine). 



Digitized by 




158 



8TH0rPA*ffqECK0E 0B03MHIE. 



d bi OJOB& XBa(x)uaTb: sxfeeb npocTaa accaaaxaijia raja deammcamt. 
Tpyxao ptmHTb sa OTcyrcTBieMi yxapeaia Bonpocb oTaociToibao ciosa — 
nojrane; bo bcakoicb wy^afc 9to H6 o6hhhoa «opva 9 Kara ee cwam 
eo6ipaT6Jb. HpBMtpa <yae, ynuiaca, y Koro> Ha cnopaxasecKoe y, npa- 
6i»»aiomeecH ra corjacHOny 0 , xojshu nacanca <Bse 9 Bmuaca, b koto> . 
IIpii^pi 3aympa aeyMfcCTeai* a jiaaeTpaJbHO npoiaBonoioaeHb noiosefito 
wo 0 loarerb nepexoxiTB ra nojynacHoe y. Ilpairtp'b — ApyravaTBa — Ha 

TO, TOO % BX COeXHHBHill Cb j jaeT* — Hey6%AlT6J6Hl. II3JBIUB6 OT- 

m4totl raKie o6njie Mara, Kara yuojoSjeaie no SByiHOCTi hii oGearojoineaie. 
roBopa 06% OTBepxtflia rjacHun>, cifcxyerb xepaamfl BToro Tepaaaa a 
ynoTpe6jan> bo Bctxt oiyuaxt BpexnoaTBTeibao npexi Tepuaoirb cot- 
Bepx*afe corjacHum . ftrfexyerb B36taTb cumion oGmax*, 6esooxepsa- 
TeJbBuxi *pa3b Bpox* — cKb o6fHHra aBieaiaa-b Vh oCaacTi eorjacauib 
OTHOCBTca Taaxe bit> cnocoSaocTb caarqaTbca hib OTBepxtBaib, cpaBBHT&ibao 
ci oSn^eiiTepaTypHUicb aauxoHi (?), nox*b Bjiaaieai rfexi ui xpyraxb 

♦OHeTBTCCBHIb H3KftB6Bi8> . 

9THorpa*MecKaa dopoaa c6opBiRa CTOirb n fijasatmel CBH31 co 
CTaTbBMB M. B. AoBHapi>-3aii0JbCEaro, HanacaHBbixa, bo ■Horm csytaara, 
Ha ocHOBaflis coSpaBHaro HaTepiaja. Tara, HtKOTojue otx^ih japawGaarb 
ntceHi niHiyKOBT> aamia ee6* oCiaeaeaie 1 apayio, siByfl) xapaKTepacTBKy 
vb CTaTbt «KeHCKaa win naa?yKOBi> (9th. 06., IX ). Heasxfeaaua aea- 
caia pajocTa a neraia orb afcxaaro xtoaaecRaro B03pacTa ■ xo MoraiH, 
cl BfcrauHb y3oponb jio6bh, o6MaHa, peBHOcra, wySoKott, saTaeaBoft o6bxh 
p«jbc*HO pecyioTca npex* maTeiera, nojKynaa caoet peaibaol npasxoft 
a o6jnwaa Bb aBiopfc Bipaee noHiaaHie aapo^Bofi jkishb a jyxa. Jlapaaa- 
caaxi nfcceab bi cGopaaai 225, npa lea* oh* Hoxpas/tfuuawca aa Becea- 
aia, lfcTaia, xoxbbkb, oceaia, saaBia, •uannoBcria, seaciia Bbco6CTBea- 
aoirb cmhcj*, peKpyTciia, qyafmaia, mauria. CBaxeSaua nicai Haiaia 
ce6t (Sbacaeaia a xapaaTepacTBRy b% o6inapaot CTaTbfe <Btiopyccaaa 
CBaxbOa B*b KyjbTypao peiariosBUxi nepesaBaaiaxbi . IIoxo6ao Dpexbixya^et , 
btb pa6oTa noaBaiacb aa CTpaaai^axx c9tb. 06oap.> , qTO xaeTi aan npaBO 
He ocTaaaBJHBSTbca noxpo6ao aa ea coxepsaaia 1 saaieuia. 

^BTaTeja, HecoaBtaao, otm^tbib bt» aeS CTporo-BpaTaiecaoe OTaomeaie 
aBTopa Kb o6ioapHOMy aaTepiajy, BtcaoJbKo bobuxi a aaTepecaMX'b napai- 
jojeft a, Batcrfc ci t£mi>, uiapoKyio nocTaaoEKy Bonpoca. CfiaxeSaurb 
Dtceai bx c6opBKKt — 293; JUfl yxo6cTBa noib30Baaia oa^ caa6«eaH sa- 
rjafiiflHi) noci^xoBambao yaa^UBaioiiniHH Bpeaa an ntaia Bb CBaxeSaom 
paxyaj*. 3a CBaxeSauva ntcaaaa catxyioTi: a) poxaaatia a BpecTaaaua, 
6) kojajkb a mexpaBKa, b) nacxajbflua, r) ipoauxia a ayaaJbCKia. lfeb 
noMtmeaoaro Bb cIIpHJOiKeBiaxii OTitTaab: 1) onacaaie CBaxb6u Bb Kaa- 
cKoai y., hobob 3Beao Kb H3B%cTHu«b yse MaTepiaiaab, 2) Becbaa ufea- 
HUfl Bb EpMTiiecKoa i> oTHoraeflia npax^vrBid, 3) ciOBapb, 4) KapTy cfeBep- 
Hot vcth IlaacKaro y. 

Bb npiatqaBiaxx co6apaT6ib yaasHBaerb BapiaaTU a iHTepaTypy, 
riaBBun o6pa30Mi., ciaBaacayH), n OTx&ibauKb aoTBBaMb noB3ia naa- 
iyKOBi>. B3b BapiaHTOB'b noatn^aiacb, roBopaTb oab, npeaaymecTBeaao 



Digitized by 




KPHTHKA H BHBJIIOrPA*IH. 



159 



Tarie, KOTopue Morn npexcTaBKb Hirrepeci npi nyqeHii mothbobi aa- 
poXHaro TBopi6CTBa>, GoSipareiL npara: &ia BTHorpatRvecRiX'b nfrizt 
cxfcjyera H36*raTb HaKonieHia coBnaxaiomRXb Bapiaroon miodnouumou 
otce Mtbcmuocmuj ho Bapiaffru mz% pa3Hiui MtdHOCTei npexoxawflrorb 
sHaweitHui iHTepeci. 9to bi oco66hhocti ciaaeTca Torja, Rorxaisyie- 
Hie Hapopoi iipiKM cTBHerb Ha npoiHyio nowy i RiaccH«iH[ipyerb nox- 
jexaniit KaTepian coofipasHO nayqfibin Tpe6oBaHian, a He ciyvaiHO, ui 
no yRaaariarb CRasHTejbHHm, Kan sto ffeiaji, n co*a.ifcHiH>, M. B. 
AoBHapi-3anoj*CBitf f can ae orMtqaromift ooifffcHie nfeBiiji, Ryxa npnw- 
cjutb nfccHD. Tan, BapiaHTu oxaott h to! se nfccHi ho xojshli Cm 
ORasaTbci n pasHuxt KteTaxi, paBHun oSpaaon ■ OTxkn* ntceffb, 
ho/cb HasBaaien <pa3HHH», T.-e. mIcto soTopuxi He 6wjo bi tohhocti 
yxaaaHO ntBmaMH, ci 6oibnnurb y^o6oTBon 6hji 6u pacnpexfcieffb no 
HaM*ieHHUin> y»e pySpHRan. He vosen He nosaifrrb i o Ton, rto 
co6ipaTeiB He xopoMrb noMtmxi, on loro n&cHH sanicaHa, cRoibRHxi 
rim CRaaiTeft, rpanoTeffb jh. HsranHo yRastiBaTb Ha BasHoart Taaoro 
poxa noH-feTORi; n lacTHocTH — onncaHie o6<yraHOBRi, npn ROTopoS hootch 
ntCHg, qado HHTepecHte ■ BaxHfee caxoft nfccHH. flame sanncuBaB, Ran 
n xbhhom* ciyqafe, ho orb OTX^-ibHUXb nut, a orb xopa Bcerxa hosho 

6bII0 6m HfcCBOIbRRMH HITpiXaMH OWpTKTb GOCTBBl I0pa, oSlHHUH Saifesa- 

Hifl nfrMifb h npoi. 

Bo3Bpamaacb r*b Bonpocy o BapiaHTan, *u aoixhu CKanaTb, <rro Ha- 
HSoibmee koihhoctbo nib, Rani h citxoBaio oxixaTb, oralueHO no c6op- 
HHRy ByiraROBcaaro. Co6ipaTeib, x^tt CTBue jmo, OTirtiaeTb jimb CBoe- 
oSpaaHue BapiaHra; ctoht* CBtpaTb XX 53, 160, 309, 341, 373, 401, 
425, 432, 440; vb hhuxi ciytaaxi noMinjeHu BapiaHTu Sjisaie, ho 
6oa*e noJHHe, qfcn n «IIuiyRaxi>, RaROBi* XX 28, 416, 437, 536. 
Boifee ijh HeHfce 6iH3Rie BapiaHTH Haxoxxn bi XX 25, 55, 164, 172, 
308 (cb noJOHHSHBHH Bb H3Hir&;, 396, 456, 468, 487. Mobho Ghio 6u 
onycTHTb MOH-fce nojHue BppiaHTbi, nanp., XX 173, 310, 379, 464, 
tanse XX 389, 441, 491, Taai Rani TOxeeTBeHHue BapiaHT&i Ha- 
xoxnn bt> xpyrixi ricraxi paadpaevaro c6opHHRa, ho ho cjftxyerb 3a- 
6uBaTb, no Hapaxy c% 9THorpa«neeRiHM coSHpaieib npe&itxoBan iiHrBH- 
CTfroeeHifl u*jh. 

Bb yRasam* OTH^qeHU loci communes, 9mt6th h npoq. i HaiSorfee 
xapaRTepHUH RyibTypfiio-6uTOBHH tbhu, ito BecbMa bwoxho OTiivieT'b 
cSopHiKb orb eny hoxo6huxi i xaen RScr&xoBareJio xaTepian, eciH 
Hoxffo TaR*b BbipasiTbCH, npano Bb pyne. ocoSohhhmi yxoBOibOTBieM'b 
ocTaHaBJHBaacb Ha 8Ton otx^i^, ku oSpamaen BHHMaHie Bctn, Rony 
npRxeTCfl HMtTb x**o ci BTHMb c6opHHK0M*b, Ha ipesBuqattHo RHxepecHEift 
OTBXb o upneGRHX'b €3antBan>, ui «3anHaxt»,Hii BHxaxi h daxiaxi 
pasBiiifl. Mu BnpaBt 6ujh 6u oxixaTb BCTptTHTb noxoSayio pa6oiy caopte 
na dpaHHi^ax'b xypHaia, *tm Bb c6opHiRt cupaxb MaTepiaaoBx. 

BooGnje n BTHorpa^HqecRon OTHOineHis hobuS Tpyxi M, B. floBHapi- 
3anoibCKaro npexcTaBiaexx m eoro j»6onuTHaro x^fl H36i%xoBaTejfl npievoBi 
HapoxHaro TBopieeiBa Bb oSiacTi jiphkh naH?yKOBi, coxepman^ei h ci 




160 



8TflOrPA«H^EOKOE QBOBPUHIE . 



BHjTpemiet CTopoan Hemio sepr*, pdxcrBeHvun to 6*iopyccioi, to mmo- 
pyceioi no93ia. HeSoraTaa coxepsaaiem, cftpeaLsaa ■ csopSHaa othcmh 
nftcaa npoBBKHyTa saxymeBHocywo i HenoxxfuMim iipisaoa-b xaiopyc- 
ckoI no»3ii, ho JiraeHa ea obo6oxh, th6rocti i chjh. flyxoBaoe poxcrfio 
cpasy AflOTi ce6a *yBCTBOBaTs, ho BfcHOsaa aaxBHyTOCTt, ayxxa i aenpo- 
xoxama Tom nojoMHJH cBoi oTnenaTOYB Ha aapoxayio xyiy H, BI&OT* 
ci rtra, noHoriH eoxpaaaTb bt> He! x&bho HCiedHyBmie bi xpyrar* 
crax* ocTaTM cTapaaaaro 6uia. 

Ha ocaosaaiH BumeH&ioxeaHaro npaxoxaai n saKiaraeHiio, wo hobh! 
Tpyxi M. B. AoBHapt-3anoiBCKaro, npaMUKaioinia hi otioxy paxy ere 
npemiura pafton, wrtBrnux u*ii>k> aacjlxoBaaie a3H«a, 6htb h acTopii 
HaceieHia Haraero sanaxHaro span h noafcajaBniaxGa Ha CTpaamiax* to 
enei^iajBHyxi mxaaii, to KieBCHn V HHBepcaTeTcnax'B HsBfecrit (nn n 
vb xaHHon ciyiafc), cocTaBjaerL OYpaxaoe aBjeaie bi Hayqaol JMTepaTyp*. 
BunojraeHie eio, aecaoTpa Ha yKaaaHHue aexocTaTBH, npexcraBjaerB mii- 
TWLHuft ioan anepexi wb ciwcjfc npexBapiTeibaot noxroTOBU Harepiaia 
Xia mjibmh i**iei. Eei. Ixwiu. 

H. Aphctobi.— Onurb BbiflCHeHisi STHHsecKaro cocTaBa Knpnisi* 

KftSBMOffb 60AbUI0ti OpAU M Hapa- KNprM30B1> 9 Ha OCHOBBHIH p0X0CI0BHHXT» 

CRasaaift h cB*x*Bii o cymecTBya>max'b poxoauxi x**eaiax* m o poxoBbixi 
Tairaxi, a Taai se iCTopiiecsHxi xaaHux'b h Ha<uaaa>iqRxcfl aaTponoionne- 
CKirt aacitxoBaaifi ( cJRaBaa OapHHai , 1 894 r., b. Ill— IV, cTp. 39 1—486). 

TiopscKia nieieaa xajo cosxaia oparaaaibHaro, ho yxe roxpeBxe nrpaji 
rpoHaxHyK) pojb Kb nsa* xpynixi nje*eai: bi ix% TeppiTopiaibHon 
pacnpexfcjeaia, Kb o6pa80Baaia i^iux* rocyxapoTB* m cRiax* ex* hojb- 
nraecaoft XH3HV. Ecu Tiopan h He 6hih HcxjnweJbHO paapymaromiEi 

BJ6MeHT0Ml>, TO H HO np6|CTftBJflJH C060I0 Bl SE3EH HapOXOB* EBpOHeiCRO- 

AsiaTCKaro ROHTiHeHTa aieieHTi co3Rxaa>mift. 

BHTL MOMOrb, RH6HH0 9TH KaieGTB8 COX%iOTBOB8JH aameHy GiyTHOvy 

npeACTaBjeaiH) 061 HCTopii ax*, npoacxoxxeHiH, 6ht&, •laaqecKon nsi 
flia aaywaia xpeBaaro 6utb th>pkckhh> nieieHi npeaMymecTBeHHO coj*i- 
CTByerb HsyieHie rfixi coBpeHeHHUii tidpbckhxi rpynttx, BOTopua no 
CBOoiy o6pa3y shshh Bcero 6ojte npH6jHxa»Tca n cbohhi npeAKan,— 
HsywHie nopioBi - bovobbhrobi. Riprasu, bth TiopiH, Kovyvn^ie Ha rpo- 
MaxaoHi npocTpaHCTBt cpexHe-asiaTGRHX'b CTenet t otwcth no ci» cwpoHy 
JTpaia, xpaHanjie wb cbohxi oSuiaaxx, oSpa^axi, B033p*Hiaxi mhoi-o c*xoi 
OTapaHM, 8aHHiaiorb xajeKO He nooitxHee xbtro cpexH rfex* TvpROHHn 
nieiBHi, Byqeaie kohxi He toilxo HHTepeCHO, ho h hoiho riy6oKaro Hayn- 
Earo SHaqeaia. 

KflprasH yxe xbbho saHHvavrb bi Hamel jaTepaTypt 6oite BHXaoe 
HtcTO, rttfi HHorie xpyne iHopoxnw namero OTeiecTBa. SaaaoHacB vb 
HOTopien pasBaria UTepaTypu o Kiprasaxx, au Bixan, tto layidHie 
BToro Hapoxa aaiaiocb b* kohu* nponwaro CTOJtTia. He Heate, rtn bi 
bi xpyran oGiacTaxi, saBoeBau ce6* BHXHoe hmh h &x*cl H8b4cthh6 
HSCiftxofiaTeiH Hamaxi ospaaHi: Haxiaci, Teopra, Pmwobi, JLeoeiEHi. 




KPHTMKA H EHEJliorPAftUI. 



161 



Ob HMUJa Texymaro cmtoiH «Teparypa o xvprasan Be nepemaaxa 
nporpecciBHO paBBiiaTtcfl. GBoeoSpasmft BHtarii Curb — botb *to npi- 
Bjesaio rpoHajiHoe Oojbimhctbo nirb, nxcaBiraxi o oprnan, bdjotl xo 
20-xi lonovb. HaBftoTHoe ecfueHie A. leBmua: <OuoaHie xxpriwb-xa- 
aaibixt opji h denei>, exfcian anoxy B*b xsyteHix MHTepecHaro rapoxa, 
nexsuyio bocmk SHawreJbHO Harao saaROMGTBO cixxprixan. Tpijraarue, 
copoiOBue i otocth urrBxecmie roja, x&Bmie Maccy ifltqpefluxt ctbtbI 
■ couHOHii o KiprHsaxx, wcto noBropaaa yse panto bi «TepaTyp* 
■3gtcTHoe, B^a»T6a b* paaoxoTpfeHie oSmaeBi, ofipaxoBi, penriosHUX'b 
Boaspftril BiprisoBi caiun pa3HOo6pa3Huxx x&cffHOorel i o6onnjax>n 
name ssaHie iHTepecHHii taxTaxH. AaibHfeimia xbb xeeaTufrria, 6orarHX 
BoeHHUH co6HtiBMH, xax>rb HOBoe HanpaBieme iHrepatyp* o xxprxaan: 
BUHysxaH>n> B3yian> name noiimecBoe oTHOioeeie kt» xxprxaan, in 
■cTopi», noimiecxii r couiaju>Hut cipol. JMepaiypa ceHHxecaran ro- 
Iobi, npoxoisaa nporpeccipoBBTb Ha syn 9THorpa<mecKKXT» xacifexoBami 
xxprxsoBi, BUXBiraen Ha nepBtifi nihWb Bonpocu exoHOHXtecxie. Cj£*yH>mee 
sarfcirb xecarxifeTie xapaxTepasyeTca b% imepaTypfc o npnaaxi nepsun 
nonurxaxH aHTponojomeexxxi HseiftxoBaHii woro Hapoxa. Xoth jxTepaTypa 
o uprHBCROHi Hapoxft, HacqHTUBanntaa hhh* csume 1500 CTaTei h co- 
whom*, h tftxHa no cie Bpena Tpyxau, HCfepnuBavnpifi BcecToporae 

TOTl HIH IHOt BOnpOCl, HO 3aT0 OTXfelbHiirb ftBXTOBl H HaCjUDAOHil, 

npeiMymecTBeHHo ibi oSjacTi sTHorpatix, — taxTOBt, OMjaromax* CBoero 
o6o6meHia i ocB-fcmcaia, HaxonHiaet, 6esi» npeyBeixveHia, rponaxHaa xacca. 
Texymee xocflTiAiie i xapaxTepxsyeTea imohho nonbrrxau ntaoropuxi 
aBiopoBt cBisaTB •aRTisecKia jaaHua n hsb^cthjh) ciCTevy i npexcTaxHTb 
waTeiio h*sto cTpoftHoe, ufcjoe, ocBftmaionjee xasHui Bonpoc*. CowHeHie 
H. ApncTOBa, Hfccxojbxo xiHHHoe aarjaBie xoToparo ni He noBTopaen 
8x*ci,, eiixyen OTHeori xi patpaxy Tpyxoxi rtxi xawfcjoBaTeiei, xo- 
Topue ho orpaHHHHBaDTCfl nepmen •axTOBi, a rpynnnpyrorB »axTu wl 
noxTBepxxoHie pyxoBOxamei xmcii. 

H. ApiCTOBi ocTaHaBJHBaerea xcxjiiouTeJbHo hb poxoBon ycTpotcrBt 
BHprH30Bi 6oibmot opxM x xapaxipnsoBi. 2 ) Poxoboo ycrpoftcTBO HaaBaH- 
hhxx DJeHBHi He cocTawaen. y aBTopa coScTBerao noje ero xscjfcxoBaHia; 

HO MXTH, X06UTUe BMt OTOCTH OpirHHaJbHHMH 13UCXdfliflHH 7 OTiaCTH HO- 

wpnHyTHe m hsi luepaTypHuxi xctovhhxobi, ohi crapaeTca axcniy- 
aTHpOBaTB X'H BUBOXOBl OH BTHlHeCKOHl COCTaBt nouHymxi HapoxHooTet. 
Ha notfon^b HexoroBapHBaiOQOi ♦axian no poxoBovy yerpof crsy aBTopoirb 
6epyTca xaHHua HCTopaweexia, napoxpua npexaHia. Ilpecxtxya Becbva ciom- 
Hy» h TpyxHO-paBpfcmxKyn saxaiy xoraibHaro BuacHeiiia BTHHwexaro co- 
CTasa KiprH30Bi> SojbHiof opxu h xapa-xxprHBOB'b, aBTopx, xaxi oho no- 



^ Mesxy KBprnsaMB (sasaKavH) h KapaiHprn3anH (xupnisaifii) cymecTByerb 
yse ^sbho rbcBaa JBTepaTypBaa cBH3b, xoth btb ffBa aapo^a h rflaeTBHecRB, v 
BCTopBHecKB, H BTBorpaftBHecRH 3Ba?HT6Jn>H0 possu «pyrb-«pyry. ConocTaBJUfl 
bt» oxhoxt* Tpy^ft BflprasoBit 6ojbmott opRH ct. Kapauprasaifu, sami* aBTopt 
pyxoBO^cTBOBMca Hx*k B8aHMBoft reBeajorBHecsott cBBBbio. 



»THOrPA*M«rC>OI OBOBPfcHIB. XXYI. 



11 




/ 



162 



3TH0FP A<£H 1ECK0E 0B03FBH1B. 



hhxho, He HGiepnuBaera npexneTa, ho pacKpuBaerb — h woro hoabi He 
otm4thti> ci oco6dHHUHi yxapenieH* — MHoro HOBaro i «b Bucmei oreneBM 
HHTepecHaro. 

Tpyxi H. Apiorofia coctoiti as* xnyxi 6oi£e ui i«Hk cavooroHteJb* 

HUXl GT8TOI: cdTHMeClift COOTBB'b 60Jbffl0ft Opj|U> H cpOJU HE06TH Wpa- 

iipmoBt* . Kt> nocitxHett crawA npaauKiort oco6tfl rjaBa crara sapa- 
uprsaoBii h HawHa»miHCH aHTponoioraieetia HaerixoBana* . ToBopfl 061 
arutecKOHi cocraaft upraaoB* 6on>moi opju, aBTopi oorauaBiiBaeTOH 
hh reHeajoraqeciaxi npexaHiaxb RHprnaoBi h npaBojarb JdreHxapuyi) po- 
AoeiOBflyio 6oju>meopAUHMeBi. OxHHHsxu&Tb hmbhi »toI poxociOBnoi hh no 

MHOO, I8HI HH6HH COBpeHOHHUXl OABUHaAIjaTI HOIOltfiift (OlblHOl OpXH. 

yiaaairb Ha uexeflHooTb OTxtibHuxi noKoifeHil r Ha nfccra in coBpeneH- 
Haro ■1T6JB6TBH, H. ApHcrom nepeioxarb n acropaiecMHT* HBBftcrian 
a noioiiuiax* Sojbmoi opxa. Kb cosaaftHiio, ara rjaaa He iilen jocte- 
totooI hoihotu, bi ie«i, Bnpovext, ynpexayTb ampa 6uio 0ti Heenpa- 
boaihbo. ToBopa co6ctb6hho o wrbipexb hoko j&aiaxb— dymrm> y komau 
capu-yucynb, dotcoAuupi^ — awopi aflaionrb marou etipeBHew hcto- 
pien otixi noKortHil, •HrypnpoBaBniHxi Hfciorxa cax(moftTeJbHHHH nie- 
HeH&Hi. SacHii aaropi nepexoxara Kb HHTepecflovy, ho xaio paspafoTaH- 
HOHy Bonpoey 06b ypaHaxi, r.-e. 6oeBuxvKpaKaxb, k o tairan KapriBOBi. 
Ha oeHOBawa uaioxaBmuea bt» pacnopaseHiH aBTopa x«hhhx*, oh* era* 
paerca onpexfeJHTb pojOBoi h nieneHHoi cocTaBi 6ojbmoft opxH. Mhom- 

IHCieHHUfl KHprHSCUH T8HTH, CB0iCTB6HHUfl K8«X0Hy KapmCXOMy pOXy, 

cBOXHTca no hhIhId fl. ApacTOBa Ha mecTb ochobhbiii thhob*: a) npaia* 
lepra h ea yxBoerie, b) Bpyn»x ero yxBoerie, c) noiyipyra, d) coqeranie 
xayn npaiuxb, o6paayH)imrb yron hjh ipecrb, e) coexHHenie nox* 
yrMMH Tpexi npaHun ■ f) coexBHenie venipexi npaxurb nox* npavuu 
ynaHH. Cexuioi rani, npHBOxuui H. ApacroBim, ceoexHHeme Kpyra hjh 
noiyipyra oxhoI, XByaa m rpeiu HpnuxK> , no Hamemy mfcHUD, npex- 
CTEBiaerb cowraHie nepiOTb xsyx* thdobi nocjtiy»iqHHH Tpem. H. 
ApacTOBi» npiAaen ranaMi RaprisoBb rpovaxHoe mqeflie 1 ). 9to wsh 
BHan poaoboI, HeHavtHHul, no ipalHet ntpt xo HBBtcTHol deaeHH; ho 
eerb ih BOBHOsHocrb xaxe npH H8iiTOocrf xocraTOiHaro HaTepiaja Boaera- 

HOBHTb pOACTBeHHyn CBflBb OTXtlbHUXb pOXOBUXl rpynHl SHprHBOBl, KHK& 

HeKxy ooftoft, tbri h ci poxoBUHH rpynnsHH xpyrarb tjdpkcbhxi njeaee-b, — 
no cie apeHa ociaeTca Bonpocon oripUTUMi. Ho bo bcakoitb cjy«t, 

IBUCSSHifl fl. ApHCTOBB HHCHBO H8 9T0HT» HyTH npeXCT8BlHI»TCfl HOBIIHI, 

vb Bucmei ereneHH HHTopeoiuiXH a ocBtmi»maMi auoria tchhuh Hftora, 
He roibio bt» npoacxoxxeHia BjeHeHToax, coc i bbhb dihxi KiprasccyB hh- 

pOXHOCTb, HO H BO B88HMH0K pOXOTfit HXl Cb X8pa-Mpra8AHM. 

Borie noxpo6no, itai 6oju>mya> opxy KHprHSorb, aBTopi paBcvaTpHBaerb 
KapaaprH8CijiD HapoxHocrb. OcTaHaBiRBaacb hh HapoxHuxi caasaHiax'b o 
HpoHCxosxeHui BapaKHpraaoBi^ fl. ApacroBb nepexoxm v* HcropaieaHn 



^ PoxoBue aaau jei*a bt. ocBOBame xpeBBaro nopicxaro aiftaBmra. 




KPHTHKA H BHBJIOrPAOia. 



163 



xaxuin. I Tt i xpyria y6fcxxaB>n asropa n xpeBuexi npoxexoxxeflix 
<Bipru80BX» (t.-6. xapaxxprxsoBi) i n npixftcx ro aTOxy xapoxy xho- 
njexeHBuon, npeaxy mecTBSHHO n ixij* HCLUMdHOffb, numaesh u nun- 
Hanoebj—JuenQWhy xxftBmxn bi cbod o?epeu> ipeBiion HCTopio. JJajfce 
asropi bxoxxti* bi nojpo6Boe paacxoTpftHie raxron h poxoBtin xxex* 

Kap8Bipri80Kb H y HB OCHOBftflil 1TL, RHBOJUTO CBOI 3aiJfl>iexiX 0TH0CHT6JLB0 

6oite ijh xeHfte Sjiskbto reueajorxtettaro poxcTBa xapasxprxson ei xpy- 
nn niexeHaxx i, n wcthoctb, <tb sxprxsaxx. 9tx xsucBaxia b ciy- 
xan H. ApacTOBj MaBHtflmei 3ax«?ei ero Tpyxa. Cjftxyen Boofinp oTxfc- 

TXTB, WO, npOGHBTpiBafl XXeflB pO^OBl pBSBUU TIDpiCBBX* XiexeHl, 

san-To: sxprxsoBi, xapaxxprxaovb, fiamxxpt, ys6exon, Typxxext, aiTaft- 

CllXt TB)pKOBt X Xp. 9 H64B8B B6 BHJ*TL 06mH0OTb KHOrKU pOXOBUX* 

rhoh'l, BcrptttDmixea to y rtn, to y xpyrxn aapoxHooTet. HfexoTopux 
■8i Taxxxi Bxefli ftorie pacopoeTpaHOBU, xxux xexfce. Eotb aBTopu, xo- 
Topue cxioxxu BxjftTt *% btoxi noBTopeaix poxoxun xxen y passim 
niexeHi XBBicTHyi) cjyialHocTB. Taxot BsriBjTB HBrtn xe xoTXBBpoBaai 
x xxBOxxi o6paaon xe xoxen omancx npaBXAHun. Go3iaBax oto, 
xpyrie aBropu n esoxn Tpyxan yxe xeoxHoxpaTKo omttaix noBTopae- 
xoctb xxen OTAtoBun poxora, bo He xtBajx BTOxy ABJefli» xxxasoro 
ofaxoHeHifl, MciuDqaa rt eiyiax 9 xorxa o6ixcHeHie, Tan caasaTb, hbbh- 
stiBaiocB eaxo co6ox>. fl. Apxeron, noasyxet xaBftcnuixx exy enxoxaxx 
noKWtflil x poxon, nojB8yxet mhhhxi xexopxiecxxxx, xoTopua, n cjOBy 
6yXB exaaaHO, BooSnp xpaflxe oxyxxu, npxtftrax n xsotpaxexiaxi TaxroBi, 
nuTaerca BoaeraBOBiTB rexeaiorxteeiyx) cbxbl, oi oxxot cropoHH, xexxy 
xapaKxprxaaxx x xxprxaaxx t&isniol opxu, cb jpyroft xe cropoHu xexxy 
OTxfeJbHuxx poxaxx noxojtail. 3axa*a m spalxe Tpyxxa: B0-nepBU», 
xHorie poxa xoBaro npoiciox^eHia, xesxy t^xi Bpexx xrb BoaxxxxoBeaix 
xe xsBftCTxo; bo-btopuxb, ojiiHie xfeBOTopuxi poxoBi xpoxaoniJO yxe XaBHO, 
cynjecTBOBaHie xe poxon x noxojtxil, «xrypxpoBaBmxn x^xorxa b*b xa- 
necTB* caxocTOHTeaBiin mexeHi, othocxtch xeptpo n BecBxa orxaaex- 
Hun on coBpexoxHux'B xxef Bpexexaxi, bocxoax xo xaiua (x jiaxe paHte) 
xamet »pu. Haioxem, paseeiexie pasxiin njexen, Berp^aexuxi Haxx 
HHHt bt» aau-fe noxojftxif x poxoFb TiopKCExn njeMen, vb cbob> oqepexfc, 
xpoxcxoxxjio xep^XKO oiobl x*bho, npx toxi spaixe paaxoBpexeHxo i n 
(ojBmxxoTBft ciyvaeBi x xxxin xe x&Tiponaxo. He citxyerB aaSuBaTB, 
no xii Toro, wo6u Bftpao x touo BoacTaxoBBTB , Tan cksbhtb, xoHTypu 
reneaiorix ooBpexexiuan TH>pxcsxn njexeHi 9 xaxo 6htb xopomo Boopy- 
xexxun x sxaHien aauaon, x xeTopxiecxxxx x&»om» » otxibxun, 
B8Bftmeflfluxi x npoBftpexxun eoBpexexxun xaTepiaion. Bet btx yeio- 
b!h xeofixoxxxu, a xexxy Ttai o6jaxaaie xxx xe Bcerxa aaBxexn on, 
asTopa eaxoro: bote noqexy xu xuexx on xucix ynpeiaTB H. ApxeToxa 
n mapxxpoBaHix, eea xoxho Tan xupaaxTBea, CBoero, no eymecrBy 
eoBepmeHHo npaBUBxaro, xeroxa. Bon noqexy ma xe oeraHauBBaexca xa 
xeTajait xo6htu» in pesymaTon. Mu xe xoxen xe ycxorpfcT* sa- 
ejyrx H. ApxcTOBt n toxi, fro xn ex&ian no«n n eoBepuienxo 
BOBoi— wb xayvexix Tupxcixn njexen—o&wcTx, KOTopyio xu xowx 611 



11* 



Digitized by 




• 164 



dTB0rPA<MPIECK0e 0B03PUHIE. 



HasBATb pauioHftibHoft reseaioriel . Bcaio*y noHfrrno, *to reHeaioria Hapoxa 
jamb xo HSBfecTHol CTeaeHi cnoco6aa paoKptiTb icthhhuK cnmrb laiHaro 
1110H6HH* reHeaioria xaerb KaiecTBeuHui aHaias-b ero, ooTaaiaa Bonpocb o 
KoiRfecTBeHHon codaB* io HSBtCTHoi CTeaeHi OTapurait; ho, ct» xpyrot 
cropoHU, reHeaiorifl Menem ciyacarb aoryiaab noxcnopberb x*a layqeaia 
in acTopia m, CBfl3aHHun ci H6H), xpo6ieaia h pasce-ieaia nje«ein» y xia 
■syieHia 6utobuxii HBieHifi h, HaaoHeirb, ♦aaaqeeKaro waa. Kpovfe Toro, 
reueajoria coBpeHenaurb nieaeHb ejyatBTb noicnopteMi jjh H3yveHta mcto- 
pia, ara*rpa*iH a aHTponojorii yaw ioie3HyBm*ra ( qacTo saraxoiHizxi 
Hacb, HapojoBi, noHHTaroiqiica no^iacx BuaepniaaB i H<we3HyBmaMB 6es- 
cjt^Ho, veacxy t&m* upoioiaaromaiu eymecTBOBaTb bi xaijfc noKOjfeeift 

MJfl p0|0BB CQBpeMBBHUXb , HO HeCym«IT> COBepOI6BHO IHUfl HaaiieHOBaHia 

HapoxHOdTel. H3yqa.t ha ochobbhSh reaeaiorHTOcaai-b xaHHHX'b, cBasaaHUx-b 
cipotOBuu atfeaaxa, coeraBb 00BpeM6HHUi'b TH)pKOBi>, Hart npexcTaBiaeTca 
BiaxomHiivi, Tan* oRasan, BOCRpeoiTb xaaao sa6uTua HCTopien wemeHa, 
khkt» nauManoeby KauiAoeb, Kumaeez, Kunuaxoffb, dyAcmosb, Kupeeei, 

pC70HeU 9 duHJlUHOOh i jp. 

H. ApicToay yxaeica Ha ocHOBaaia cbobx* HaucaaHii yeTaaoBiTb HSBfecr- 
Hy» CBHSb xesxy HtKOTopuw huh% HesesayBmaia niexeHavi M 1X1 0TH0- 
ineHia n eoBpexeHHBWb Bapaaaprisan h KHpman 6oJbmoi opxu. Pe- 
sroiapya aaa6ojfie ocfmxeitHue pesyibTara Tpyxa aaaBaHHaro aBTopa, au 
Haxoxairb yvftcTBun nortcTMTb arb3|tcb 9 aaai npexcTaBifltonjax'b hobhI 
h BU^afomiftcH HHTepecb. RapasapraaoBi H. ApacTOBi cqaTaerb reHeaio- 
raiecKa npaauaa noTOMaaia xpeBaaxi ymneu. Ho ycmacail Hapox*, 3a- 
HHBmift 8a xaa Bfcaa xo P. X. sanaxaut TaabinaBb, yaw rorxa ho aBiaica 
utibBMHi, a npoxcraBiajb coa>3b asi TiopKcaiyb poxoBi a Kt*pit*3oe*; 
bo naB* BToro coarca eToaxi ycK)Hcaii OTxtn aupriraoBi. - V ycaraeft ■ 
KupruaoBx (xaBmaxt coBpeMeBBHMb aapaaaprasavb cbob ua) 6ujh o6mie 
opexaa — xpoBHie Ktapiuau, npoacmexniie, m cboio oqepe^b, isi cMtaenia 

TIOpKOWb Cb X«HB0rOJ0B0!O I CBtTIOOKpameHHOK) paCOB) duHAUHO&b. x ) 

Bojbraaa opxa aapri30Bi» oSpasoBaiaeb npeiMymecTBeflao xm> HO^esayBomb 
HMBft mmAOto i dyAamosb Cb npacoexaHiBmairBca hi mx% Kapaaapra- 
34MB (KHprusaia), aoTopue cocTaBaia HoaoiliHie capu-yueym 6oibmot 
opxa. IIpacoexaHaBinieea hi <Buprusairb> Tiopaa 6hjtb poxctbbhhbib xy*&- 
TaMb; caiva ace xyiaTiicyTb Taab-ate, aaai a KaariH, xBa ocoOuxi TB>pHCRU'b 
nieieHa, OTiavaua on aapaaapmoBi; n eoeTavb xyiaTOBi BOinxa nesaa- 
<!BTejD>Hafl vaerb xamaacKaro nJeveni* 

BaBfcuiHBaa no xocTOBHOTay xo^MT He ApaeroBun pesyibTara ero 
Hayqauxi H3U6aaait 9 oufeHaaaa aecb HponowaBut xpyxb, noTpaveHHbil m 
npa ero paoort, hcv epnaHH Hoctb JHTepaTypHim acTOf aaaoai h oothh crpyn- 
naposaHHUXi HHTepeeHuxi *aaTOBX, aacaa>maxcH npeHMymecTBeHHO poxoBoro 

yCTpolCTBB RHpriSOB'b 60JbHI0tt OpXM H KBpaEBprHSOBl, MU HO KOSBKb He 

npHBftTCTBOBaTb HOBBjeaie n CBtn HHTepecaaro conura BuacHeaia bthv- 



^) 3a canocTOBTeABue ocraTRii ihh2hhobt> H. ApHCTOB* e«iRTaerb BHMep* 
m*x% BUBt apunon, accanoei h Kommoei, OT<iacTR cospeMeHHun oAmmi. 




KPHTHKA H BHBJnOITA*M. 



165 



lecsaro cocTaBa> HaaBauuxi memem, He Mosen ho noseiaTb nowen- 
HOMy aBTopy ycnfcxa n ero xajbHftlniHxi HaueBauaxi. HajteMca, wo 

HMOHHO Ha BTOHb HyTH 610 HBCJ^OBtllit Hal^TCfl JOOTOiHiie HOjpaaaTeiB. 



EmeroAHNK-b Totiojbciiaro TyfiepHCKaro Myaea, eocToamaro noxi Asry- 
ertlmiMii nospoBHTdJLCTBOMx Itayjapa HacjtAuia IfccapeBHia. Bun. II. 
To6oJbC». 1894. 8°. 12 H6H.+LXY+ 33+10+3+35+90+4 CTp. 

Bi <9iHorpao. 06o3ptBia» (bh. XIII) yae 6hji» coiyBCTBeHHut otshbt* 
o 1-n bud. Eseroxaaaa. Bo moron npunjoeb 6u noBToparb btotl otshb* 
h AJfl BToporo Bunycxa. 3*fccb noMtmeHU cnporosoju* eo6paHift 'KomrreTa 

Mf36H, OTIBTl 0 flfcaTCIbBOCTH 8t 1893 r., OTlOTb 0 COCTOflfiil BOIieBItffi, 

Myaea, 6i6iioTeiui, npoeaTi ycTaBa To6. ry6. iiyaea i t. |.; Ha bobbin, 
Teaymaa xpoHBKa Myaea (ci xeaaSpa 1893 no ceBTfl6pb 1894). flai^e 
HjiyTi TpyAu: A. A. Tepnoeciciu, Ea6iiorpa*iH m uoflorpatia Totioib- 
CBaro TyOepHCBaro Mysea. I neiaTBbia npoHSBejeHia (e% J 886 r. no aBr. 
1894' r.). II PyaonacH (flfcia KoMiurera). III. ^epresi, BHTorpa#iiecBie 
chihbh h pacyHKB (caiioro Myaea h Benjel, xpaBaupxea ■ xpaHHBmHXCH 
nil Hen). — yK88aTeib H3jaB.il (aacnamnca To6. Myaea). — J. E. lyioecniu. 
JereBja, cBflsaBHsg t% jByia octhubhhk Bxojan is* KOueEuia <npHHaj- 
jeaHOCTel inaxaHCBaro ByjbTa* bi To6oJbGHon ry6epHCH0Mb Mysefc. 06ohxi 
hjojobx B3i BavHH — oxihi Kb *opM* lei* *epena, ipyrol laryraxa — jo- 
CTaBin H. A. Bihbobi ci cat*. JereBjoft o hhxt»: abb SoraTupa nocco- 
pajiicb; oiaHt iai» mvk o6paTHJca aa DOMomtio n niaMaHy, toti. no- 
ciaii sa npoTHBHiBa (foifcaHb; aorja se BTy 6oi*3Hb nospaja juryuiKa, 
aa *to OTctieHHaH efl roioia osaMeHkia (oxbhi> axon.), 6oraTbipb 6pocHic& 
kt> Mjamy npoTHBHBaa, seiaa cuott noxHTHTb ero jo«u>; y Tott 6u.it> 
pe6eHoin>, oBa ci hbmi Gtaaia, 6orarapb norHaica h cxFaixix aa ro-iOBy 
pe6eHBa,~ roJOBa oiopBaiacb ■ toso oBaneHtia (ipyroi axon). — G. H. 
MaMfbeez, PyKomca 6H6iioTeBH To6ojbCEaro I*y6. Myaea aa XYII h nep- 
Bya> leTBepTb XYII1 dOJtTil (Onicb x^opBuib, nepenacHuxb h xpyrax* 
KHirt 126 pun.). — S. R. HaAoneotcenueffb^ Hapoxnoe c6paaoBaBie b% r. 
^jyTopoBCB* i flijTopoBCBom oapyrt. HcTopHBO-CTaTBCTaqecBii Ovepsi. 
(IlpoA.)- — TaKOBO bi» rjaBHHX'b nepTaxi eoxepsaflie aioro Bunycsa. OTGB>xa 
bhxho, tto x^aTeiH Myaea npexxe Bcero ptiniiH paao6paTbca m cupon 
MBTepiaj^: ero noxo6paib, chcto m a tb s apoBaTt , onacaib^noxroTOBHTb iioiBy, 
ecjH bo juh ce6a, t8bi wa noca^xyioii^HX'b noBOi&Hitt, h hbxo oTiaTb 
cnpaBexJBBOCTb, ohb nociycaioTb bhojb* 6iaropaayMHo: cuporo naTepiaja 

y HBXb TaK*b KHOrO, TTO OCTBBHTb HO Bl npeHefipeBeBlH H H6B03M02KH0, 

TaBb saai obi can HanpaniBBaeTca sa 6jaroeHJOHHoe BBBMaaie, a aase 
onacHO, Taai Kaat, aenpiCTpoeBBufi kt» ntcry, owb Moserb a cobcbmx 
mepaibca. ' Ba. E. 

3anHCHM ypaabCKaro 06iuecTea /liofiMTeJieii EcTecTB03HaHifl. XV sun. 
(EaaTepHaS. 1895). B. R OAecoez: CioJHHcaifl uemepu (cb iuaHoirb); 
nen^epu HaxojHTca npa p. HceTH, y jpp. Chojibbo, IIoBpoBCBoi boi. Eaa- 



Aa. Xapy3UH* . 




166 



dTHOrPAOOTECKOE OB03PSHIK. 



TepiH6yprcK, y. ABTopt i3&J*joBaat ajymie orb rjaBHol saMepu jpa 
xoja: 0Am Ha 48 l / a ca*., jpyrot la 50 cas.; HScxtxoiiaBia npiBeii it 

OTipUTiH) ltCTHHTO, I6lil 9 HCT0*HKa, OCTBTXOBt Cpy60Bt, CTapoft HIOHbl, 

ipecroBt.H np. H*Tt coMHfeHia, wo nenjepu cjysHU y6tsiiqen xjh 
paciojbHiKOBi. Haci&xoBaaie r. OiecoBa HeJtaa ewran» oBOHiaTeJuourb, 
Tan Bast m oTMfcqeno HfccKoibKo xojoBt, npoHiKHyn* Bt xoropue eiy 
He yxajocb. 27. A. IIIuakom: 0 cyeBtpii Haceieuia IIIalTaBCiaro saBoja 
EgarepHH6. y.: coo6maeTCH saroBopt cnpacyxa*; tokctb saroBopa npuexeHi 
ct coxpaHeaien rtcraaro roBopa. SI. R Eeapynoe*: SaBuaHie BfcHioBt 
■ caapuaHie fiepeau Ha TpoHipoft Hejfcifc Bt c. Boropojcis*, EpacHoy«m- 
ccaro y.; onaxaHt oCpajt h npHBe^eui nfccHH. 22. 6. Hepeyuium: 
IlfeDBH, cBHToiBUfl mania, HOTORopBH h cyeBtpia KaTaMcaoB boj. KaHum- 
lOBCBaro y.: 38 JNBJNft nfcceat, opHHfrru, CBaxeSHut oGpagt ■ np. 2T. -4. 
Pyccmxb: 0 Bxiflaia nojapeol how Ha teiOBtaectii opraHBSMt no Hscit- 
jOBAHiflH* K. fl. HocHJoaa Ha HoboI 3eiu*. # 27. HunoAbCKtu: 0 *e- 
penfc leioBtKa, HalxeaHOMt Ha sojotuxi npiiotaxt Bepxt-HceTcnaro oxpyra 
E*aTepm6ypr. y.* Etc otce: KpaHioveTpaiecKifl jjihhuh o repent eoioHa, 
XOdaBieHHon bi Mjsei o6n^ecTBa H3t CenptqeHCKoM 061. h ao6hthI npn 
pacaonrt Morut cojohobi. 

Klaid Vjekoslav. Hrvatska pjesmarica. Izdala Matica Hrvatska. 
Zagreb. 1893. XII-f-203 (ci HOTaik Bt TeKCTfe). 

H3xaBaa BTort HeSojbinol cSopnut xopsaTCKHXt nfccent, MaTHiia Hirtia 
Bt Bajy, owbhxho, ABoaiyn ufcib: BO-oepBbixt, jaTb canoiy inipoEoiy 
apyry i»*eft o6paaoBaHHuxt B03H0»H0CTb no3HaKOKintcH ct jy*nran mo- 

THBBMH n*6CHH HapOJHOft, BO-BTOpUXt, BB6CT1 Bt HapOflt, CjfciaTb IHHpO- 

K0-H3BfeCTHum i nonyiapHUHH TaKifl ntcHH, lOTopua cbohmi GOxepxaHievb 
loryrb OKaaaTb oco6eHHO caibuoe Biiaaie Ha B036ya5xeme l nowep«aHie 
Bt aapoj-fc CTpeueait naTpiomecHHrb. IIoib3a Taaoro HSiawa owBHXHa. 
He BGfcit xoeTynHu joporia is^ama By6u hih Kyxaia, h noaBieme c6op- 
Hiaout, noxo6HHTb HS^aHHOHy xopsaTCKoi MaTHuef, secbHa sejaTejbuo h 
y xpyrnxb cjaBaHt. IIoHUHTCfl, vto Bt ojho» H3t ciaBaHcaaxt sypHaiOBt, 
uocBHiqeHHuxt BTHorpatii, 6uio BUCKaaano c9»aitHie no noBOxy Toro, rro 
Ha €9THorpa«HqecaoMt K0HH6pTt> Bt MocbbIi Hcnojaaiacb pasuuH ciaBfla- 
cbih h HecjaBHHCKia HapiiHua nfcCHH, ho Bt «cifc ciaBBHCKHXt ntceflt 
He 6ujo hh OAaott ntcaa vemcBofi, vesxy Ttit mt ntcnait KHprascKUt^ 
capTCKHHt, lyBam^KHHt, apMaacKHHt h rpysHHCBHit otboaoho 6uio 8Ha- 
MiTeibHoe m&cto 1 ). Bch 6^a Bt TOMt, wo y Haet, 6iaroxapa saTpyjHHTejb- 

H06TB EHHSHUXt CHOfflenitt Ct CTOJIb 6iU3KHHH COCt |fl HH- Cia BHHailH , 

KAKt qaxa, jerqe xocTaTb Haotat aaprB3CRift, HexeJH lemcidft, Hast bto 
hh cTpaHHO hb nepBhil B3naxt. Kpoift Toro, oSmapHue h xoporie c6op- 

1 ) ITpH ycTpoIcTB* n nepBaro dTHorpa«H4, lOHuepTa" MUtJiHCb Bt BH^y hb- 

pOftHOCTH, SHByilUfl BT, Poccia, a KOAOHHCTBI DOKB 6ujlH 0CTaBJ6H£I KL CTOpOffB. 
KCTBTH, BanOMHHMli^ HTO 8TOTT1 „KOHI*epTl» a HeA»BHO H8^aHT, ^Jfl n^Bia CT. #0p- 

Teniaao (Mocebb, y FOpreHcosa, a. 1 p. 50 k.)* Fed- 



Digitized by 



KPHTHKA H BHBJMOrPA*W. 



167 



un (Ky6H, Kyxaia, 9p6eH«) Bectxa xaio pacnpocrpaiieflii ■ vb uaBaHCxm 
CTpaH8ii>, rxfe ohh xaxaxu; noxoib x**y x mosho xax&Hien Tasaii nony- 
jflpHiira i xeraeBun. c6ophhiobi, iam> sasBaHHuft nau <n*©eHHxn>> xop- 
BETCiil. Be* ntCHi, noMtmeHHUfl bt> xex^pacnpexfcjeHu Ha mecT&rpynni: 
nepaaa — h*chh <B03BumeHHaro> coxepsaHia, T.-e. ntcax naTpioTiiecrifl^ 
cpexx lOTopun Hai6ojwneio isb^cthoctbd xoJb3yiOTCfl: «Ios Hrvatskani 
s propalai, «Oj Hrvatska, oj...>, cGdje j'stanak moj?> (ntcaa, anpoiexi, 
He xopBaTCKaro npoxcxoxxeHia, a nepeBox* qemcaol cKde domov muj»), 
cLiepa nasa domovina> , CTaBnrtfl xopBaTCKMi Hapoxaiix* rxxHon h xp. 
9tot*b OTjftxt coctoxt* X3i» xaaxuaTX nfcceH*; Tetcrb npxHaxJesxrt vh 
6ojtfflHHCTB* cjyqaeBi bxxhhxi xfeffreiaxi xopBaicRaro BoapoxxaHia: Tm, 
KyvyieBiny, TpHeKoxy, MxpKy BoroBny x xp.; 2-aa rpynna — iAchx BoeHHHH 
i HapmH (34 J>R) — npaxcTaBjaerb xein>me xmepeca bi Bxxy toto, wo 
noria rax nfeoeHi He opxrxBaibHu, xoth ■ noibayiDTca mxpoKow ■sb*ct- 
ho» (cOj ti vilo Velebita>). Boibme MTepeea opexcT8Bjrxim itIchx 
Tpmel rpynnu, ntcHX' jh>6obhuh (ljubavne popjevke), vb aaauTeiixon 
■raw* opariHajBHiia aapoxHua d*6chh (bc*x% 55, xa* hxxi xapoxHtin 
(toifce 30), h n*fecHi rpynnu WBepToi (Beceiua i myniBua nfecexu). 
Bo riaBt nxToi rpynau ntceH* (cnapitnice*, ui czdravice>) ctoxt* 
<Maoraa ittra», noiexy-TO c«Taniqaaca Hapoxaoio nftcxMo; mecraa rpynna 
(13 N) — nfecxx cza jedno grloi, T.-e. x*a ntaia solo, npaaaxiesan 
pasiaqHuxi xopBaTeam toxnoaxTopaxv AiBaxxqy, BaTpoejaBy Jxcxacioxy, 
HBax; 3alny x xp. Bcero bt> ctopHxxft 159 ntceHi. Go cropoHH jno- 
6xTeief ojaBHHcaoi Hapoxnot xeioxiH c6opHixi aaciysxBaen nojwaro bhx- 
vaxia, x ycTpoxTexan (yxynjaro caTHorpatnecxaro ROHijepTa* owb xosen 
npxxecTX noibsy. 

Kan 6u n noxpaseaie 8Toxy xaxaaii) xopBaTCioft Mannti vb no- 
ertxHee xpexa noaBxixeb enje naxoOnpe cftopHXKi, a xxbhho: tSrvatska 
Lira^ c6opHxat ntceHi n HapoxHoxi xyxfc* , xsxaHHul xastcrHun boxxo- 
axTopoxi 9. C. Bxibxapoxi, x *Kolo> e5opHxn xopBaTcsxxi x cjobix- 
esxxi xyvcxxxi xopoxuxi ntcexi> , cocTaweHautt H. $auiepoxi. (Nikola 



Faller). 



B. 0. 



Digitized by 




2. raaeTBi n aKypHami. 



BMTetfcHifl Ty6. BtA M 1894, 42. £T. SI. HuKUfpopoeacia, cOiepii 
npocroHapojHaro MTbfl-6HTbH bi Bet. Btxopyccin . fipoj. Kb XX 43 — 
46, 48—52, 54—56, 59, 60, 65—74, 76, 77, 79—85, 88, 89, 
92, 95, 98, 100—102, 104, m 1895 rojy XX 2—5, 8, 10, 11, 14— 
18, 20—22, 28—35. (Bumn OTjtxbHOi bhhtoI. BxTeCcRi 1895 r., 
6oifce 700 crp., i(. 3 p.). 63. Ha cynpajRax'b b% T— an BnTeSeB. rj6., 
paacim R. Gn—a (npoj. bi J* 64— 67).— 68. rop6meecKiu i «3eMxa 
h naxapb>. 73. E. P. PoMauoeh, <Bapa bt> cto ibn* (HapojH. 
reflXa). Hpo*. n X 74, 76, 77, 79, 81. (Banna otj. 6pom»p. Bet. 
1894 r.). 94. KopoBai (o6mai h ntcHi irfcmaH-b r. BejHsa).103. Top- 
6aHeecKi&. cBirtoTo cbhtoihoM cBasBi* (HfcCKOibBo aaxtianit o6mart> xa- 
pmepa o flsweGTfifc eiaBHHi).— 1896. 4. Ct. o ijeHTpajbHux* apxHBaxi 
xpeBHKXi aETOBwxt Kauri. — AfHiHi-MapHEKeBHH h ero no9na tTapac* 
Ha HapHacti, ct. floenapaSanoAhCKaio. — 11. Ho noBojy aaBtmaHW 
ipecTLflHi. (fOpiAHiecaaa 3aM*raa) (IIpoj. bt> X 129).— 15. EpaTaaa sa- 
MtTKa o Cfciop. Baptqii, GmyKOMma. (Bun ottickb). 

rpoAHeHCKifl Tytf. Bt£. 1895 r.— 20. Eadanoewcb. nepeaiTM *peBHfl- 
ro HipocosepqaHifl y 6fciopyccoBi. 9rBorpa*HieciriI owpn (TIpoj. Tause 
vl XX 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 31, 32, 34. Btua h OTjkibHaa (pomio- 
pa). — ApxeoiornecKaH naxojisa bi» BoBeHCKol* ry6. (wan mohbti XYII 
b.) — 30. Bi Koppecn. ist CioHueiaro y. cooSmeme o HafljenHOWb bih. 
OaepHHijfe wa^fe b% 2530 Honor* (1500 h 1600 rr.).— 33. ApxeoxorH- 
qeciaa saMtTKa. HeHSfffecTHui aBTopi cooSnjaeT* ?p&3BhuMho JH)6onuTHua 
noipo6HOCTi o xoriibHHBt Bt 6epery p. HapeBa, BfeiocTOKCRaro y., upi 
xep. Topaxii. MorubHiKi paonojoseffb Ha xo«fc, hbsub. Topu. EeciaHaH 
paBHHHa cnpouib yctoa bootami. Cpeji npejMOTOKb ecTb noBjHtiiuie 

(VOHOTU XVI — XYII BB.J, OCTBTBH rpofoffb I HeXaibOBl-HKOHa. EOCTBRI 60- 

xpaBEucb nxoxo. Ho noaaxaoTCfl MHOxecTBO Benjeft nypiannaio e KOMemato 
nepiojoB*. UaiUeuu 6you (43) crewaHHUfl, BaieHHUB, nom Kpymui, 
wpHtro, cBBBro, ipacflaro h seiTaro i^frroB*; cnipaibHUH Koama, o(Uo- 
Hon Bosa xypraBHaro Tina. EpynHue npejMOTH nojoSpaBH oBpeoTBUU 
XHT6JBMH. cCyja no oKpaoifi kocto! pyKi x roioBH, hosho ct> yBtpeH- 
BOCTbio npexnoioBRB, wo hb pynxi norpe6aHHu» HaxoxtJiCb (pacieTu, 
Ha met — rpiBHbi, tbki HasuBaerae b^hri.> Opysin He Hai^eeo. Iloiose- 
nie KocTUOBi — roxoBa n »ry h n H>.-aan. Sport Toro, aaljiaHu oaoi- 




rASETM H aKyPBAJH. 



169 



xx xpaxxeBuxt opyxii, yroua i lepenxx in neofoxuxexxol rxxxu t% 
ipynHUU xycxaxx axapua h mum. Ha tepenxarb — opxavexn era Bajfe 
jritorxxip*> iji bxj* 6yropxoai»» (mil ypxii, no ciOBan aBTopa 
sartTXx, xaxoflxrca n jep. TpupsoBO i Aicxcxian). Abtop* sartTux 
nojpian bi Teiaaie qaca jo 200 npejpforoin. Morxiuixn saciysiBaerb 
Bxxxaxifl cneuiaMCTOBi-apxeojoroBi. 

M3BtcTin 06uj,ecTBa Apxeojiorix, McTopfN m 3TH0rpa<(>lM npu Hmh. 
EasancKOMb ynueepcumemrb, t. X Bun. 6, t. XI blm. 1—6, t. XII 
beu. 1—6. (RastHB. 1892 — 1895 r.) HaaBaraoe Baaaxcxoe yienoe 06- 
mecTBO npoxojsaen paafiixan cbob> nioxoTBopHyio x*aTeifcxocTB no xay- 
ieaiD boctouoI ofaacTx Poccia. Maooa cTaToi BTBorpa+Biecaaro xapaxTopa, 
noflBiBinixoa bt> 03Ba«esxuxi. Btiaycxaxi, xoxaaHBaera, wo 9THorp&*ix 
saaxxaero ne noojftjuee Micro cpejx xeyxi xpyrxx* oTjfcioBi, coctbb- 
jaxmpxi npexnen xayieaix ubbobi o6mecTBa. Hai xpynnun Tpyxoai 
cjrbxyeTi othItbtb pa6ory xartCTxaro »TBorpa*a R m J5T. CMupnoea 
<MopABa> (J£J£ X, 6, XI, 5, 6, XII, 4), KOTopaa vb HacToanjee Bpexx 
OBOfliexa. Ilpexnoiaraa bi (ixsalmex* 6yjymexi» nojpoltao ocTaBOBXTbca 
na MOBorpa«ii r. CxxpxoBa, xn orpaHxixxca jxidb BaMtaaaien, no 
«Mop*Ba> npexcTaBjaeTii, Ban l Tpyxu Toro are aBTopa t?epcxacH» , tBo- 
TflBBi i clkpxaxx,> xax6oifc6 noinyn i HayiHO ocBftmpBHyio CBOjxy xaTepiaxoBi, 
noyiasaHHoi aapojHOGTx, naTepiaiOBixonoiHeBBHxi ixqHUMXHa6jHoxexiaifx aB- 
Topa, wo oTBOjirfc OTony Tpyxy bxjkoc xfccro n pyccxoi aTBorpa*aqecxoi Jxre- 
patypfe. Hat ocTaiuuixi cranst i xaiepiwoBi onftTxn, xaxi xxfcionua »tbo- 
rpfttxieoaift XHTcpeci crtxyxtnua: t. X, 6: B. A. MouiKovbi IlepiflijKo-KopejB- 
cxix napajieii (xaTipiaw no aiBorpatix nepxaxofit x xopeioBi); XI, 1: 
B\A. MouiKoei: MaxepiajH xla xapaxTepxcTxxx xyauxaJBa. TBopqecTBa xao- 
pomeB'B Boiarcxo-Eaxcxaro spaa: I. Mejoxix lyBaracxarL ntceHi. H. 
Tpoumas: ^epexxeu ApftaBcxol bojoctb (jJapeBoxoainalcx* y. Ea3ancx. r.). 
Xxianp, oxe»xa, nama, o6paxu npx cBajb6an> a noxopoxaxi; xrpu i 
yBocejeuin. if. H. CMupnoe*: HTorx apxeojoria, xcropix i aiBOrpatix 
B. Poccix bi 1892 r.; ew-otce: IiTepaTypa apxeoiorix, xcTopii a btuo- 
rpa^ix B. Poccia bi 1892 r.; eto-oice: nporpaxna coOapaaia CBtitHitt o 
6m* BopjBU. XI, 2: B. A. Eoiopodumiu: Cjobo <xoiyii> vb apio-eB- 
ponelcKBit i ypa40-ajTaicxirb as.; P. R Emamheebi Bamaapi Cajo- 
bbtl IOjaeBi, nyraieBCKii Cpxraxspi, ntBei^ x anpoBBsatopi. B. A. 
MowKoei: Mejoxix lyBamtiaxxi ntceai> (npox.); E. A. H3H0CK0(n: 
Bapa-axynoBCiaa bojoctb (6amaxpuy«ucB. r.); H. H. Eanau: 3aiBarB f 
xynaa x npoaasa iHopoxon vl flayTcaoM bcioctx vh XYII b.; A. H. 
CoKOAoet: AyxoBBBie ctkxx (m CTapuxi pyxonBCHuxi c6ophbxobx; yia- 
aaau BapiaaTu jn> c6op. BesooHOBa); coatajtaia) ho yxasaao, hsi saaaiB 
pyaonxceft xaiepiaxB xaBjefeai; B. R Tpouwiu: 9epcxHccio-pyccKii 
cjoaapfc: A — B. XI, 3. P. 2. Mmatnheez: Eamaxpi GaiaBan lOxaeBi; 
H.36fbcmia unocmpatmeeh o Hapojax* B, Poccix (Strahlenberg, Bapa- 
6xbuij, axyru, laaarxpu, xopaax, qepexxcu, lyBama, ocraxx, Tynrycu, 
xopjBa). (popMu oictuuut* x nocejeaifl y aapoxoBt B. Poccix (aanaxa- 
jy, xopaxx, iyxma; xaxiex. m ct. BpameaxaHixoBa x cBxaxxB0CT0ii» 




1 



170 



9THOrPA*H%BCK0E OB03PBHIE. 



1892 r. X 49—50). B. A. Mouucoev. Meioxix fyBamexxxi nfceevb. 
AmtUy oTHOcinpeGS n ucmopiu Mopdeu neraeiciol ry6. A. fl. Cmup- 

H06K 3aMtoKi 0 MOpjBfc 1 BaXHTHHKaXL XOpXOBCKOl CTBpMHH Kb HlXOrO- 

poxoxol r. r. BuxMam: Cifcju i&iOBt*ecixn> nepTBonpiHomeBil y bo- 
thbobt>. Jumepamypa y apxeoiorix, xcropix i Btxorpatix B. Poocii n 

1893 r. B. U. Tpouuriu: lepexxcexo-pyccxil ojosapb. K—H. XI, 4: 
B. A. MowKo&b: Meioxix lyBamcaxii nfccera. Eymy3oeb: BfepoBXHix ■ 
Eyjbrb xopxBU c. Ca6aH466Ba Aiawpcx. y., Cxx6xpex. r, Roemnuicotn: 
HocTpoiu o. TajuBua Kypxumcx. y.,Cxx6xpcK. r. P. ff. TpouuniH: 
%peoccso-pyc6Ril cjOBipk JET— P. XI, 5: B* H. Bumeecniu: KiajHX 
xiaxoxoxaaie Ha Pycx. B. i 7 . Meufcpmoeb: Anoipxtxtecxax xiaxoBax bu- 
nxcb (XVIII b.). <P. Eymy3oei: Hn> 6uTa hopjbli c. SCxBxIxxHa SajOB- 
csot b&i., KapcyHCB. y. Cxx6Hpox. r. B. II. Tpouwciu: <Lpexxccxo- 
pyccxii oiOBapi*: P— iff. XI, 6: R. Heuaeet: Hrpa xepeBeHexxxi j&Tet - 
laimeBCK. y. P. i7. Rmambeei: fiamupt CxiBBxro JOiaeB*. C.Rean- 
ueei: Uai (ura xopxBU x«p. fl»pKx IlapaHfteBOX. bojl, Aiarapex. y., 
Ghi6. r. (oxeatxa, GBaxeSxue ofipxxu, moibhu) . XII, 1 : B.A. Motufum: 
Mejojii opeHSyprcxxn h Horalcxxxi map*. R. H. CMUpno&b: Apxe- 
oiorix, HCTopifl ■ BTHorpatix B. Poicix vh 1893 r. Eto-oice: JliTepaTypa 
apxeoiorix, Hcropix i atHorpawx B. Poccix bi 1893 r. XII, 2: H. 6. 
Kamanoto: 0 norpefiWHura odnaan wpxcxxra njeieut en> xp*bh$1- 
mxx* Bpexeni xo Hamm jpiel (ryHHH, yxyau, yBrypu, xyiracmi, xyto, 

TBTapU X HB OCHOBBHiK IHXHilTB XSClfeXOBaHil BBTOpa* CeibTXpM, Caral- 

iju, xaprxxmi, xaiapu (Mxxycxnox. oxp. EwcetcKot ry6.), xaparacu, 
ypxHiatigs, xxTatcxie xaBaxt-xxprxsu, xxTxicxie TBTapu, 1061-xopcxie 
mapu). M. A. Kpacoecniu: Pyccrie n flxyroxot oSiaorx » XYH b. 
H. 6. Eamauoeb: HcTopHiecxix eBxxtTeibcm khtbIckhxi x apa6cuxi 
nxcaTeiel o TypxecTXHfe; euhme\ EawHCiax Jerena o corBopeeix xipa. 
T. A. Reanuwciu: npaxamenifl ujwi Hacpi-SjUBHB. XII, 3. R. B. 
Ahuhkosi: Eaprxscxift (awpB AxaHXOxsa Hypi-xyxaxxexoBi; eio-we: 
Pawxm o OaTupt j[mmio&xt Hypi-xyxauexoBi. Tamapu Tax6oBCKot 
ry6. no xaHHun 1893 r. B. II. Tpoumiu: ^epeHxccxo-pyccxilt cio- 
Bapt (oxoHUBie). XII, 4: H. II. 3acfbdamMew>: flpeBHift o6panB xopo- 
HOBadfl y TDpxcxxn HapoxoBi (oCpHA* noAHHiaaii hb Bonmft y xp« tb- 
Tapi, KacBxoBCKBxi raTapi, n KpuHoxoxi xaHCTBt, Horalcxot opxft, By- 
xapfc, y opeH6yprcKxxi KxprxaoBi; onxcaHie coxpaexBinelcH go HacTOxn^aro 
BpexeHX cpexH TaTapnarB BaaaHCR. y* Hrpu bt» xaau, b% xoropoft coxpa- 
HHixcb xp. oOpaxu xsSpaHia). A. B. CMOAeucKiu: HporpaMia Wfl oo6h- 
paaiH lyaaincxxxB npxHtTb o norox*. XII, 5: H. H. Ranmycoev. OpxeHS 
xy«ie (xaroxeTaficxax cam, ocofeHHo pacnpocrpaHeHHaa bt> pycexon x xx- 
Taicxon TypaecTafl*). R. 6. Kamanoeh: 0 CBax*6HHXi o6pxxaxi tx- 
Tap* BocroqH. TypxecraHa; eio-otce: KxTalexii CyHTOBn^xxi ?x-w-ryH%, 
J(. A. KoHHeeb: 0 norpetaibHUxi oSpaxaxi xxyTOBi Bxnoicxaro oxpyrx 9 
flxyTCKOl oDxacTX. B. K. Mamumiu: Ki Bdnpocy o TaxSoBcxxxi x 
xa8XH6Kxxi TaTapan. A. R. Cono/wei: Oco66hhoctx xsuxa x npaBonx* 
caux rpaxon XYII b. H. 0. Kamanoei, x T. A. Reanuwiu: Tx>px- 




TA3BTH H SyPHAJIM. 



171 



caia crash o Tperb (paraax* (aiep6efAaraacRaa, Typaipaa, caraitcaaa ■ 
aoryieacaaa). XII, 6: IL A. Hoaako8*: Hcian cpeji iropaoBx, Monro- 
jobi, MHiycoBi h KHTalqeBi. R. 6. Kamanosb: 0 aaaasaaia xfeHBBurL 
(oroHOJBueBii y TaTapi BiTaiCKaro TypReciaaa. R. R. Cmuphow>: Apxe- 
oioria, HCiopifl a BTaorpatia B. Poccia. 

KMprH3CHan Croniiaa Ta3eTa. 2. Omro sjo aa cjAt* (oaasra o 
nycruBBBB^, Bopoa*, rojy6*, oiea* ■ Bait). 3. CaasaHie o ropjoai 
saBoeBaTeat (Aieacaaipt MaaejoacaoMi) . 3, 17, 20. Oxotb y aaprasi. 
4. Kohl Ha6asa (caasKa).— Japaiecaia n&caa aapraai. 6. Toproaia Bep6ia>- 
jana a npoxyaTaia, noayiaeauai on aaxi, y Typratoaan i opeH6ypr- 
caaxi aapra3i. — Koub ASoai-axb-lfapma fcaasaa). 9. 3aB*THoe boimjo 
(caasaa). 10. Apa6t a xyporo (boct. caasaaie). 11. ASy-BaaapoBa Tana 
(eraneTcaaa caasaa). — Pyaa-raaj* (npasxHaa* Paxa3ani) vb ctchb. 14., 
ropojcaie sacaTaaa. , 17. Bi Bonpocy o aapra3caon 3eMienoib30Baaia. 19. 
A. A. Reauoecxiu. Xani Hrfai (aapras. caaaaa, nepanev. is* <Pycca. 
Bt^.>). 20. IIo noBOjy paaaaxi 6paaoBi y aapraai. 23. 0 aeo6xoAa- 
aocTa aa-BTb Baprasam cborxb cneiuauao noxroTOBieaBBix% yuTeieft. 
24. fl. AuManoez. flyaaa Xoxa Hacbipi. 26. Ivb sasaa Tpyseaaiuj 
aayaa (no noiiojy c6opaaaa ctbtcI A. B. noTaaaaoi, asAaaaaro reorpatat. 
OntieHieai Han. 06m. EciecTB., AaTpon. a 9?aorp.). 32, 33. ?y- 
xecauft noxcBtiuaai (cBassa). 

KoBeHCKia Tytf. Bt£. npafiaueaio. 1895 r. — 16* OmaBaa AaaTaTopa, 
9oaaoAu aai pyccao-nojLcaoi acTopia* (IIo BeaaxaaauHx xoayaeHTan a 
nacbian). M. KoxAoouna. (Ilepenei. asi cHob. Bpea.>). (IIpojoM. b% 
JMsJMs 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 29, 30).— Utoo o cojjaTCKax* nfccHarb. 
R. EcpuMoeuna. (0 fiesHpaBCTBOBaocra coj^aTcaaxi nfcceai). 18. Teoprift 
Boaaccaift Apxienacaora Bfciopyccait (acTop. oiepai). 19. DpoHcioa- 
Aeaie rop. AaoSnrraxra a jpeBHee npaBO ero saTeiel «pyccaol Bauia> 
paacKoft a rpeiccaol atpu. (HcTopatecaaa cnpaBaa). — 21. Coiiarb m> 
paa>. (Hapojaaa lereaja). (Hpojojat. bi f& 22). — 22. Cpeja saatToai 
coo6meHie nojbcaot rasem <Wiek> o ae6uBajOMi ciy*a* npoxaata ay- 
areirb 6epoH6HaoM seau aa y6ott. EBpet , apeaxaiopi aoio^auxi oaononi 
y noM^aaa, npoxan caoa> areay Bopaat, aoropue ayoaia ee c* vfrihrn 
AO^utk asi aea amu, ran aasi, no noB*pia> an» cpexu, ataju iope- 
aoaHofi xeHmaau x^aarrb BopoBi aeBaAaaaaaa. 

MHHcaia Enapx. BtAoa. 1895 r.~ 6— 9.— Biopoi nepioxi cymc- 
CTBOBaaia Haacaoi AyxoBaot ceaaaapia, (1817—1844 r.). (IIpox.). — 
7. MaTepbaiw &m acTopia Maacaoft eaapxia (xoayieaTU, OTaocan^ieca n 
apxien. BaaTopy GaxaoBcaoiy) (m> JMs 8— oaoa?.)- — 9. GTOJ&Tie nepaaro 
BoacoexaaeHia yaiaT^Bi Haacaott ry6. (1795—1895 rr.). 

npaaMypcaifl BtA. 64, 65. E. 27. RIuMKeeum. CoBpeHeaaoe co- 
CTOBHie BHopomeBi AaypoKoft o6iacTa a 6accelaa AaryHa:— 66. 0 ciys- 
6ft aaopoxixeB'b 3a6aftaaibCBot 061. a noaiaioBaaauxi bmi saaaeflaxi. — 
AAhtfmam. 3aafcTKa o pacyaaaxi aa caajaxi pp. JTccypa a Baaaay.— 
72. R. A. KpwKoeb. CBiiftaig o 6a6iioTeaaxi vb IIpaaaypcBOMi apat. — 
75. EIuwMapeei. Ottotl aoacyjibCTaa bi Ifprft p ToproBjft n Moarojia 




t 



172 



9TH0rPA*MHECK0E 0B03PUH1E. 



sa 1894 r. — 81. Axi>(f>ma%a. HHopojiecioe HaceJeaie no npiToaan yccj~ 
pa pp. Buaay, llnany i Baity. 

Cn6npcKiM BtCTHmcb. 1. Koe-wo o nam* aiTaicaan aaopojweBi. 3. 
6, 11, 15, 20. 28, 32, 41, 42, 47, 49. K. OiepKi arasaa Kojhm- 
caaro apaa.— 8. 9THorpf.*a*ecKoe ascjfcjOBaBie aaceaeaia UuyTcioft o&i. 
ua cpejciBa fl. H. Ca6apaaoB8.— 29, 32. Caoniu* Mapxaacaaro ceaeain 
flxyTCKoft o6jf ctm . 37. Hapojao* o6pa30BaHie y Typraficaaxi aapraaoBi. — 
45. Ckodum flayrcKoft o6j., c. Cnaccaaro, OjemiHcxaro oapyra. — 47. 

SBtpOJOBBbie DpOBhlCJU Bl Cl6ipi.— 51. EpeTBKH (as* BByTCBBXl caa- 

3a Hi it). — 59. BupomjeBie i BUMipaaie ibjhhbobi AcipaxaHCBO* ry(. — 
74. 9to Cj&jaHO bi> 1894 r.'wb o6jacTi ca6apcaol apxeoioria, acTopia 
h BTHorpaMH? 77, 81. A. MuxauAoeunb. Ki Boopoey o npaqaaaxi* bh- 
HipaHia HHopoweBi cfeBepo-sananaoii Ca6apa.— 90. H. Ilcapeeh. Ha& 
Mipa noafcpil (xylol waai).— 102. lllaiaHi bi pon Bpaqa. 

CMOJieHCKifl lyfi. BtA. 16. BecHa b* aapoxauxi pyccaar& soroBop- 
aaxi ■ arpaxi. («IlpaB. B£cth.>). 

CiiOJieHCKiM BtcTHMKV 53, 55—57. H. H-vb. Oiepaa Choi. ry6. ■ 
ctB.-aan. ipafl.— 60. C. PycaiBaaa uexfcia.— 72. KpacaAo. C. Qoiuao- 
bbu, Morw. ry6. (flpaapiia, cjtnipj i np.). — H. 0. Hsi jepeBaa (c6n- 
seaie BpeCTfcflHi. BHTeuar.) . — 101 H. CeAe3Heeb. Hsi jepeBHB (Qpoj|. 
bi» K 108).— 107. H3i> 6uTa xepenHH (tfuo o npieMumfc-jtojfcnaafe). — 
108. fl. ycneucKiit. $a6pa<raaa noa3ia (ovepsi* ct> Teami*). — 120. 
I^apcsii aafiaai MocaoBcaaro rocyxapcTBa (no vthTbt npo*. AaTaTina). — 
123. H. C. ihi xepeBUH (Gesioaa-nioTMBH). 

denHOM Kpau. 33. Bi Bonpocy o BUMipauia BHopomeBt. 

TodoabCKin I"y6. BtA. 1. Epaaa y aayTOBi. — 3. KaimaTCBia aoijeaiua 
A-pa CiioHiHa.— 5, 8, 10, 14, 16. EBpefteaifl Bonpoci i eBpei b% Ch- 
oBpa. — 12. UoBufl B3riflj|i» Ha Bonpoci o ApeBBeM> HacejeHia Ca6apa. — 
13. 0 npaswoBaaii naciaBBUu bt> cTaroe apeaa. 20, 21, 23, 26, 28, 
30, 32, 48, 50, 60, 61, 70, 73, 74. X Htadpo. OcTauaia cKa3ita 
hjb Be^epa aa^i 06bH>. — 22. Apa6i i 3«ta (boot. caaaaaie). — 26. A. A. 
flMumpiee*. GojaHaa ToproBia aa Ypai'b i bi Ca6apa bt» XVIII b. — 
27. BecHa bt> uapoAHHXi noroBopiaxt h arpaxt. — 06i> eBpeicaax* lie- 
EBVb — 27 — 29. H. H. Cyxanotfb. Cajbcsaa o6iuaua bi jojbb£ Aarapu. — 
35—38, 42—51, 57, 62—68, 71, 76. Jff. A. AOpaMoeb. Onacaaia 
BepeaoBcaaro apaa. — 38. Matfcaia uapoxaua noatpka, npaaAaaaa a ry- 
iaai>a. — 43. if. Cyxanoez. IIocha*hkh a o Aarapi. — 48. 0 cjys6t 
iHopomeBi 3a6aiaaiBcaott o6j. a o nosaJOBaaajuxi aai aaaaeHaxi.— 49. 
If. Cyxauoeh. 3airkTxa o Beiepaaxi Ha Aarapfe. — 54, 55. A* H. 8ko- 
6iu. GTpaaa ptaa Baxa (ocypryTCBaxi ocTaaaxi). 

flayTCKin En. BtA* 1, 2. OyieBua sai*TKa cpeja aayiOBi. 




HOBOCTH 9TH0rPAcPMHECK0R AMTEPATYPbl. 



B— BMVb, A- M. Cxaaxx h npexaHix Hapoxoro Kaaxasa. OSpaSoTaui do 
pMSJiqHun HCTOiiuran. Ha*, kh. Mar. A. flniTpieBa x E°. Mocxbx 1895. 
8°, 52 «p., u. 50 i. 

SoAy9Hi»-Ae-KypTeHd, N. A. MaTepiaiu iih x>MocjaBHHcxoft jiaiexTo- 
jorii i 9PHorpa»ia. I. PeabHHCxie Texcru. Ci npwoaeHiaMi 9aau <pom 
IIIyAhm-AdaeecKou (ci hotwih). Ifei. I. Ax. Hayx*. CQ6. 1895. 8°, 
<*p. XX+XLVII+708. IJ. 6 p. 

yiK)6aBCKi«, M. K. IS* Bonpocy o6% yjfcjn>Hun> khhsbhx* h MtcfHon 
ynpaiueHii Bt ixTOBCxo-pyccxorb rocyjapcTBfc (xs* cX. M. H. Hp.> , aBr. 
94 r.). Cn6. 1894. 8°. 49 wp. 100 9X3. 

/IflULHiH, Ear. Cxasirejb Hb. Tpo*. Ph6ibihi ■ ero Sujxbli. 9THorp. 
oiepirb 6i npijoac. nopipera i 5 HanfefiOBi (4 Banxc. A. C. ApeHCKxm, 
1 H. A. fiHqyxorb). MocKBa. 1895. 8°, 47 dp., ij. 40 x. (Oithcbi X3* 
XXIII kh. c9th. 06oap.»). 

MaTepiaJiu jua ac/ropix eeja Kyjuixopa, Cojxxaicx. y., Ilepn. ry6. 
IlepMfc. 1894, 8°, 29 dp. 300 9B3. 

MaTepiaiiu wa CTaTHCTixx KpacHoywwcxaro ytaja, Ilepxcxot ry6. Ka- 
3axb. 1894. 4°. 161 +258 6Tp. 400 9X3. 

MaTepiaau no apieoiorii KaBxaBa, co6paHH. 9xcn. Hxn. Mock. Apz. 06m. , 
CHapaie. sa Bucoi. japoBaH, cpejdBa. Bun. 1Y. H. 1894. 4°, 2 + 197 

CTp. H LXI Ta6l. 610 9X3. 

MemoBi, B. M. Bx6iiorpa*ia Aaii. yxa38Tejb xhxti h CTaTeft o6t 
Asia na pycciora asux* i ojHtab tojbxo KHxrb Ha BHOCTpnHHurL fl3H- 
xaxi, xacaromxxea OTHomeHia Poccii kt> asia-rcM** rocyxapcTBan. Ton 
HI. HHopomw ♦■Hcsaro, TaTapcisaro i MOHrojibcxaro npoxcxoftxoHia, o6h- 
Taniqie n Poccin. RaBxascxie iHopojmu. Cn6. 1894 8°. VII -j- ci 49 no 
257 CTp. 750 9X3. 

ManbHMKOBi», AjieKcaHApi- IIoeJOBmu h noroBopKi vl cTxxaxt. Kieai 
1894. 32°, 222 wp. 5.050 an. 

MMxaRjiOB'b, A. Rt» Bonpocy 06* ywpeJbHOirb EBaHrejix RoHCTaxTxaa, 
emcxona Soirapexaro (Hax. «Tpyx. CiaB. Rom. npx H. M. Apx. 06.»). 
M. 1894. 4°. 58 CTp. 75 exs. 

OxpaNHa (ONHJiflHACHaa) PoccIm. CSopmnrb oTaTei, oiepxoB«b, nxeem, 
XoxyieHTOB'b i khlixi varepiajOB'b x« xsyiBHia Taxi HasusaeMaro •ih- 
JHHicxaro Bonpoea. Bun. 2-1. Haxaro CeprM IbrpoBCKil. M. 1894. 8°. 
XXXII+606 CTp. 1200 9X3. Y[. 3 py6. 



Digitized by 




174 



8TH0rPA4>HTOCK0« 0B03PMIE. 



OJibAeHfiyprb, C. BywificsiH lereBju. *L Cn6. 1894. 8o. 12 + 
140 CTp. 210 0B3. 

OnutaHie (IIoBepcTHoe) pfcB*: Boith, Ranu, UleKCHu, Cypu, On, Efe- 
joft ■ Bates. H.-HoBropojr&. 1894. 8°, 24 CTp. 3000 bb*. (bs% «Hiserop. 
Baps. JacTKa* sa 1876, 80 i 85 it.). 

OHepm> (Kpmil) nyTemecTBii ApxanreibCRaro ry6epBBTopa A. II. 9nreji>- 
rapjra bx 1894 rojy ua Mypnam, HoByro Seiiio h bt> IleiopcBift tpai. 
ApxaBreJiCBi. 1894. 8°. 31 CTp. 100 9B3. 

(hepKi nyTeiuecTBiff ApxaHr. ryfiepaaTopa A. n. 9Brejn»rapxri> n Keu- 
6Kif h KutoBifl y*3AH b* 1895 r. (Kopeiifl. Iloxopie. Joruaejifl. Myp- 
mwb). ApiaBreJbCKi. 1895. 8°, 128 dp. (Hsi Apx. Ty6. B*j.), 

IloKpoBCHiR, H. Oiepai naMHTBHKOBi, npaBoojaBBol BiOHorpa^ii ■ 
iciyccTBa. Cn6. 8°. 350 CTp. 400 bbs. 

lloMMH'b. CoopBBBi 06mecTBa JtoCiTeief Poecileiot Cjob?cbocti ua 
1895 r. M. 1895. 8°. 464+28 orp. IJ. 2 p. (B* ncift jpyrnx* CTaw* 
noM^meHw: 6. E. jBycAaeea—RamMTBo h xpicriaacTBO; Uim> xojonoBt 
npomxaro Bfcaa, ct» npe*aci. J9T. C. Tuxonpaeoea; Hiiaja, III nteab, bob. 
nepeBoji 21. -3f. Muucnaio; B. 0. MuAMpa. — Ki Sujiaaii o *Iypufe 
IIjeBKOBBHt; 0. /(. Hetfedoea—VmKjih, SamBBpCRaa lerenja). 

nyTeuiecTBie k% UajecTaay. Hsi xbcbbbrb Hempa A-mmoea. CIIB 
1894. 8°. 

PaAJtOBV B., Ca6Hpciia jpeBBocTB. Harepiajiu no apxeoiorii Poccia. 
(Hsj. Hin. Apxeoi. Eomhgg. N* 15). Ton I, bhu. 3-1. Ci 8-» t*6i. 
psc. h 30 BoiBTinas. Cn6. 1894. 4°. dp. ci 81 no 132+cb 53 no 
146+X1X. 600 813. IJ. 2 py6. 

PoAOCCKiR, A. Ooncauie 432 pyaonace8, DpBHaj,ie»amHXT> CnO. *y- 
xoBBOft aiajeBia h cocTaBjaamjiii, en nepBoe no BpeneBi coCpaaie. 8°. 
427 CTp. 600 8K3. 

C6opHMK"b (AJiTaBcKiB). Hsjaflie OSnjecTBa Jto6aTeje* isojftxoBaBia 
AjTaa. Bun. I. Tomcri. 1894. 8°. 330+52 crp. IJ. 2 p. (ci iototbd. 
nopTp. nepoaro notem npejcfytamfl OSnjecTBa noBolnaro H. H. Xypana, 
HaqajLHBKa AiTaSciaro oapyra). 

C60pHMK"W BOCTOTOHXl nOBftCTOf, pa3C«a30Bl, lereBji B CKt3afiil («- 

TepaT. o6pa6onsa). CIIB. 1895. 8°. 205 crp. 

C6opHNKi> cb%^bi1 no HpouaBCBoft c6jbcko-xo3bIctb. h npoMumieflBol 
BUCTBBBfe 1893 r. Haj. flpocj. 06m. CeJbea.-xos , flpociaBJb. 1894. 8°. 
424 CTp. (c* 3 ♦ototbh.). IJ. 1 p. 50 B. 

CBtAtHifl o Cafiapa. II npiSaBjenia n «BajeBjapH> Ceibca. B*cth.> 
1894 r. (Cencsoe xos. b* AHyp. o^j. f ct> sapToi. Cb*j. o Hpaiopcaot 
o6i. Abmojbhcb8h c(i. i np.). CIIB* 1894. 8°. 40 CTp. 

Chaopobi, Bac. AiepsBa, nyTeBUfl saiftTBi h BneiawtniB. Co6. 1895. 
8°. 2+423 crp. 500 BBS. B[. 1 p. 25 *. 

CfiHAteBi A. KpaTBii BCTopivecBil oqepsi ropoxa Craparo Ocboju. 
Cocr. no Mfecr. MBTepiaja» (Ci npuos. onicaaifl npasinoBtBifl 300-itT- 
Bro »6iiefl). EypcBi. 1894. 8°. 127 ctp. 500 BBS. 1\. 1 p. 50 B. 



Digitized by 




HOBOCTH 3TH0rPA*H1E0K0t JHTEPAT7PH . 



176 



CuojieHCKiiiy A. 8. 9yBamcxix » npxafera o noroj* h e« BJi'aflix Ha 
xobaIctbo. Kasaat. 1894. 8°. 81 «p. 85 8K3. 

dopomeHKO, A. B. MaifH3BtcTHua corneaix sieBCxaro (xcByna (1589 — 
1598) Iocutfa BgpemuncKato. I. Cnoecfa sacejeaifl HoBaro KieBa, 1595 r.; 
II. Bftpaaa jopora n 3aceieBi» nycTtix* vb pyecKiu o6jacTRxi Eoji>- 
cxaro KopnoBCTBa, 1590 r. IlepeBpji w» 2 DpejicaoBiaxx h npxxfriaBiaxx. 
KieBi. 1895. 8°. 96 CTp. 

CttutHcaiR, E. CBam. Topoxi RaMCBejyi-IIoAOJBCBii. Hcropn. onxcaaie. 
Ob *OTOTBDiflMH, rpaBB>p. i mHKorp. Hsjaao Ha cpejCTBa EaxenenKaro ropoj- 
cxoro ynpaBjeaifl wb navBTb 100-j*Tia BOscoejBHeeifl Hojojix vb PoccieB) 
(1893). EicB*. 1895. 8°. YIII+247 crp. 

Tmtobt>, A. A. TcepcBifl EnapiiajBBua B&xoxoctx. Cnacoro x yaasa- 

T6JL CTBTef , nOMftmeBBHXB BT> BeO*XItfaJBBOl VCTl BfcjOXOGTeM SB BCpBBIH 

ceMHawaTB j&rb bit* cymecTBOBaBia; 1877 — 1893. Mockbb. 8°. 100 CTp. 

1200 9K3. 

ToiwaKOffb, M. HcTopiBo-CTaTHCTHt. e apieojoraq. onxcaxie fteia 
Hpoi3iHO-ropoiame., AiaTtipciaro y., Cna6BpcKoI ry6. M. 1895. 8°. 56 CTp. 

TonceHB, B. flemx*poBBa opiOHCxxn x eBxceicxxiB najnaceft (Ota. 
ott. xsj. c3an. Boct. Ota. Hun. P. Apx. 06m>») Cn6. 1894. 8°. CTp. 
ci 323 no 337. 60 8KB. 

TpOMiaift, B. R. ^epeoccKo-pyccRil cxoBapB (npxiosenie n II x 
III t. cfldBftCTil 06nj. Apx., Hct. x 9THorp.» (1893 x 1894 rr.). Ra- 
88 bb. 1894. 8°. 87 CTp. neTXTa. 

y«a8aTeab (cxcTexaTHqecBii) cTaTet, DoxtmeHHun, bi pyceraxt sypHc- 
jaxB (anpfciB— ia>HB). > 2. Cn6. 1894. 8°. 36 dp. 700 8B3. (Txo. II. 
IIIxxATa> 

ycuuiKMHi, M. M. IIo HaiecTHBt. Hsi nyTOBuxi saxtTOXi. Co6. 1894. 
8°. 67 CTp. 1000 9K3. 

HepenHMHX, A. M. BopxoBcail oorpoBi x ero jpeBaocrx (as*. «Apx. 
Hsb. x Sax.i) H. 1894. 8°, 18 CTp. 50 bbb. 

Ulaxpan, A. M. Hama cTapxxa. XII. EBpelcsia ceKTM. * Ojecca. 1894. 
8°. 48 CTp. 1000 8K3. IJ. 15 son. 

UfreiiH6epn>, 0. H. CioBapx jpeBxe-eBpeiciaro x pyccxaro bsbixobi. 
Toxx II. noJHul pyccKO-eBpelcio-Htaeuail cjoaapB, cocTasi. no iy<rai. 
xcTOixxBaxi. Hs*. 7-e,xcnp. Bait Ha. 1894.8°. YII+1289 CTp. 400 axa. 
H. 3 p. 50 x. 

flApHMieffb, Hmk. Max. Biorpa*x*. owpxi, cocTaBxeaBut B. rjaHcxxxx, 
ci npexacJOBien B. OcTporopcuaro x npnioseaiexi BOcaoxaaaBiit T. Qo- 
TaHXHa. Hsj. H. TxxoxxpoBa. H. 1895. 8°. 62 crp. I{. 50 x. (C* 
nopTpeTOxi). 

Antoszka. 0 czechach, ich kraju i zyciu. Z rysunkami. Warszawa 
(W. Obuchowski). 1895. 8°, 6p. 34 CTp. 

Backhaus, Wilh. Eman. DasWesen des Humors. Eine Untersuchung. 
Mit dem Bildnisse des Yerfassers. (HcTopx*. aaifruflia; »xopi> Vb xcByc- 
ctb4, BTb B8HBft x np.). Leipz. 1894. 8°. 208 crp. 



Digitized by 




176 



3TH0rPA*H1ECK0E 0B03PHHIE. 



BilRngton, Mary Frances, Women in India. With introduction, by 
the Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava illustrated. (Chapman and Hall). 
(CfffejtHia 061 8HrjoHHiijcKOHi> ofimecTBt 1 xeHnpHaxi vb Hflxii). 

Drage, Geoffroy, The Karakorum Himalayas. London. 1894. 

Foa, Edouard. Le Dahomey. Paris. A. Hennuyer ( «Bibliotheque de 
Pexplorateur»). 1895 (HcTopia, reorp., o6tnai, o6pBju, npoHHnueHHOOTfc, 
ToproBii). 

Gundry, B. S. China past and present. (Chapman and Hall). 

W. Helbig. L'epop£e homerique expliquGe par les monuments. Tra w 
duction francaise de M'. Fr Trawinski avec une introduction par M. 
Maxime Collignon. Paris. Firmin-Didot., 1895, (Pei^M. cm. bi Revue 
Archeologique. 1895, janv.— fevr., p. 142). 

Luckock. The history of marriage jewish and christian. London. 1894. 

Nans en, Fridtjof, Eskimo Life. London and New- York. (EvexHeaira 
MCRycoTBo, noma, lrysuBa, penrioBHua Hieaiu, BiiflHie cBpon. 
UiBiJisaiui. HuucTpai^ii h Kapra rpeaiaHjii). 

Piggot, F. T. (Johjohx, 6d. Batsford) i3|aJT> cbod xnry 0 lysine* 1 
xysuxajiiH. iHCTpyMeHTaxi y HUOMeBX, c* npiriiaHisn T. L. Southgate 
(noxiiHHaro aariaBia noita He SHaen). 

Ribbeck, Otto. Geschichte der Romischen Dichtung. I Dichtung der 
Republik. 2-te durchgesehenc und vermehrte Aufl. Stuttgart. 1894. 8° 
358 dp. (Bb o6meifi BBejeHia, <Anfange, pasiflCHmoTCfl bhjli Tsopiecm 
bi cBssi ci oStnami). 

Williams, Alfred M., Studies in Folk-Sang and Popular Poetry o,A*ep. 
nucaTdb saiaxca mnpoKOK) j^Iuimo Hscj'&xoBaTb sapoxHyio jraTepaTypy n no»sin 

060XXb K0HTHH6HT0B7*. PcSyjbTaTbl CBOHXl HBCJTBJlOBRHift OHTb H8ja6TT> Bt BHX* 

OT^BjbH uxi> BunycKOB-b, BbixoianjHxi. cepiflMH. Bt» BunieAuraxi» ysse BbitfycsaxTb 
8aKJH)HaeTCH HBci-feflOBaBie axep h kbhckhxi* BopcEHXT* h HapoAHiixt ntcen 
BpeMeBt rpaviaHCKOfi boAbh. Hot* eBpon. Hap. noasin aBTopi* noxa HaneiaT&t* 
ToifcKO H8cx*AOBaeie pyMUBCBoft HapoRH. noBsie, a Taxse nopTyraxbCExx-b, raor- 

JSHXCKHXT. H CpRTaHCKHXT. BapOIH. n*CeH*b U ). 




H3BtCTIfl m 3AM*TKM. 



K-b roxHHHOHy saa&AaHiio H. 06m. «2bo6. Ect,, AHi-pon. h 9raorpa*ia 
(15 okt.) CeKperapexit 9THorpa«HHecaaro OrAfcxa npe^cTaBjieHt cjit^yronuft 
0TH6TT. o ^flTeib^ocTH Oi^ja bi 1894—95 r. 
9Tflorpa«HqecRift Ota£j?» bt. ncTe*mein» OTHOTaoin, ro&y HM*jn» 9 sacndamu' 

(BT. TOOT. HHCJ* OAHO COBVftCTHO CT» AHTpOBOXOrHH. OtA**OMT»), laOTbH) sa- 

KpHTUxt, qacTbio ny6jiH^HMxi», n oc Bfl eHHBixi* BLicjiyniaaiio h o6cy>KAeaiK> aa- 
yHHUxt pe^epaTOBt no paaabiMT. BonpocaMT., KacajonjHMca rxaBHtiMt o6pa30MT> 
BTRorpa«ia Poccia. 

Bcero 6hjo CAfeJaHO bt. oaBaieaHbixi. BacBAamaxi. 13 eoothnemU: 

1) Itee*. Oed. Muxxepa — Bonpocy 0 pyccRHXT. tibiiaaaxT. (BaliniHie 
npieabi 6ujBHHaro TBopiecTBa: aaiHBbi, bubtctij, peTapAanja a np.J. 

2) Eio-otce — Hobbih AaBHbia no8TBorpa*iB KaBaasa (Ha ocaoBama 18-20 tt. 
w C6opBHRa MHTepiajOBt*', asiaBaeifBixT. Kami. yae6H. Oapyroin.). 

3) Bunm. Mux. MuxaiUoecKaxo — BaymeHie h ranBOTHsm* y aaJOiyibTyp- 
huxi aapoAOBT.. 

4) Ilempa Mux. Eotaeecxaio— Hobhh xaHHbia 0 acepTBonpHHomeHiaxT. y 
bothkobt. (no no bo ^y cyieflHaro n*aa o MajMBiscaxxT. BOTaaaxT.). 

5) reopt. IT*. I^ejiieaa— Oaepra ohtb paHBaneBT. (Kyraacc. r.) 

6) Ilempa EpycAanoea — PoACTBeaHbift coiobt* no noHHTiam, aepeaacT., 
(Aojoshjt. eexpeTapb H. flHqyaT,). 

7) AMKcan. He. KupnuHMUKoea-^3&n&nuaa jrereBAa bt. pyccaoM* nepecaaaa 
16-ro Bftsa (o JIopeTcaofl brob* B. M.). 

8) .Ataoaat. E<fiuM. KpuMcmio — 0 TTopRMeBaxT»-ca*bipaxT» (no pysonaea 
A-pa M. fl. EaaeBHia). 

9) Mux. Hecmop. CntpaHC*a\o — 0 jb^ao-bactbti bt> cpeAHeft EBpoa* bt. 
AOBCTopHHeeaoe Bpexfl (no CTBTbtt MaTeftxa). 

10) Hurt. Hun. Xapysuna—K-b HCTopia pasBHTia thbobt. niB^a y h*~ 
KOTopuxr. TX>paeKaxi» m KOBrojbCKvxi* njeneHT>. 

11) AteKCandpa He. SuuMupacato — Pas6 ohhhhh Beccapa6ia bt. pascia- 
8axi» 0 hbxt>. 

12) Exo-otce — BnHorpaA'b h bbho bt. 6*117 h sHBofi pfcra 6eccapa6caaxT> 
MOXAaBaB'b. 

h 13) J2i*K. A#dp. HknyKa— MaaaeBO no6oame bt. HJBBo-caaBHBcaoft Ha- 

pOAHOfi n0881H. 

Bt saapbiTUXT. sacfeAaEdaxT. o6cyacAuacb Bonpocu, aacajomieca BayT- 
peaaaro paenopaaaa scbshb OTAttia, a Taaate eHomeaiH ero ct pa&SHqauKH *a- 
naHH h yqpesAeBiaMa. Tan Ota* jit. Bomexr. bt. CHomeHie cr» r. HayTcaairb 
ry6epaaTopoM'L no noBoay aacneAHuiH, cHapaaeHBofi Ha cpeACTBa r. CadapaaoBa xjh 
BsyneBia HayTcaaro apaa, h cb r. UlaifaeBB^eirb no noBOAy ero BscneAaniH bt, Bo- 
ctouoh CflCflpu. Kpovb Toro, OTA*n» npHaarb yaacrie bt» BbiCTaBaH ne^aTaaro 
ffkia no npeixoaceHix) bbictbbo hh aro ROMareTa. Bt» nocxBAHaxi* 8ac*AftHiHXi» 
OiA'BJia ofieyatAaica Hea^y nponairb Bonpocb 0 npacyacAeaiH 8THorpa*aqecxoft 
npeMia mmcbh E. H. Bbic. B. K. Ceprfia AaeacaHApoBHaa, nepBaa BHAana ao- 

12 



Digitized by 



178 



8TflOrPA*H<I£C!COE 0E03PUHIE • 



ropoft noejrfe ■esxjaapoxBUX'b aoBrpeeeOBi* 1892 r. npexcroua bt> btom% roij 
oo otx%sj 9TBorpa*iH. IIpexcTaueBfluft Ha npeairo Tpyj* uena 06mecrsa 
MaTpo*. Burr. /JoBBap-b-3aaoxb£aaro: v E*xopyecaoe rfoxfcebe. I: II*cbh 
nHH^yKort^ (bch. KicBciHxi, % ,yHM»epcHT. HsBtcTiaxi," 1895 r.) npHSHae-b 
OrxfciOM'fr., corxaceo orabiay cnenjaxbaofl KobmbccU on Otjcbxa, sacjyxHBW- 
ngiirb oaaaqeeHoft npeaia. 

Un hobuxt> naHHaamft, K03HaxaBmax'b bt» Oti^jt*. otm*tbmt> aucxb ofrb 
yerpofteTB* odm.eAOCTynairx'b ny6xB<iBiixi> HTeeifl no 8THorpa«ia Poccia. Xotb 
era much h Be 6bua npaaexefla Bt acaoxHeme, bo uxaai> 6bui> cocTasxeBTb 
■ OTHaeTH paapa6oTaBi> 9 b ocymecTaieaie ero bt» 6jfjmewh 6wxo 6m Beebxa 
■ejaTAibBO npa 6ox*e 6iaroapiflTBnxi» ycxoBiaxi>. 

Hayqsbia vccxypciu bt, Teieaie nponixaro jtbtb coBepmeau cxfexyron^uMH 
HjeaaMH: T. H. KyjMioBciHM-b— bt» 3aoaeabe, A. C. XaxanoBbiMT> — bt> Tatxac- 
eayio 176., A. H. flaaMapcKRM'b — bt» Beccapa6iio a PyMbiniio, H. H. Xapyaa- 
iHMi — bt» Ch6hp& v B. K. nopaesHHCEHM-b— bi> KoBeHcaya) ry6., M. H. Cnepaa- 
esHifb — bt» Kypcaya) 176. a A. E. Kpuacaairb — bt» KieBcayio ry6. 

Pe8yjbTaTu nofeajorb nocxysarb MBTepiaxoxi* xxa pe<t>epaTOBi> b% aacfe- 
ftamaxi> O-ra/Bja Bacrynaromaro ro^a. KpaTxia me cBt^BHia o peayxbTaTaxt no- 
fcBAorb coo6maiOTCR 8i%cb: 

P«pjn. Knap. KyAUKoeCKiu bt» Teiesie iaDJia Teaymaro ro^a nocfcraxb 3ao- 
aesbe (apxHnejianb ocTpoBOBi*, mucobt, b koc-b bt> cfcBepaoft hbcth Oaeacxaro 
08.), rjfaBHUMT» o6pa80v < & bojloctb ToxByficayK), niyarcaya) a Ky3apaaAy. 3aan- 
MAacb npeHMymecTBeBBO reorpa«H<iecKHMH HsexftAOBaaiaMB btoH m-bctbocth, r^* 
T. H. KyxHKOBcaifi ae paa-b yate npoBOABXT> j*to, co6apaa BTHorpataiecKie a reo- 
rpa^BHecaie aarepiaibi (aaai» no nopy^eaia) 06m,ecTBa JI106. Ect., Tax* h Pyc- 
caaro reorpataqecicaro OCmeeTBa), owb mom xnnib AonoxBan* cBoe co6pauie 
bobubb noApo6HOCTavn. MaTepiajrb, eoopaaobia tbehmt, o6pa80Mi>, nocxyasHTL 
xxa cocTaBjenia cnenjaxbaoft CTBTba 0 3aoBeau»a a saoBeataaax'b. 

AMxcandpt Coaom. Xaxanoe* xfei-ovb Teaymaro roia cb BTaorpaa)H<iecKOX> 
n*JbK> nyTf uiecTBOBax-b b*b npeAfc-iaxT, TH#JHccKoft ry6. Ha CTaBi^ia Miixeru no 
BoeHBo rpy8HBcaotf 10 port sanacaji. B*cEfOJbao n^cea'b, xapaffTepa8ya>D4KX , b 
B*poBania rpysHH-b-ropueBT*. ^b* BCTopaqecaia jiereaAM sanncaHbi B*b cex. Kacniff 
ropiftcaaro yftsia a coCpaHbi cB^jcBHia 0 poxoBOMii outb HTiyaoBi* bi> ^ymeT- 
eaoMi y^sjCB. Bt> C&iai^aBJbAe b sa MaBrjHci Thojhc. yBs^a sanacaabi n'BCBH 
b aeresAbi. TAaaHoe se BBuaanie 6bijo ofipameeo na nayHeBie i.yxooopoB'b, 
cpeAB KOTopwxi., no mm «o ^yxoBBbixi. n*ceHT> h ncajMOBi>, sanacaabi CB-Bfl'finia 
06% ycTpoffcTB* ceMeftnofl a o6n|aBaoH hxt> smsbb, npocji^seua HCTOpia an. 
nepecejieuifl bt» 3aaaBxa8be h cy^bCa bxt> pascejieaia no AepeBHax*b Tfl^xaccaofi 
ry6. Bb iioj* btoto toab. 

AAeKca*dpb He. KmtMupciciu coBepniHjrb no*8A«y bt> PyHbiRia> ■ Becca- 
pa6ia). I(fiAbH) no-B8ARH bt> PyauaiK) 6wjio o6o3p*Rie cjiaBaacBHX'b RHaroxpa- 

BHJIBmT» Bli MtCTHWXT. CTapHHHbIX*b MOBBCTbipHXT>. Bb CeMBBapCKOtt 6HOjiOTe«fe 

bt» ByKnpecT* m y nacTBbix'b B.iai'&xbneB'b eay yAaxocb cA'BJiaTb nfcKOTopua 
BbiDHCKif H3T» CTapwx'b cjibb. pyxonEceff, a B'BcEoxbKO pyaonHceft npio6p , BTeRO 
bt> co6cTBeBHOCTh. Ha^jfoAesia, CAliJtaBHbia bt> BeecnpaCia, aacaxacb BO-nepBbix*fc 
o6uqaeBi>, BO-BTopux r asuKa. B'b-TpeTbax'b aapoiaaro TBop^ecTBa. H3i» o6bi«ia- 
eBX o6pameHo oro6eapoe Bnnaaaie an o6biqaanorpe6axbnbie H cBasaHnua ct> STaMi* 
noBHTia o cMepTH, o 8arpo(5noai. Mip* a np., npaieMii sanacaao BfecaoxbRO ^e- 
reBA*b anospa^u'fecaaro xapaaTepa. <Ito aaeaeTca M*BCTBbix*b roBopoBt, to nnn- 
6oj'Be HBCTbiMi. MOXAaBaHCKHM'b roBopon-b oaa8UBaeTca roBop*b cpeAaeft HacTH 
Becrapa6ia, tbkt* HasbiBaeaue „KaApbi M (x"Bca), t. e. y%3AU OprBeBcaift a Kb- 
uiMueRCKin 1 , a TaKise no6epeaska HpyTa; oitpaaHbi we noAaep»eabi caxbaony bji- 
saiio asuaa Majopocci^caaro. 3aiiaca WMBoro aawKa Aaron* BoaaosaocTb noKa 
0TM*BTHTb TpH ropopa, cMOTpa no y noTpefixeHiio 6yxBbi 0 (bt» B3sb. Beccapa6ia^ 
Haaaaj. y.), mxh saMU «HK>max , b ee m (cpeAHaa Beccap.) bxb x (cbb. Bect-ap.); 
aanp. „po8a": mpanda^upa—mpandamupa—mpaHdaxupa a t. b.— Ha* caoaee- 
Hbixb aaTepiaxoB-b, irpuM* xereHA'b, aanacaao okoxo 30 aaroBopoBii, irBcaoibKO 




H3B*CTIfl H 3AM*BTKff. 



179 



nt^ni cb Han*BaMH, OTpuBRH o6H^eHHHxi> pasroBopoBt, penenTbi rmb jfcieBia 
6oj*B8Beft h np. IIoiibiio MOJiRaBaH-L, r. flnnaHpcirift 8H0K0MHJCH r cb 6ec«ap. 
nwraHanH, sanncbiBajrb hxt> cjoBa, n*cBH t% HantBaiiH, paacKaau h aaeRAOTbi 
opo Ubirain.; HaaoHenb, ivi CAfeJBHO h*ckojlio •OToipaoHiecRHX'b chhmbob'b 
h/.t> ohtb 6poffH^HXT, nurant, a Taase RBa cBBuxa noxopoHHoft nponecci*. 

Hukoa. Huk. XapyauH% coBepniBjn* no-BSARy b*b 3anaAHyio Ca6npb. Mm* a 
bt» pacflopflseaiH cjibiukoii*i> muo BpenesH (or. 7 Bexbth), r. XapysuH-b Morb 
npMAaTb no*3AiPB npeaMymecTBeBHO pasBtytoiBJuft xapaKTepb h noaHavOMHTbca 
6oj*e ocBOBaTe-sbBO tojlbo ct> Tohcrhmi> b KysHenRHifb ORpyraHH Tomchoh ry6. 
IIpeHMymecTBeHHO BHHMame 6hjo o6pamaeno aa HsyieHie BBtmBHro 6biTa pyccRa- 
ro HacejeBiH bt» aan. qacm To6ojbCRoft ryo\ h bt> osHaieHBbix'b OKpyraxt ry6. 
ToMCKofi, paBR.o h na 6biTi, octhkobt> orojo CypryTa. HavBieabi uHTepeeBue 
b-l 8TBorpa*BHecKOMt h apxeoxoniqecROM'b OTBomeHiu nyHRTbi, nta H3cxfeAOBa- 

Bifl KOTOpbIX*b OHT» B 8VBp 6 BBCTCB C0B6piDHTb 60J*e npOAOlREHTCIbHyiO 00*3^ 

Bii CyAymea/b ro^y. 

Bumi, KapA. EopotceauHcxiU wt> uorb h aBrycrb TeKynjaro roxa nocBTHJn* 
MapiHMnojbCRifl y*8Ab CyBaxRCRofi ry6. w BocroiHO-aMTOBCRyjo ?acn» IHaB&ib- 
cxaro yBa^a KoBeHCROfi ryo\ IlyTen-b onpoca BocnHTaHHHRO bi> yiHTexbCRoft ce- 
MHHapiH bt» m. BeftBepbi MapiaanojrbCRaro y-BSfla, cpe^R ROTOpuxb 0Bb Bamen 
npeACTaBHTexeft uovrm Bcfexb mam* xhtobcroh" nacTa CyBaxRCRoJI ry6., eiry 
yxaiocb onpeifejBTb rpaHHnj vesAY cpeflHe-JlHTOBCKHMH h boctohho-JKhtobcrhmh 
roBopaiiH HadBaaaoff ryCepflia. IIojyqeHHbiH, tbrhhi. oopaaovb, aaHHbia Chjh 
npoB'BpeHbi hmt> qacTbH) BenocpeiCTBeaHO Ha afccr*, a qacTbK) nyTCMb onpoca 
cB-fiflymHXT> jran>. KpoMft Toro hmi» cotipaHbi CBfeftfeBia: no ♦OHeTarfe, othbcth no 
3fop«oxoriH EnpniTaucRaro roBopa (m. BapniTaBiJ Ha npaBOifb fiepery p. H-fcaaca 
Bb npeABjax«b TpoKCH. y. BHxeHcxoft ry6epam). B* HlaBexbcaoMi, yfiSA* oht» sa- 
BHuaxcH npoBftpaoft h AonoxHeHiex'b coGpaHHaro bt> npomJOMb roAy aaTepiaxa, 

npH Heifb noCBTHlT. MfeCTHOCTH Bb BOCTO^HO-JTHTOBCKOtt nacTH yB8aa, Cb roBopaMH 

ROTopbix% evy bt> uponixoM-b roxy Be npnnixocb no8HaROMHTbca. Ha roBop* m-bct. 
Iohhuikh eki 8anHcano 20 A&ffab, 5 cKO30Kb, Ha roBop* A^peBHH MaxbiBbeHbi 
3 CKB8RH, na roBop* m-bct. BeflBepbi 30 A&ftHi>. 

Mux. Hecm, CnepancKiH, skba bx Teieme jtbtb bt. PbTXbCROHi> ytsA* Kyp- 
cRofl ry6., npeAnpuHHJi'b He6ojbmoe 8THorpa<J>HreecRoe h 3c jtba^ bbhI e Bb btoS m*- 

CTHOCTH. TjiaBHUM-b npeAVeTOMTb 8aHHTifl 6bI*H SEHJUHB^a KpeOTbSHt 8T0ft VBCTHOCTH. 
C*b 8T0ff I^bJbK) Bbl(5paH0 CblXO H*CKOJbKO THHOB-b RpeCTbBBCRHX'b yC8Ae6l> B*b 

Aep. IlepecTynjiHHoa, cdhtw *oTorpa*in BH*niHHro bhab nocrpoeRT* cb yjinnu h 
Co AB°p a i npH^evb bcb nocTpORRH pa3jiH4ajncb no CTenenn saBiiTOiBOCTH Bja- 
A*BJibueBb; noBTOuy 6mjih H3yneHbi ycaAb6bi HanCojrBe sasnTO^Hbixb RpecTbHH-b, 
BacKOJibRO 9th yc»Ai>6bx Be otkjohh jncb orb otimaro THna, ycaAbCbi cpeAHeft 

8a«HT0HH0CTH, COCTaBJaK»mifl COJbUIHHCTBO, ycaAb6bI C^AHblX'b KpeCTbaHTi, 8aTBMl> 

6o6bijbC6ia ycaAb6bi h HanoHenb Cubiuhxi* A^opoBbix-b, 6jh8ko nOAXOAHD^ia, 
Bce-»e 0TiHHaH)miflCH orb 6o6bixbCKHx*b. Bcb nacre ycaAb6u (aomt*, HaAaopnua 
nocTpoHRH^ c«Abi 1 oropoAbi) oCwbpeHbi « aaHeceHbi hb njaHi>, HSMbpeHbi h sane* 
C6hh hb njiaH-b h caifbiH h36h cb Hx*b BHy Tp eH h h mt» pacnoxosenievb. TaRse 
eoOpaHb MBTepiaxi* (bt> *oTorpa»iaxb) aacaTexbso o6maro pacnoxoseHia cTpo- 
emi h ycaAe6i> Bb AepeBaaxb. HasoHeai* 3apacoBaHi» bi» o6n4HXT» nepTaxTb 
He6oraTbift opHaMenrb, cTpoemft h ycaAefti* Bb AepeBHaxi., yRpamaiomia oana h 
BopoTa ABOpoBi.. ftjiH cpaBHMTejbHaro B3yHeHia CA*JiaHa 6bi4a no*B3ARa bi> h)s- 
Hyio qacTb ybBAa, co6paHb HaTepiui* bt> cei* IIonoBR*B h cpaBHeH'b Bb ah- 

ROTOpbJXT. HaCTflXT. Cb HOCTpOHKaMH BT> CaMOMb rOpOA* PblJIbCR*. 

Hto RacaeTca ApyrHXT> cTopom» shshh 8to# m'bcthocth, to 3A*cb r. Cne- 
paHCRHMT* HBMaTo co6apaHie cKasoRb, nftceH'b, noB*pift, npanevb pyKOBOACTBOMb 
cjiyatHJia nporpaMaa 9tb. OTA'Bja no B'BpoaaBiaM'b a npaBy. Boxboiaa qacTb co- 
CpaBnaro aaTepia ja BbipasaeTca bt» ntjioM'b paA*B 8aroBopoBi», Bb hhcji'b roto- 
puxb nepBoe afecro saHnifaH)T'b saroBOpbi nneJOBOABue; bt> ocr&ibHOiib MaTe- 
piai'B mosbo OTM*THTb HenHoria hUchh h CRasaa h paA*b ROCMoroHHHecKHXb b*- 
pOBBHiS. En^e orpaHMieHHfce, bt» bha7 TpyAHOCTH h hobbshu a^&> peayxbTaTH 



12* 




180 



3TH0rPA*H1ECK0E OB03P-BHIE. 



no HgyieHiio nfecTaaro roBopa, BexaxopyccRaro, norpaaaaaaro ct» vajopycaam. 

Axae. EffitiM. KpuMCxiu GbixT. rombhahpobbht. OtinjecTBOMT. bt, Kpuar., ho 
HBCi&AOBaaia BTaorpataaecaia bt, Teaeaie x*Ta npoasBOAaxT. TOJibRO bt. Kiea- 
CKoft ryflepaia, t. r. 6ox&3Hb Be noseoxaxa eiiy Bbifcxair. oiryxa xaxbme. Bt. 
npeA'BJiax'b KieBCRofi ry6epHia codpaabi nm sHaqaTexbHbie 8Taorpa#aaecRie 
naTepiajbi, KOTopwe eiry yAaxocb A<>6biTb sByMa nyTflMs: 1) uyxewb auvhuxi 
Ha6jB3«eHift Bax*b aapOAaoft zasabK), nyTesn. sanacbiBaHia hst* yen. napoja 
irbceHi,, caasoRT,, xeresAT.^ aHeimoxoBt^ nosipift m t. n. h 2) nyreai. co6apaaiB 
forte axa xeHfee cTapaaabixT, donyMetmoei BTaorpaftaaecaaro coAepsaaia. 
Mewjy MaTepiajamr, oth^bhchbbimh bi> nepeuu pyGpaRti \y. e. xrhhhmb sana- 
caaa), HaaGoxlte saaaeaia aatieTT. aoxxeRuia ufcceaT, (okoxo 500), cosABBniaxca 
bt> HOBtftuiee BpeMH h axxrocTpapyanaaxT. KpecTbHHCKift Maxopycctrift Ghtt, no- 
exfc 1861-ro roja; Bt ota*jb aposaaqecRBXT, npoasBeAeaift aapoAaoft cxobccbo- 
cth Haa6ox*e aaTepeceaT. coCpaHaua ubrxt. npeffaaitt o LQeBqeaRft, so- 
Topuft CTaxr. Hapo^HtiMt repoeaii*. Kr> pyCpais* emopoU (t. e. AORyveHTaxbHoft) 
Moarao OTHecTa: 1) PynoKHca ROHaa nponuaro h aaiaxa BbiBfcaiaaro cToxtma, 
coiepsaaia npeHMynjecTBeaao n.epaoBBaro a anoRpaftaaecRaro. HasHiflniafl py- 
aonacb aesxy hbmh— e6opHHKT» iyxoBBBixi, rbbtobt, aoanji XVIII b., cocTa&iea- 
Buzi ua aaxopyccROMT, aaurB (h*ito BpoA* ROxaxoaT.); cpeaa: rbhtobt. Boraa- 
jieabi paetfOBaaaua nOpanja" a caTapaiecRia itbcbb, ^aiomiH noaaTie o AfcaaaoB- 
ckbxt. niROxaxr, npoaixaro ansa h o 6urB aaaaiaro lyxoBeacTBa. 2) Kojueaoia 
t. a. „axb6oMOBT»" (ajlh cthxobt.) 20-xt»— 60-xt, rOAOBtj bt, bext» ecTbaaoxe- 
ctbo MaxopyccaaxT, n&ceaT, bt. 6oxlie b7Bbbmxi» BapianTaxT. htimt, t*, xoTopue 
asxaaju io cbxt. nopi.. 3) Byaara noaoaHaro noaoxbCKaro 9TH0rpa#a PyAaaeaaro 
1851 — 1859 r.: lereHi&i ROCMoroaanecRia^ BeTxosaBTVrabia a aoBosaBfeTajua, aa- 
poABue aaeRXOTH a *a6xio (no 300 .N&J&). 4) 9THorpa*HaecRift c6opHHRT» Mea- 
HBi^a (coTpyiBHsa 6biBuiaro K)ro-3an. Oti. Han. P. Teorp. 06m.)— cirtniaHaaro 
coAepaaaia. 5) KoioecaxbHaa xana aoiojibCRax'b BTaorp. aaTepiajOBt, co6paH- 
Hbixi> bt» 60-x-l roflaxi* BTHorpa^OMii 3hmhhckhmt> (RoppecBoxeBToifb Toro se 
H)ro-3an. Ota-bjib). HLvb sanaceft ftiiMaacRaro aaa6ojrBe bbsbu crbsbh, xereaAH, 
•a6xio (747 W»J*); Bee sto, bt. OojibiuHHCTBH, icaTepiax-b cobcIivb enxe Heas- 
B-BcTHbiii; a BapiaaTM ^uxaHCKaro rt» B3AaaajUM'b yae aaaacaMi— bc* Bt buc- 
uiett CTeneaa i^iibhbi ho cBfexecTH padCRasa^ noxaoT*. ocHbicxeHHOCTH. 6) Pax> 
aexRHxi> AORyaeaTOBi*, co6paaabixi> nvh paaabixi* vBci-b a oTBOcan^axca 6oxb- 
nie xt> apxeoxoria^ h4¥t» rt> 8Taorpa«ia. Haa6ojrB6 aaTepecabi uem^y aava: 
„OnHcaHie ypoaan^i*^ r^* aapuTbi daaopoataajfa a raftAa»a*a"H xxaxu (<> , a 
OMRnjaxbHoe Aoaeceaie aaaoro-TO aaateaepa (apomxaro Bftaa) o6t> OTapbiiia 
30X0Tbixrb poscbineft bt, 3B6HHropoACROMT> yBBii KieBCKoft ryCepHia (Tenepb o6t> 
bthxt> poacuaaxT, hhkto aanero ae aaaerb). 7) H^croxbro cTapaaBbixT» KHan,, 
ROTOpua 6pocaa)TTi co6ok> CB*TT> hb HCTOpiH) pacnpocTpaHeaia T. h. M 6p0AaiHxi» 
CRaaaaiH 11 . 

Hombmo aaTepiaxoBT., ip6biTbixT» noftsiaaifHy apxaB* Otatub nocToaaao 
o6oram,aeTca nocTynaaDmaaa on BHoropoABHXTt axeH0Bi> a nocTopoHaaxT, xan> 
cofipaHiaaa, cTBTbaaa a xaTepiaxaxH, a bt» aacToaqee BpeMH BOBaaxaerb 
Bonpoci* o a<BcTb xpaHeaia BToro i^tsaaro apxaBa, tbkt> rbrt* Otat^xt* ae Hatera 
BHKaaoro caeitfaxbaaro HOKftn^eHia, paBHuat o 6 pas out ae airBeTca noMftn^eaia ; 
a A-sa 6a6jioTeRH Ota^xb, cocTaajaronqeaca B8T» aaarb a 6pouia>pT» f apacbuae- 
mhxt. axa bt* o6mUbt> bb cnex^iaxbBbia BBAaaiH Orjfrju^ bib bt» A»pi» eiy, axa 
Aaa OT8biBOBT» a peaeasia. noMTuaeaie ^ib 6a6xioTeaH a apxasa 9THorp. 
OTATixa cocTaBxaeir* bt» HacToan^ee Bpeaa ero aeoTxoatHya) HyBAT* t*mt» 6oxrie t 
hto ocTaxbBbie Ota*xm h OrATuema 06n^ecTBa aoxbsynTca tbmt> axa aabiMT> 
noMtnneHieM-b bt. SAaaiaxT* yaaBepcaTeTa n ApyraxTt yapeasAeaift (aanp. HcTOpai. 
Uysea). 

Hbt> H8Aaaifi Otatixb bt. othcthomt. toaY apOAOxsaxocb toxbro oabo ,,9t- 
aorpa«Bqecxoe Odospnaie 41 . Oao buxoabtt. do npeaxaeay 4-na xaHmaaHa bt> toa* 
hoat. peA. cexpeTapa 0TA*2a H. A. flaayaa, ho BcxftACTBic cayAOci-a cpeAcrar. 
o6T.eaT» RBBsexT. bt. btomt. roAy npanixoeb yaeHbaiaTb ao 12 xbctobt., bm*cto 




H31TBCTIH H 3AM*BTKH . 



181 



npe»HHXT» 15-th. Ha neiaTanie npoTOxoxoBi* aacftAanifi OTAfeja sa nocrtAaia 
8 jfc to Bee enje h*btt» cpe^cTBi.. PaBHum* o6pason% ocTajOTca He HaueiaTaH- 
HHHfl o6niBpBue vaTepiaiu a BsexbAOBaaia, npexBaaHa^eBBue £ja v TpyAOBT>" 



laeTca to, ito Bayqaue BTfiorpatHtecaie MaTcpiaiu, BaionxaBniieca vh Teieaie 
MHorif zi> i*tb b He joKflaBoiiecH cBoero HSAaaia, yxogaTb nocTeneBao bsi> Ot- 
H%*h. Taai., floraTutt naTepiaai, no asbiay OaoBeuaaro spaa, coGpasBbift h*. 
06m. T. H. KyjusKOBCKBMt do nopyqemio OrAfcia, npamxocb yciynaTb bt» btomt> 
roxy AxaxeiiiH Baym,, aoTopaa, Moacerb 6mtb, Haunter* cpeACTBa kb ero ony6- 
jHKOBaaijOt Ha* aaxonHBiuaroca coGpaaia pyccRHXi> BapoAHbix-b irfccea-b Ota*- 
*omt» pfcmeao Taaze OTnpaBBTb nacTb b* IleTepOyprb bt> pacnopazeaie co6a- 
paTeia II. B. ELIeftHa, cCopHarb aoTOparo HSftaeTca AaaxeuieM. BecbHa nfcHBbiB 
h nojHbifl xaTepiajrb no BftpofiaaiHirb BHTeGcKHxt (VfejopyccoB-b, co6paHHbift 
H. fl. Hhkh»opobckhmi>, Harpa»AeBHbift orb OGmecraa neAaibH) b npoiesaa- 
milt B*b apiHB* 0ta*J8 Coxae AByx*b j-brb, noaeBoi* GyAerb paaCaTT* bbto- 
poa«b no ^acTAMT* h neiaTBTbca B-b MftcTHoft raaera, r^* ocTaaeTca HeaaMfciea- 
Hbim> b Majo jocTynHjUM'b wa yneHbix'b. HaaoHeivb, Tpyj^b r. SoBHapT»-3anoJu>- 
caaro, HarpasAeaHbiit npeaiefl, noaBHica bi> npo.BBBniaxbaoM*b BSAaBiH, xoth y»e 
6wjit> xase Hanaro neiaTaBieHi* bt> TOM* .TpyAOBi" OTA*B*a, npeKpanjeaBOifb no 
BeAOCTaTty cpeACTBi. Henero u roaopaTb, Barb ne<iaxbBO caasbiBaeTCH bto ctbc- 
HeaHoe noxoateaie Ota^jib bo nHorHxi> Apj^axi. oTHonieBiax'b. U/B-tbia* pajn» 
npocb6*b o BbicbuirB pasHUMt xanaMi* bt> npoBHBnjx> nporpamrb a' 8 bbcj'Bao- 
BaHifl, •oTorpu»H < iecBBX'b annapaTOBT> b np. aoxxbij ocTaBaTbca h eyAOB jeTBO- 
peHBbiMH. flBa Taaia KpynHbia npeAnpia-ria nocxfcAaaro BpexeaH, Morymia ABTb 
CoraTwft peayjibTBT'b a*« aTHorpawa Bootinje b jih OTA*Ja bt» hbcthocth, aaai 
buctbbbb Hexo-cxaBaBCKaa bt» Ilparfe b BcepocciMcxaa bt» HH«aen*b-HoBropoA , B, 
AOJiasHbi npoftTH A*a OTAfeJa GescifcAHO, DOTOay hto H*rb bobmokhocth kombb- 
ABpoBaTb TyAa eneniaxbHbix'b inm, a o npio6p^TemH KOJueanift b nju&Tb 
Benero. 

Biopo Ota^xb bt> BCTeRmeM'b roAy coctbbjibjb: npeAC^ABTejb — non. hx. 
Be. 6. Mnjuep-b, tob. npeAC uoh. hj. B. M. MnxaftjioBCKitt, cenpeTapb senp. 
hx. H. A. flHiyKi*. 

B-b MxeBbi-coTpyAeBRH H86paBbi BBOBb AjieacaBAp-b Hb. flUHMBpCKift, 
IleTpi, EpycjianoBi* a CBan;. Hbkoj. Hbbox. HecM^jioB-b. 



r. JET. IIomanuKb coBepniHjn> na cpeACTaa HicnepaTopexaro Pyccnaro 
reorpa^HHecKaro OCiqecTBa HeCojibmyio not Sjtiy b *b KoneTaBCiifi 
ospyri A KM04 bh ccoft o6jbctb; nlkib noft8ARB— coCpaaie XBprBBCBHX'b csaaorb. 
r. HoTBBBH'b npoBeJi* nlwbitt Bftcani* B-b ayjft KHprBScxaro cyxTaaa ^Hnraca 
BajiHxaHOBa', evy yAaxocb sanncaTb XHprBRCHiit Bapianrb caasKH o HAbire, cxasxy 
o Taxacna'B, o(h» Ajieyao-CaTwp-B b H'bsoTopbia Apyria, Meffhe HHTepecHwa. 



H8B*cTHbift shbtoki MBJopyccKoft BysbiKB H. B. JL h c e h k o, co6RpaTexb 
HspoABbix-B n'BceH'b h KoainoaBTop'b, BBAaBmiH n'Bxbifi paA> c6opaBKOBT> n-bceaii 
6biTOBoro a HCTopHHecBaro xaparrepa (cm. „9th. Ofiosp." XIX, 145), npeflnpH- 
HBMaeT'b BBAaaie cneniajibBaro Bbiny caa, nocBan^eBBaro o 6pflAHUMi Maxop. 

ntCHHMl (BeCBflBBaH'b, OeTpOBOHHUMl., XynaXbCKBM'b^ KBBBBblMl, CBBAe6- 

hnki, KoiHABBM-b, n^eApHBaaM'b b Ap.)> IIoHTeHBbift co6npaTexb-B8AaTejib y6<B- 
ffHTeibBfcfime npocarb Bctai» xx>6aTexell h jK>6HTexbBBn> MyabiBaxbaaro aapOA- 
uaro TBopnecTBa cooSnjaTb eny HMtiomiflca hoa* pyaaHB noAxOAamjft MaTepiaxb 
(TexcTbi cb motbbbmb) no ajpecy: KieBi», MapiBHCxo-BjiaroBtn^eBCBaa, a- 89. 
npCAnpiaTie bto aacjysBBaeT'b nojiaaro coiyBCTBia h coA*ffcTBia oco6eBHO b-b 
BHxy Toro, hto napoABbia o6paAOBbia b-bcbh, xparonftHBbia no cBoeft rxy6oKoft 
ApeBHOCTB, OwcTpo BbixoABTb B8i» ynoTpeCjieHia BKftcrfi C«b HC^eBHOBeBieifb 

O(5p»A0BT, ( Cb KOTOpbIMB OB* HepBSpblBHO CBH8aBbI. 





182 



3TH0rPA4»Hq£CK0E 0B03PUHIE. 



f ffieroTa Ilayxn (1814—1895), oabbb h3t> nepBftftniHX'b no Bpe- 
veHn nojibCKHx* 9THorpa«OB'b-co6BpaTexeft, cRoaiaica 21 omt. b! ct. bo JUbob*. 
Obi. B8fl8jn> bt> 30-xb rr. abb c6opBHsa co6paBHwxi» hmt> b*b raxaniH eapoA- 
bhxi n*ceH«b: oahhi» — MaxopyccRift, Apyrofl- noxbCRift, cb KpaTKHMH onHcamHMH 
oftbiiaeB'b, h B&i8Baj*b DOApaataTejeit bi> btomi, a***. 0 nevi cm. y IlbinHBa 
(HcTopiH Pyc. 9tb. HI, 132, 186—138, 425). Ero nopTperb ct KpaTxoft cTaTteft 
o Bern bb BapmaBCKoft .Wisl'*" (1888, ID, 653 — 662), HeRpoxorb — wh jibbob- 
ckomt> atypBajit „Lnd*, 1895^ Jfc 8, cTp. 193—196. 

BOnPOCU n OTBBTbl. 

HaMi> flocTaBieHa ffjfl BaneHaTaflia HBaecjit^yBDmaa nporpaaica, cocTas- 
jCBBafl SpBecTOxi IIIaBTpoMt, no Bonpocy o aeo6xoAHMOCTH nepe- 
cMOTpa BOMeBwaTypM aapoffOBt AaiB. Bonpoc-b 6bun» doahrtl Ha nocxfexaeirb 
vesrAyBapoAHOMii Konrpecc* bt» Mocrb*, b jpn paspadoTRH ero 6uxa yipemAeaa 
ocofiaa ROMMHccifl aa* cnenjaxHCTOB'b. KoMMHccia npocaTi> xan/b, saaHTepeco- 

BaBBblXb K8B«BCTHOK) BapOffBOCTbH), OTB*THTb B*b RpaTHBXb ClOBBXb BB CJL^JV)- 

mie Boapocu: 

1) 9TBBHecKoe naaBame HapoABOCTH corjiacflo BanjoBaxbBoft opeorpatia 
h ea TpaBCffpani^iR hb •pannyacRia 1 h8bikt>. 

2) Katrie chhobbmbi HMfterb aapoAHOCTb bjib noi> xaKHMi» Apyraab ane- 
HeMi» OHa hsbSctbb? 

3) OTRyfla npoBcxoAHTB ohb no cbohmt. npeAaHiairb? 

4 ) Kaaia ♦MHrpai^iB b8b«bctbm ija napoABOCTB? 

5) Kbrobo ea reorpa«B<iecRoe pacnpocTpaaeaie? 

6) Rbkobo nponcxoHSfleBie HapoiaocTB no ea cKasRam*, npeji&Biairb ■ 
BCTopia? . 

I) KaaiH xoHCTopRiecxia h BCTopaiecRia gpeBBocTH npBnacbiBaa)Tca Ha- 

pOAHOCTB? 

8) Ct> rbrhmb ApyrHMB b ap o ahocthm h npeACTaBxaerb ohb Hafl6oxbniia 
cxoACTRa ci> Bume nepeHHcxeaBbix'b Tonewh apfcoia? 

9) KaRie BTBorpatBiecRie npHSBBRH uapoABocTB: T.-e. jHarBucTHiecsie. 
pejBiio8Hbie, conioxoraiecRie, HHAycTpiajbHbie, xyAO»ecT8eHHbie m up,? 

10) Ct» rbrhmh HapoAHocTaMH oea nafeerb HaH6ox , 6e cxoactbb ct» Bbime- 
ynoMHHyTbix-b To^eRt 8p*aia? 

II) Kaaie aBTponoxorHHecxie npasaaxH hbpoabocth: T.-e. nB*TBOOTb robb, 
rjiaa-b a bojocb; «opna Hoca, rjiaat, xana; roxoBBoit, hocoboh a xnueBoft nosa- 
saTexa; bhcotb pocTa, h t. j.? 

12) Ob rbrbmb ApyraMH BapoABOCTHMH npeACTasxHerb ohb cxoactbo c& 
BbinieynoMHHyTbix'b TOHe,KT> spftma? 

13) Bt. Raaya) rpynny: B-BTBb, ceMeftcTBO, BapoB> bii roj'bbo (rameau, 
famille, nation et tribu) hbao noiifecTBTb napoABOCTb? 

14) nepeiacxeHie 6H6xiorpa«HHecRBX'b yRaaaaiS bib xpynurb AORyiieH* 
tobt», Moryn^HXb noifoab npn OROBHaTejbHbix'b BbiBOAaxb, Racawmitxca ^aBBoft 

HapOAHOCTB. 

Otb-bth iroryrb 6uTb AOCTaBxaeabi B-b peA&R^iD .Braorp. OCoBptHia* 
xjb nepeABHH bt> nesAyBapOABya) KOMnacciro. 



Digitized by 



roAT» 7-R. 



Kh. XXVII. 



3TH0rPA0MHEGK0E 

OE03P-BHIE 

H3£AHIE 3TH0rPA«t>ITOICKAr0 OT#feJIA 

HMIIEPATOPGKArO OteCTBS MflM EGTeCTB03HaHifl,' 

AffiponoioriH h Braoijaft 

cocTonmaro npn Mockobckomt> yHHBepcirrerfe. 



1895, Ns 4. 

CeKpemapn BmnozpacfiuHecKazo OmdtbAa 



MOOKB A. 

Tuoppa^Li „Pt9crfcTk*-, yron Bosxbmwebh ■ Kicjobei, Inn. 

1895. 



Digitized by 



Google 



neiaiano cb pa3p*uieHifl CoFBTa HMIIEPATOPCKArO 06mecTBa JlK>6iiTe.ieft 
EcTecTB03HaHiH, AHTponojoriu « 3THorpa<j>in. 



Digitized by 



COAEPMAHIE. 



Cmp. 



I. CBaffe6Hwe o6pHflH bt> BojirapiH. 6. BoAnoea .... 1. 

II. Cayp* BanvnoBm'b. r. Jlomanuna 57. 

m. Po«HHw h specTHHu, yxcwb aa poAMBHHn;eft m 

HOBOpoacffeHHWM'b. (Ho Ma-repiajairL, cotfpaHHfcun, bt> Ty jbckoS 

ry6.). Ucnencnaeo 71. 

IY. H3T> aanaflHo-eBponeficKoft 9THorpa*HHecKoft JHTepa- 

Typu. HobmA Barjiflji* Ha Hcxopiio npoHCXoaflenia combh. 

(Ion. Rich. Mjucke, Horde and Familie). H. Xapy3una . 96. 
V. Om*cb: 

3airbTKH o paaHira neroxaxi> i3y?em&HapoftHHXi Majiopyc- 
cwm> ffym. n. JKumewcaeo 108. 



HtROTopue o6maH h BtpoBamfl Kpecxtaffi, Hepenoseiaro 

y*3 # HoBropoacKoft ry6. Coo6m. M. K. repacuMoe* . . 122. 
YKpaHHCKia jereHffu h BtpoBama, CBHBdHHUfl ct HaeHam 

HtKOTopuxi cbhthx'l. Coofim;. M. S. BocuAheeb ... 126. 

YI. HeKpojiora: M. n. .UparoMaHOB-b. A. KptAMcnaeo 129. 

Jfll. KpHTHKa h 6H6iiiorpaoifl. 

1. Khhth, yqeHHfl h cnpaBomw H3Aama 135 — 171. 

IoraHH*raypK.HuamB*eroBiijiHiiHa shsbl ero no- 
cjixosaTeieft . HepeBox* ci h*m. II . H XoayTOBa. A. KpuM\ 
enaxo (135). — ^lejoBtaecBi* paca. Hapoxn A$pbbb. Coct. 
box* pex. r. M. nesaTopoci. (OoBiexocTymfaji 6a6jdo- 
Teaa). H. X. (152). — M. Koitieiciifl. Oiepai npo- 

BCXOZX6BU B paSBHTU C6XBB B C06CTB6HB0€TB. — K ftp Jl 

R a y t c k i ft. BosBBBHOBaaie 6paaa ■ cexia. Eio - ace. 

(153) . — A. H. Boxyaai xe-KypTeaa. MaTepiam ime 
DXHo-cjiaBBHeKot xiai^BTOJoria a 8TBorpa$iH. M. On. 

(154) . — Ape. M apioiHii. Taurica. Oonn yaaaaTeia co- 
YBaeaift, KacaDmflxca Kpaaa b TaapaH. ry6. H. X. (165).— 
T. E. rpy m-rpxaaaft mo. Oflacaaie Aaypcaofi ooja- 
ctb. IIoxi pex. n. II. CeaeBOBa. Eio-mce. (156J. — IIpo- 
tokoih Tpofl njtocaBCBo - KflXTBHcsaro orxtaeBia npaaaypcaa- 
ro OTxiia H. Pycc. Teorpafa*. OGmecTBa Euhome (167). — 
B. BacHibeBt. Teorpafui TBtfeia. Ilepefioxi as* Mhhb- 
^syn-XyTyKTH. Exo-okx (168). — A. 0. Heikel. Explora- 



Digitized by 



tiona ethuologiqnes. (Travaux glografiques executes en 
Finlande). Eio-ace. (159). — T py IX ApxeoiorBTOcaaro 
Citeia bi Bbjuh'b. T. I, box* pex. rp. H. C. YBapoBoft 
h C. 0. Caynaaro Exo-xce. (161). — B. C. Cb*tiobi. 
KaBaaacaia opexaaia h lereaxH A. Xax-oea. (168). — M. 
BepenoBi. Eme b£cboj!>eo oopaaapBi aapoxBHxi bcto- 
pasecaax* niceHi, satiae. bo Biaxaaipcaofi ry6. A. Jfo6odu. 
(164). — A. H. 3epvaioBi. K% Marepiajaai o Bopoatfft 
n xpeBneft Pyca. H. X. (165). — H. 9. K a t a h o b i. 0 
H&EasaHiH jiHHBBxi 6oronoimeBi j TaTapi KaTaficaaro 
TypaecTaaa. — Koueet. 0 norpetfaimnxi oGpajaxi 
jiayTOBi BwDflcaaro oapyra AayTcaoft ryo\ H. (166). — 
IIIyeTOBi. B% aHppHScaHxi creaaxi. Eio-otce (167). — 
H. H. IBeHxpaaoBcaift. Ki 9TBorpa$iB oyparo. Eto-otce* 
(168). — M. A. rexeiaHOBi. 3aBreaypcaift yfeax* Ejtaca- 
BeTBoibcaoft ry6. bi Mexa bbbcbomi OTBomeaii . ifco-aee (169). — 
&. T. HeftioTatii. Ocbobh rarieHH xpeBaaro aipa. Eio-oice. 
(170). — KbieBxap* a naaaTBaa aaasjut BaTcaoft ry6. aa 
1896 f. E%o-o*e. (171).— 

2. 0630P-L raaert h aypHajiOB'L . 172—179. 

3 Hobocth 9THorpa$ffiecKoM MTepaTypii . . • 180. 

Yin. HaBlJCTia H aaufrrKH. flayTcaaa 9Taorpa<J>B*ecaaa aacaexaaia, 
caapaseflflaa aa cpexcrsa H. M. CafapaaoBa. (182). — Hsxaaie 
Bejaaopyccaaxi aftceB* (189). — Hotoxaa H. A. Oexocosoft bi 
Mock bj (190). * 

IX. IIpMoweHie: SaBRascRaa 6n6juorpa$iH. („o<feop%« 1878— 1880. 

9 3aaaBaa8caifi B4ctbbbi* 1838 — 1847. ^RaBaaaeaaa CTapaaa*. 
1872). HpoROJia. Coct. A. Xaxano&b 193—194 

X. O&bflBjieHie o6t> H3flaHiaii» 9THorpa$iwecKaro OrfltJia. . . 192. 



n OIIPABKH. 



Kb, XXVI, CTp. 76, crpoaa 4 cb. bm. Tarapi 

9 145 „ 7-8 9 n oesaetBaa 

* n n 5 - 6 jp 9 BO, OB* 

„ n „ 2 n » KayanfraB* 

„ 146 m 24-25 cb. n acTBBBoe aacToa 

suuro 

n m * 27 m „ ena 



X.6. xoaapi 
m aecucTBaa 

9 BO OBI, 

9 Kay<J>aaaa 



aaeaa 



Bcaaaie BacToanaro 
CHBcaa 



Digitized by 



CBAAEBHblE OEPflAbi BT> BO/lfAPIM *)• 



Bpami y xpeaHttmBn o6iTaTeieft HM-BmHefi BoirapiH ■ y bomcehx* fairapi. 
RiUme zpiCTiAHCTBa. Otb^th nana HsKOiax I. Cjsih nepBo6HTHaro opaaa y 
coBpaiieHHHxi oojrapi. Bpaai h n.epaoB&. CotipaHu xoioieu h ea oprasxaauia. 
Bpemi 3a«j Diesis tipaaoBi. 

Bonpocb o AyHat, k&kt> o Mfccrb nepBOHanajiBBaro noce- 
jieHifl cjaBflHi> bt> Esponfe h aaaBB-feftinaro pascejiemfl hxt> bt> 
pasHUfl CTopoBH, KOHeqHO, ^ajieKo Hejtbaa CHHTaTB eme bhojih* 
p*raeHHtiMi>. Ho TfewbHe MeH*e bc* HSCJifeAOBamji Ram> apxeojio- 
raqecKifl (III a * a p h kt>), Tam> h aHJOJoriraecKifl (HaAesAHHi 

Hffp.") npHBOAHTB IPb TOMy, HTO AOJTO OCIiapHBaBIIl66Cfl CBH^'feTeJUb- 
CTBO HaiaJTBHOft pyCCKOft JTBTOtlHCH O TOBTb, HTO „nO MH03*XT> 

BpeMeHaxT> (nocjrfe noTona) clum cyn> cjiob*bh no AyHaeBH, 
risfa ecTb huh* YropcbKa seaurfl h BojrrapcKa tt , HaHHHaeTT> npio- 
6p*TaTB Bee 6oji*e h 6ojrbe BtpoHTin h HaxoAHTB ce6* TaKHxT> 
KOMneTeHTHMXT> cTopoHHHKOBi>, KaKT>, Hanp., npo<D. Hmq'b *). 
He hm*h, KOHeqHo, HaarfepeHin bxoahtb 3a*ci> bt> noApoSnoe 
pascMOTpfefiie 9Toro sonpoca, hu cqBrraearb, ogHaKonce, bo3mo»- 
hmmt> o6paTHTB BHHMaflie Ha to, ito npn o6cy»AeHiii ero npn- 

HHMaJTHCb flO CHXt HOpT> BC* flaHHHH, KpOMfc OAHHX«b TOJBKO, 

KaaeTca, 9THorpa*HHecKHx r b, Mesgy rbwb Kara bth-to 
HMeHHO AaHHMH, B*poflTHo, 6ojrfee BC'bx'b npoHHxt Moryrb no* 



l) ABTopom yate parte 6hjh aocBameHH OTxiutHHa H8ai*joBama myveuin 
csaietiaHxi o6paiOBi y MajuopyccoBt, ho ohh HanewaaH ani Poccin, a bm6hbo: 
wi C6opHHKi sa HapoAHB yMOTBopeHHJi, Hayaa h saaatHBHa, asi. Boirap. mbbhct. 
Hap. npocB. t. Ill, IV h V, i bi Anthropologie 1891 Jfete 2, 4 h 5 h 1892, J* 6. 
HacToaoxaa CTaT*a, xoth h hbjuotcji aaai 6u npoAoiaeuieMT. bthxi aa&rfiioBaaift, 
npeicTaBiaerb bb to ate Bpexa oTiB«Hoe o;*ioe h iaen Bectaa HHTepecHaa 
oapaJueiH ai otimaaBTfc y pyccaaxi HapoiaocTeft. Ped. 

s ) Iagic. Archiv fttr Slawische Philologie I. B. 8. 330 (Dunav — 
Dunaj in der slawischen Volkspoeaie). 

0BOIP*HIK. XXVII. 1 



Digitized by 




2 



BTHOrPAOHIBCBOB OB03P*HIE. 



CJiy»HTB ocHOBaBieifb ^jur ero paspfcmeHia. PasymfceTca, bto 
paap-feuieme— r*jto SyAymaro, Bor^a cKOjbFo-HH6yAb Hayqaaa 
9THorpa*ia daBaHCsaro nipa Sy^erb bt> cocTOHHiH AOCTaBHTb 
AJfl BToro AocTaTOHHoe kojh46ctbo MaTepiaJOBl>, H, bt> ocoSeH- 
hocth, sorAa 6yAyrb HayqeHhi BTHorpaoHqecBn ropHHa mteiteHa 
Ba^KaHh h KapnaTOBi>; ho r bt> HacTOflin,eMT> bto Hajaraerb 
y»e o6n3auHpcTb Ha scaaaro H3cjri»A0BaTejui ne oroaBJiaTb BToro 
Bonpoca 6e3T» BHHitaHia npH BCHKoficpaBHHT6JibHo-BTHorpa*H4e- 
CBott pa6orfe,Kacaiomeficji AyHaMcHHX'b cJiaBflHi> Boo6in,e,H,BOBca- 
romt> caiyqat, onpaBAMBaeTT> Harae p-bmeaie oSpaTHTbca, nocjrb 
pa3CM0Tp*Hia cBaAe6Hbixi> o6wqaeBT> bt> YKpaHH*, bt> lOHHUM'b 
CJiaBaHaifb^ rhwh 6ojrfee qxo bt> HHTepecyion^eifb Hacb bi» a&h- 
Hoe BpeMa Bonpoct mm 6oJtbine Bcero Moaceirb HaA*HTbca 
BCTp*THTb apxaHnecsie BjeueHTbi hmchbo y bthxt> HapoAOBi*. 
Bt> con^ojoriH cA&i&socb a&bho yxe ycTaH0BJX6HHHM r b *ax- 

TplTb TO, HTO nepBOSblTHbie 8HT6JIH pftBHHH'b H IllHpOKHX'b &Q- 

jehht» npe»Ae Bcero noABeprajracb HanaAeHiaMi* hobhx'b sasoe- 
BaTeJueft n 6ujh BUTfeCHflem* onyAa bt> ropHbia m£cthocth, 
rA* ocTaraH nepsoSbiTBaro HaceseHia h yAepsHB&racb oneHb 
AOnro, a Hep*AKO A^p»aTca h ro chxt> nop*b, coxpaHaa dohth 
bt> nojwofl HenpHKocHoseHHOCTH cboh apxaHHecBia 6biTOBHfl 
qepTu. Tasoe HBjeHie npeACTaBMKvrb co6ofl ocTaTRH MejaHesift- 
ckbxt> njeneBT* bt> ropan> Bb/uh, ropcKia iueMeaa aa Kas- 
Basil, SacRM* bt> HHpHHeax*b h t. n.; bImto noAo6Hoe aojukhu 
npeACTasjiaTb co6ok> no oraoineHiio kt> ApeBHHirb AyHaftcRHm> 
cjaBABaMb ropHbie bcht&ih BaJKaH*b h Rapnarb, coxpaHaion^ie 
y ce6a CTapuBHyio *opny ceMbH — saApyry h MBOisecTBO Apy- 
nixb He uewhe apgbhhx?> oco6eHHOCTett. PascMaTpHsaa CBafteG- 
Hbie oShtoh 6ojrap r b, a oco6eHHO MaBeAOHcrax'b, mbi yBHAHirb, 

4T0, HeCMOTpa Ha MHOHteCTBO BCeBOSHOSHblX'b BTHOrpa^HHe- 

CKHX'b h KyjbTypHbix'b BJiiaHifi, HapymnBniHxi> itfubHOCTb h 
qncTOTy oSpflAa, bi> hhxt> bcb-tbrh yAepacajracb Tasia BTHorpa- 
*HnecKia nepTM, KOTopua A&BHburb-ABBHO yace hch63jh bt> 

paBHHHaXT>, B*b TOlTb HHCJfe H BT> YKpaHH*. 

HO eCJH, Cb OAHOft CTOpOHbl, BTHOrpa«ia lOKHLIX'b CJiaBHH^b, 

a ocoCeHHO 6ojrap*b, npeACTaBjiaerb &jlb kacb saaqHTejrbHuft 
HHTepeci>, saTo, cb ffpyroft ctopohbi, OHa npeACTaBjiaerb h 
HaH6ojrbmia TpyAHoCTH km HSCJi'bAOBaHia. ByAy^in m> aHTpono- 




GBAABBHUB OBPflflH B*b BOJrAPlH. 



3 



jornqecKOMT> OTHomeHin pesyjEbTaTOMi* cMfcnieHifl AByxt coBep- 
mesBO pa3JfflHHMXT> pacb— senoS. MOHrojo-TiopRCRoft, h 6fexoft, 
apiftcRofi, Sojirapu noABeprajtacb TaROMy MHosecTBy pasHaro 
po^a BjriBflift, xaROMy ae noABeprajtca bhoahht*, KaaeTCH, mb cjra- 
bhhckhxt> HapoAOB*b. Hocafc pHMCRaro BjiflBifl Ha Hacejieaie 
MraiH ao npHraecTBia bt> see boj5kckhxi> 6oirapi> Haqajocb 
BJiiflHie BHsaHTificRoe; darbftPb, HanoHeivb, TypeijRoe, He roBopa 
y*e o BjiflHiflx , b Cojrfee BTopocTeneHHbix'b. Ka&Aoe h3t> bthxt* 

BjiflHifi AOJDKHO 6UJI0 OCTaBHTb CBOH CJ&Rhl H BT> HOHilTiflX'b, H 
B*b 06pflAaXb, TBSTb HTO H3CJ*AOBaTeJK), ROTOpblfi AOJIHfeHTb 

pa36npaTBCfl bo bc6mt» btomt>, npeACTonrb, pasyifbeTCfl, oieab 
HejerRaji saAana, t*mt> Sojrfce eejierKan, hto am BpeiceH'b, 6ojrbe 
hjh MeH*e OTAajreHHux'b, hctoihhrh noqTH coBepmeHHO OTcyT- 
CTByiorb, a am rocji*AOBaHia ocTafeTCfl eAHHCTBeHBuft nyrt 
cpaBHenift h conocTaBxeHifi. 

O ApeBH*ftmHx , b o6HTaT6Jflx r b HUHtmHeS Bojrapin — epa- 
Rittn.ax'b h hxt> 6paqHuxT> oSpaAaxi. cb^a*^ HamH oienb H6- 

MHOrO^HCJieHHbJ. repOffOT'b rOBOpHTT> O HHXT> TOXbRO, WO 

„ohh He CMOTparb 3a cbohmh AoiepbMH h npeAOCTasjflioTb hmt> 
CBoSoAy OTAaBaTBCfl RantAOMy, rto hm'b nonpaBHTCH, ho aceH- 
h^hht> cbohxt> ohh CTporo oxpaHfliorb h noRynaK>TT> hxt> ce6* 
y hxt> poAHTejieft 3a Goxbinifl AeHbrH tt t ). 3arfeMT> een> 6ojrfce 
HHTepecHoe h 6oJn*e noApo6Hoe HSBfecrie II o m n o h i a Mem: 
yflfiBKWb, xcejtaion^HX'b Button 3aMyan>, poAHTera OTAaiorb are- 

HHXaifb HJH 3a AeHtrH, HJH TaRHMT> o6pa30MT>, qTO hxt> bh- 

CTaBXfltOTb ny6jH4Ho Ha ocMOTpt. /J/bxaioTb h to h Apyroe, cMOTps 
no M*craoMy oSuiaK). Xopomia h RpacHBua AfcaymRH ufi- 
HfiTcfl o^eHB Aoporo a *). TaRHMi> o6pa30MT>, moxho npeAno 
jaraTb, hto y ap^bhhxt* epaRiftijeB'b npoH3ome.rb ywe nepe- 
xoat> orb noxnn^eHifl a*bhut> kt> BMRyny hxt>. 

0 cjaBHaax'b, cif^HHBmHX'b epaKitin,eBi> h, b^pohtho, ct> 

HHMHCM*maBinHXCfl, flCHOTb CB*A*Hifl, CROJUbRO HaiTb HSBfeCTHO, 
BOBCe He HMfteTCH. IIoOblTRH OTOflT ACCTBJ&Hi fl 9THXT> MHSifiCBHX'b 

*) TepoxoTi. Lib. V. cap. 6, 

a ) Nupturae yiigines non a parentibas viris tradantar, sed publico aat locan- 
tur ducendae, aut veneant. Utram fiat ex specie et moribus causa est. Probae 
formo8aeque in pretio sunt: caeteres qui haboant, mercede quaeruntur. (Pom- 
poniu8 Mela. De situ or bis,, lib. II, rap. 2). 



Digitized by 




4 



8THOITA0H1KCKOB 0B03F&HIB. 



cjaBflBT> c*b epaaiftnaiiH He Moryrb noaa 6htb npasHaabi Bayiao 
AOEaaauHhiMM, a nocj^ABaa h3t> 9thxt> nomiTOK'b, npaBaAxe- 
samafl r. UapTan,KOMy ocaoaaaa i^&URoirb uoith aa 
cpaBaeHiH cBaAefinbix'b h noxopoaauxi* o6biqaeBt, ecjni hb 
OAHHaHOBux'b, to BCCBMa 6w3bhxt> ue TOJibRO y BC'fex'b apift- 
ckhxt>, ho h enje jmsbine oTCToamax'b Apyn> orb apyra Hapo- 
AObi>, a saTtMb na KpaMue caoAbSKoft h HeoapejcfeieaHoft noiBfe 
Mneoxoria. 

Toace caMoe aoakbo 6biTb cxasaHO h o reTaxi> h o Aasaxi*, 
KOTopbixT> X h 3t a e y c4HTaeTT> npHHa^ie«aBmHHU kt> OABony 
epaKiflcKo-HJJiHpiftcKOMy njeueBu *), a afcaoTopbie uHcaTeaH 
(Mtillenhoff) — rt> caaBaacKOMy 

HacKOJbKO cHJibHO 6hjio puMCKoe BJUHsie, ocoSeHHo Ha 
Haceieaie npaAyaaiicRHX'b MicTHOCTeft Madia, csasaTb noKa 
TpyAHo, ho, bo BcflKOMT> cayqafc, obo aojubbo 6buio bt> 6oumeft 
uh MeHbmefl cTeneHH cyn^ecTBOBaTb. Xota pHucaie jierioaepbi, 
saHHMaBoiie AyHaftcaia npoBHHn,iH, h He moi-jh veHBTbca, b6o 
pHMcsifl A*BHiiu B*b Jiarepb se AonycR&nacb, a c*b neperpa- 
aaMH pHMCKie rpa»AHBe ae hm*jh npaBa 3aRJiio<iaTb aacToamax-b 
6paKOBT> (connubium), ho 3aTO — a rfearb 6ojfce y hhxt>— aoxwhij 
6mjih 6uTb MBoroHBCjeBBua CB&3H BesaRoaaaro xapaRTepa-, Jiaija 
se, cjiyscHBinifl bt> scnoMoraTejbflbix'b eoftcRax'b, KaR*b He paii- 
CKie rpaaAane, a neperpaai*, HMfcara, pasyMfeeTca, npaso are- 

BHTbCfl H Ha M*CTHblX , b A*ByiUKaXT> 4 ), a CJliAOBaTeXbHO, MOrJH 

BHOCHTb a cboh o6paAw Bit m*cthuh caaAeoBbia rjepeMoaia. 
B b AaJibH-bfluieMb asjoaeeaia mu yBHAaarb, hto B3B*CTHbia lepra 
paMCKHxi> Opanabixii oSunaeB'b, A*#cTBHTe.ibBO, yAepataaacb a 
AO cax*b nopi> bt> oojirapcROM'b CBaaeoHoirb paTyaji*, ho npo- 
BHRaja-JH oh* bo Bpena rocaoACTBa pHMJHH'b aa fljaato axa 
H*cKOJibKO ao3se qepes-b BHsaaTiio — bto, paayMfeeTca, cb toh- 
HOCTbio onpeA'bJtHTb, HaHteTca, OyAerb oieab TpyAao. 

4to RacaeTca aaT-hM^ BOJURCsax'b So.arap'b, to o bbxt* mh 
HMfcearb no BHTepecyiomeMy aacb Bonpocy tojlbro yRaaaaia 

1 ) On. IlapTHi^Kifi: Re 6yja esponei ctaa npaB6raraa cuun? A*jo 
1891 -VJ4 127-189. 

% HaBdeu: iBtoria critica a Romaniloru. Bacur. 1874, I, p. 292. 
') A b. Hovelacque: La Linguistique, p. 894. 

4 ) Mam. Goiojoii. Ha* xpeBHefi HcropiH Boirapi. Cn6. 1879, ctp. 12. 




CBAflEBHME OBPfl^bl BT> BOJirAPIM. 



5 



HliKOTopbixT> apa6cRHxi> nHcaTejieft, yKasama onenh OTpbiBoq- 
hmh h npHTOMTb OTHOcflmiacn kt> TOMy yae BpeMeHH, Kor^a 
qacTb BojimcKHX'b 6oJ!rapT> ycn*Jia OTA*JiHTbCfl h nepeceaHTbCH 
bt> MH3iio. H6HT>-Oon,JiaHT>, 6MBmift y Cojirapi* yase nocjrfc 
Toro, Ram> ohh npHHHJiH MaroMeTaHCTBO, roBopnrb o hhxt>, 
q-ro „y hhxt> MynqHHu h nenmHUBi nynaiOTCfl bm*ct* bt> p*K* 
bt> o6HaseHHOMi> bra* h He 38KpbiBaacb HHq*M r b flpyr* OTb 
Apyra", ho npn6aBJiHerb npH btomt>, qTO bto He Beaerb y buxt> 
kt> KaKHMi> HH6y Rb npe«ocyffHTejibHbiM , b nocji*ffCTBiflM , b. Ilpe- 
jH)6oA*flHie, no ero cjioBaMT>, HaKaswBajroct y 6ojirapT> oneHb 
CTporo: „ecjiH kto BH6yAt fiy^eT-b wb 9tomt> yjraqeH'b, to ero, 

KTO 6bl OHb HH 6MJD[T>, apHBfl3MBaK)rb sa pyKH n 3a HOrH K*b 

qeTbipeirb cTOJiCaarb, bGhthmT) bt> aeaurio, h 3arfeiirb TonopoMT> 
npoafeKarorb ero t*jo orb aaTwjKa &o 6effpi>; nocift a-roro 
06* nojioBHHbi T*jia BfcmaiOT'b aa «epeBo tt . TaKan me cyAbfia 
nocTHraerb h bhhobhyk) raeHmHHy. ynoTpe6Hjn> mhoto 
TpyAa a , roBopHTi> OHb Aajrfee, „qTo6bi y6*AHTb BtyacqnH'b h aeH- 
mHHT> aaKpMBaTbCfl Apyr* orb Apyra, ho He HMtjrb 6oabmoro 
ycrrfexa 1 ). Ha ocHOBaHin BToro CBHA*TeJibCTBa H6HT>-Oon;jiaHa 
h ApyrnxT> *aKTOB , b OpeHi> npnmejrb kt> saKJUoqemio, hto y 
ApeBHHxi> npeBOJ»CKHXT> Sojirap'b seHnwHbi nojibsosajracb cpa- 
BHHTejubHo 6ojbinofi cbo6oao8 *). Ha bto are yKaauBaerb h 
CBHA*TejibCTBo Apyroro, xoth h 6oj*e no3AHflro apa6cKaro 
□HcaTejfl AHAajiy3H, eooCmaiomaro Hain> oneHb ijbHHoe h 



>) „Um sich zu baden steigen Manner und Weiber zusammen in einen Fluss, 
nackend, ohne sich gegenseitig mit irgend etwas zu bedecken. Doch treiben sie 
dabei auf keinerlei Weise unerlaubten Urn gang mit einander. Hat aber Jemand 
diesen getrieben, sey er, wer er auch wolle, sie binden ihn mit H&nden and 
Fussen an vier Pflflcke, die sie in die Erde geschlagen, und spalten mit einem 
Beile seinen Leib vom Genicke bis an die Lende. Ebenso rerfahren sie mit 
dem schuldigen Weibe. Darauf h&ngen sic von beiden die Stucke an einen 
Baum auf... Jch habe mir viele Mtthe gegeben sie dahin zu bringen, dass sich die 
Weiber beim Baden vor den Mannern verschleierten, habe jedoch nichts bei 
ihnen ausgerichtet" . Fraehn: Die aeltesten arabischen Nachrichten, ueber die 
Wolga-Bulgaren. Jbn-Foszlan's Nachricht von den Bulgaren (Mlmoires de 
rAcade*mie Imp. des Sciences de St. Petersbourg. 6 ser. t. I, p. 576). 

*) „Letzterer Umstand. . . zeugt zugleich yon einer weit grdssern Freiheit 
des weiblichen Geschlechtes 1>ei den alten Bulgaren, als demselben bei dem 
gieiehzeitigen Russen Zustand". Fraehn. Op. cit. p. 536. 




6 



9TH0rPA*H<IBCK0R OBOSPfeHIfi. 



e^Ba jeh He e«HHCTB6HHoe H3B*cTie o 6paHH£ix > b oCuiaflx'b npH- 
BOJacCKHX'b 6ojrapT>. „Hxt> gfeBymfiH, roBopHrb oht>, CyAy^H 

ftfeBCTBeHHblMH, BUXOAflTb H3T> AOMy Cb OTRpblTOfi rOJOBOfl, 
THKT> 4T0 KaWAMfi MOXeTb HXT> BHA*Tb; TOTT>, KTO qyBCTByerb 

CRXOHHocTb Rib oaho& H8i> HHx'b, Ha6pacbiBaen> efl Ha rojOBy 
noKpuBaxo (ro^OBHoft yfiop*), h OHa CTaHOBHTCfl ero cynpyroM, 
6e3o BCflRaro ct> en CTopoHbi oTKaaa. TaRMMi> oSpasoirb ae- 
HRTCfl Ha ABaAAaTH h name eme 6ojr6e oco6axi> tt 1 ). HaHOHeirb, 
eme oahhi> Toace apa6cKift nncaTejib H6HT>-/JacT , b cooSmaerb 

HaMT>, HTO ^OTb BCflKftrO H3T> HHX'B (t. e. 60JTTap f b), RTO Ke- 

hhtcr, hxt> uapb Ceperb ce6* no BepxoBofl JiomaAH* *). 

Oo6paTb CBHA^TejbCTBa a J* x apaRTcp h cthrh nepBOHaiaab- 
Haro ceneiiHaro CTpoa tk>pkcrhxt> 6ojirap , b, nepecejraBmHxcfl 

BT> MH3ilO, Tarae AOBOJIbHO TpyAHO^ TaRT> RaR*b TJiaBHbie hctoi- 

hhrh nx*b — otb*tt> nanbi HaKOJaa I Ha Bonpocp 6ojirapi> h 

H*KOTOpbIfl 3aM*TKH BHSaHTLttCKHX'b HHCaTeJieft npH ODHCaHiH 

6ojrapcKHxi> HanaaeHift — roBopRTb o Sojirapax'b, Roraa bth 
oocjrbAHie xbjih yse bm*ct* cb cjiaBRHaMH 8 ). Bee, <rro mbi 
Moseirb nonepnHyTb H3'b bthxt> cbh A'bTe jibctbi) , cboahtcr ri> 
to My , ito y 6ojrapi> cymecTBOBaaa iiojuirauifl, npn qeMT> ohh 
hm&iih Ra»Abifl He MeH*e AByxi» seHi> BojrapcRie xnj&bfi 
HMtJiH o6biRHOBeHie B03HTB cb co6oft ivfejuft rapeirb, HeB-feCTW 
nojyqaJiH bt> bha* npHAaHaro sojoto, cepeSpo, 6mrobt>, oto- 
maAeft h npos. *). 

Borb h Bee, *to QRWh h3b*ctho o 6paHHbixT> ofibinaflXTb 
co6cTBeHHO-TK>pRCRHxi> 6ojrapi>. 9Toro, pasyMfeeTCH, cMmKOurb 

MaJO, HTOSbl npifiTH OTHOCHTeJIbHO HXT> Rl> RaRHM f b-HH6yAB 0Op6- 

A*JieHHbiM'b 3aKJnoqeHiflMT>, bo Bce-TaKH npHBeAeHBbifl HaMH 
AaHHbiR saRJuoqaiorb bt> ce6* HfcKOTopbw yKaaamfl, A&tomiR 



1) . .^eurs filles, encore vierges, sortent de leurs maisons la tfite dScouverte, 
de sorte que chacun peut lea voir: celui qui se sent de l'inclination pour Tune 
d'elles lui jette une cofiffe sur la tete et elle devient son Spouse sans qu'il Sprouve 
aucun refus. II en Spouse yingt et m§me d'ayantage". Charmois: Relation de 
Mas'oudy, dans les Memoires de FAcadSmie Imp. de Sc. de St.-PStersb. 6ser. 
t. II, p. 47. 

2 ) Xroucohi: H3bbctm EWm-^acra h *p. m. Ill, nap. 6. 
*) GoaojOBi: Hai xpesHeft HCTopii Bojrapi, dp. 91. 

*) Jirecek. Qeschichte der Bulgaren. Prag, 1876, crp. 131-132. 




CBAABBBHB OBPHflbl BT> BOJirAPlH. 



7 



npaBo Ha hsb^cthua npeAnoaoweHia. <t>aRTT> coBM*CTBaro Ry- 
naHbfl MyacHHBT> n x6hii^hhi> bt> o6Ha*eHHOirb bha*, dphboah- 
tfuft H6HT>-<X>omaHOMT> ? cbmt> do ce&h He Aaen> eme HHKaRoro 
noBOAa A*^&Tb aaHJioqeme o cboGoa* npaBOBt y boj5kcehxt> 
6oxrap'b, TftKT> KaKi> oaRTb btopb BCTpfcqaeTca h ao chxt> nopT> 

BT> 0H6HB MHOrHXT> M'feCTHOCTflX'b BeXHHOpOCCiH, PyMUHUI H Apy- 

rax'b cTpaH-b, HHnyTB Be oSycxOBJHBaa cofioft cbo6oah hojio- 
B£ixi» OTHomemft name ao 6paRa. IIo sceft BlipoflTHOCTH, h caan> 

OpeH*b rOBOpHTb BT» 9T0M*b CJyqa* 0 CBO6OA* TOJIBKO BT> CMHCJli 

OTcyTCTBia saTBopaHnecTBa. TopaaAO 6oai*e roBopnrb bt> 8tomi> 
OTHomeHiH cBH/vfrre j bCTBo AflAajiysH. IIoKpHBaBie roxoBbi seH- 
in,HHhi y 6ojibiiiHHCTBa BapoAOBT> osHaiaxo h 03Haqaerb hoa- 
queaie ea MyacqHH'fe h BCTynxeaie bt> 6paR?>; ho aa nepBMX*b 
CTyneHHX'b o6mecTBeHHaro paaBHTia, n oco6eBHo y BOCTOHHbix'b 
HapoffOBTj, oho Morjo oaHaqara npocTO Bbi6op f b hjih npeAno- 
HTeme, oKasuBaeMoe h3b*cthoA KeHmHH*. „Y apa6oB , b a , roBO- 
pHTb KOMneTeHTH*Moiift H3i> H3cx&A<>BaTejieft 6paHHUxi> o6pa- 
AObt> Edelstand Du Meril, ^ocTaToqHO eme A»Tb noRpbiBaxo 
pa6wH*, qTo6u BOSBecTb ee bt> ssame KOBKyCHBbij npHBBBBa- 
eiioe aaKOHoifb, h njiaTOKT>, KOTopwft cyjiTaH-b Spocaerb cbohmt> 
xeHairb, hto6h noRasaTb TaKHarb o6pa3oan> cboS Bu6op < b, no Bcett 
BfepoflTHOCTH, — HM*erb T0-K6 npoHcxosAenie" *). 3aflBJ&enbitt 
TaRHMb o6pa3om>, KaK*b pascRasbiBaerb AaA&iydH, Bbi6opi> Mon> 

t) Ed. Du Meril. Des formes da mariage et des usages populaires qui 
8 f y rattachaient dans les Etudes surquelques points d'Arcn^o 
logie. P. 1862. CTp. 18. Ecjh He noBpHBaaie roiOBH, to „cpHaaBie nana 
111 xojma ci pyKH x*BByniKR y opeH6yprc»axi xa3aaoBi paBaocajiao npexxo- 
x6Bio bhIth bt» sanyxecTio, b xiByataa, y soTopof otbjith bth Bema, cTOxaerca 
3acBaTaHflofi b mien csaTOBt bi poxBTeuciia aom?. HoBoaapeai: 06*paxo- 
bub o6nqafi. (CiBepHufl BicTaaai, 1890, i»Hi», CTp 71). IIo uwhBW M. M. Ko- 
lueBctaro, bth o6aqaH bbjjidtcji cojHxapHHHH ci t*hb npHBimnaMH, xaxHxi 
BpBxepsBBaDTca MycyjmaHCKie aaKOBObixH birojh Illafaa, sanpemaDflue docto- 
poBBHBr& MyxiBHam noABHicaTL DOKpoBt ci ibub seBni.BBH b opapaBBBBaDnUe npB- 
KOCHOBeeie ai ea pyaft hjh rbiy a% »»BCjy BexosBOJeflBBxi ^ftctsifi, a ffovoay 
cnTBDBue xiftcTBijiMH pasBocubBHMB Baca ibCTBOB Boay yBosy t% cjy^aH, xorxa 
aojoiofi Hejosisi nosBOJHTi ce6-B ciBaTHTk Aisyfliay aa pyay hjh upuoasn 
cboh najbn,H k% en rpyxn... Cjy«iaeTCji } mo DHoma, BacaBmifi aa x^Bymay, otbh- 
mqtl y Hex nxaTOK'b, cxaaTHTi ee sa pyay bjx sa rpyxfc a hotom^ yxauTca. 
8to BasHBaeTCx n BoftvaTb xisyoiKy 9 b aaieTi paBBOCBX&Hoe SHaveaie c* ooxame- 
aieai. Maxc. KoBaieBcaifl: 3axoHi h o$RHai aa KaBxasi, II, ctp. 168. 




8 



8TH0rPA$H<IECK0E 0 BO 3 P* HIE. 



npoHcxoffHTB y 6ojrapT> toju>ro bt> Tpex*b cjryqaax'b: ecJH a*JO 
inio o 3R6HiD(HHSLx < b saBoeBaHHaro Hapo^a, hjeh— apn cymecTBOBa- 
bih KOMMy HaJbHaro fipana, Kor^a RawAHfi MyaciHHa oflHoro RJiaaa 
moit> HM*Tb npaBO Ha Rasnyio seBiiuiHy Apyroro, ejus, hsbo- 
neivb, npH rocnoffCTB* noJOBoft cboOoam A'fcBymeR'b ao BCTy- 

MeHifl HXT> BT> SpaK'b, KRKt 8TO HM'beT'b M*CTO y O^eHb MHO- 

rHxi> npMMHTHBHbixi) Hapo^fOB'B. Hdi> bc*xt> 8thxi> cjiyqaeBT* 
nepBuft RaseTCfl nam* AOCTaTO<mo BfcpoaTBHM'b a** npeAno- 
•BOHcefiifl, TaKT> e8kt> komm y h a jibh wfi 6paKi» BpflA^ «&h mopl «ep- 
HcaTbca eme y Oojirapt, npn cyn^ecTBOBaaiH naTpiapxaJbBoft 
ceMbH, AORasbiBaeMOifb ctponjmh HaRaaamflMH sa HapymeHie 
cyapysecRofi b*phocth h <&aRTOM«b nojiHraMiir. bo mm Be sna- 
eBn>, BacROJbRo oht> npHJoacBifb rt> 6ojrapaM r b bt> to Bpeua, 
Ror^a hxi> bha^jli> AHflajiyaH. Hto ate Racaexca nocjfeAHHro 
cjiyqan, to h oht> HMfcerb cboio aojiio BipoaTia, T*M r b Cojrfce 
too CTporocTb HpaBOBi* bt> cy npyHtecTB* BOBce He HCRjiOHaerB 
nojiOBOfl CB060AN y A^BymeR'b, RaRT> bto, Hanp., mh MO»em> 

BHA*Tb y H'BKOTOpblX'b aopHHa H CRHX'b HapOAOBl>, y HOTOpHX'b 

A'BBymHH ao sauysecTBa xoahtt> coBepmeaHO oSHaxeHHbiHH h 
noJibayioTca nojHOft CBo6oAofi l ), mh RaRT> bto 6bioio y Rapa- 
h6obt>, BapTHBa 6paiHUxi> OTHOmeBifl y Rotopux'b bt> r.aaBBWXT> 
HepTaxT> oqeHi, Cjihsro HanoMnsaerb to, htomh Moaeeifb HSBJie^b 

H3T> npHB6AeHHhIX r b HBMH JfrUUhlX'b OTHOCHTeJIbHO SOJirap'b, OCO- 

6eHH0 ao OROHMaTejibHaro yTBepatAema MewAy bhmh MaroMe- 
TaHCTBa: ^uiJOMyApie A*ByraeRi> y hex^ (RapaH6oBT>) He oco- 
6ghho co6jnoAaJiocb- oh* He hochjh onemjuu ao BbixoAa bt> 3a- 
MyjKecTBo; MHoroaceHCTBO 6buio Bceo6mHM-b, npn newb RaxAMfi 
nyffiHHHa Morb HteHHTbca Ha BCbxi* cecTpax*, npHBaAJeataB- 
mHxi> rt> oAHOMy h Tony we ceMe&CTBy, bo napymeBie cy- 
npyacecRoit b*phocth y HHxnb oqeHb cTporo HaRa3biBajiocb tt *). 

He HM*a, TaRHMrb o6pa30M*b ? bt> HameMT> pacnopaaceHiH 
ho^th HHqero, hto momo 6h BaMT> yRasuBaTb Ha nepeacHBaaia 
ApeBHHXT> fiojrapcKo-TiopRCRHX'b o6biqaeBT> bi» CBaAe6Hux r b o6pa- 
Aaxi> coBpeMeBHhixT> Haurb Sojirapii, Mbl MOSeM^ ao H*R0T0p0fi 
CTeneHH oopan^aTbca sa hoaoShiiimu -yRaaaBiaMH ri> b^roto- 



] ) Gay a. C&rSmonies nuptiales. cip. 108. 

J ) A. Re Til le. Les Religions des peuples non civilises. P. 1883, 1.crp.336. 



Digitized by 



CBAftBBHBIB OBPflffU B'b BOJirAPIH. 



9 



DM Ml) BHpOAaMT., »HBymHMl> H ffO CHXT> DOp'b, O^eHb falH3R0e 
pOACTBO KOTOpLIXT. CT> ffpeBHHMH TIOpKCKHMH SOJirapRHH MOffiHO 

C4HTaTb 6ojrfce hjih MeH'fee ftOBasaHBiJM'b. TaRosu, Hanp., qy- 
BaniH) o KOTopux'b H p e q e k i> roBopHrh: „Die Tschouwaschen bei 
Kazan sollen die Ueberreste der Wolga-Bolgaren sein a , ). 3aTtMT>, 
yn.-feji'bBmHM'b MeMeHOMTb 6ojfrap*i> rr. Be. 6. Majuiep'b h 
M. M. KoBajieBcxift cqaTaiorb TaRxe HaBRHBCKHX'b 6 a j- 
Kapi, SHByn^Hxrb Ha ctBepHOM'b cbjioh* RBBRascRHxi) ropi>, 
Mes^y npHTOKOMT> Tepeica YpyxoM^ m 9jb6opycoMT>, no Bep- 
xoBbHWb ptoT> Hepeea, *IeHMa h BoKcaaa. Enje B'b cTaTb* 
cBoefi: ^B* ropcRHxi> oSnjecTBax'b Ka6apAH a ') bth yqeawe bbi- 
pasBJiH npe/inoAoaceHie, ^to, Moarerb 6utb, BasBaaie 6 a j k a p t> 

eCTB OflHH'b H3T> BHffOB'b HMeHH 6 O J rap*, KOTOpOe, K8K1> BBA" 

ho H3i> reorpaaia, npHnncJUBaeMoft MoHceio XopeHCKOMy, 
6buo bt> pasHbix'b oopMai'b hsb^ctho aa c*BepHOMT> KaBKaa-fc- 

B'b *0pMt SoiXapiJ apHBO^HTCfl 9TO HBffl pyCCKHMH nOCJHIMH 

HaRH«opoirb TojLoraHOBbiu'b HABflROM-b AjieRC*eM*b IesjieBbiirb, 
ROTopue bi» 1650 r. fe3A«H orb ijapa AjeRcfea MaxaftjioBHqa 
ri> HMepeTHHCROMy ijapio AjieRcaHffpy h npofrasraiH qepes'b 
6aJsapcRia 36mjh (B p o h e b c k i ft, HsBfecTia o KaBRasfe a np., 
II CTp. 211). 3aTticb, bi> HexaBHO BhimeAmeft KHHr* M. M. 
KoBaieBGRaro mu qiTaeMi o rfaxt we 6ajiKapaxT>: ^Ilpo*. 
Maxiep'b (OceTHHCRie anoflu, ^. II, CTp. 60, 61, 104) roBo- 
pnrb, ito, no cjiOBaMi* IIpoRonia, loacHyio rpaHHijy 6ojrrapi> co- 
CTasjifljio ycTbe KyfiaHH, q-ro coBpeMeaHHRi DpoRoma, lopBaHA'b, 
roBopHTb o TKHJiHmax'b 6oirapi> aaA* IIohtomt>, h hto 0eo<&aHT> 
noM*n^aeTi, apeBHioio iih aejiHRyio Bojtrapiio Me«Ay Meoiiit- 
ckhmt> o3epoMi> h p*rok> Ky«Hci» (Ky6aHbio). y KoHCTaHTHH a 
BarpflHopoAHaro h bt> floroBop* Hropa cb rpeRaMH Bojrapifl 
HOCHTb HaHM6H0BaHie ^LepHoft. rr. JIaM6HHi> h HjiOBattcKifi, 
OTxasuBaacb orb B3i\aflAOB b npe»HHxi> hctophrobi> h, bt> qacjrb 
hxt>, KapaMSHHB^ noM^n^aiorb 9Ty HepHyio Bojirapiio se Ha 
6eperaxi> Ayaaa, a Ha 6eperaxT> AaoBCKaro Mopa bmotb ao 

Ky6aHH. B'b H6A&BH0 OTKpbITOMl> HOBO Ml> cnacKt apVHHCROtt 

reorpaoin Mohcbh XopeHCRaro (ROHn,a Vll ctoje.) pasHbia ro- 



i) Iirecek. Op. cit. CTp. 180. 

f ) BicTBist EsponH. 1894. Anp., cip. 564. 



Digitized by 




10 



9TH0rPA4»HqBCK0E OBOBPftHIE. 



j*Ha 6ojrrapT> TaRace OTHeceim kt> cfeaepy orb KySasn. Bc*xt> 

8THXT> KOJI*HT> MoHCeft XopOHCKift HaC4HTU BReTb qOTbipe. Ha- 

3BRHiH Gojrapnb RaeRascRHxi* BCTpfcqaiOTCx y cocTaBirreJH 
reorpaoiH bt> pa3HbiXT> aopicax'b: 6yjrapi», SyjKapt, Suapi, 
6ojifiapi». Bt> bha* npeffnoJoaceHifl npo*. Mujeprb BucRasbi- 
BaeTi> mucib. qTO bt> HaaaaHin TiopRCBaro oSmecTBa, KHBymaro 
B r b ffoJEHH^ ^opeRa, 6 aiKapn- coxpaHuocb oaho h3t> 060- 
3HaqeHifl saBRa3CRtixi> 6ojtrapi>. „TtopRCRaa HapoflHOCTb 6aa- 
Kapi;eBT> n Cjoebsoctb hxt> hmghh r* oaho# wb <&opMT> hmchh 
6oArapi> (CojiRap-b), npHBOAHMoft apMHHCRoft reorpatiefi YII b., 
HeBOJbHO uaBOAHrb Ha npegnoioxeHie, roBopsrrb npo*. Mhj- 
Jiep'b, He CKpunaiOTCfl jih bt> SaJiRapijax'b nocjrbffnie hotomrh 
o^Hoft H3i> Bfrraeft RaBRascRHX'b 6ojirap'b ai ). 

HaROHei^'b, bt> CBA3H cb BsruAaMH Ha qysanrb, rrkt* Ha 
qotomkobt> ApeBHHxi> 6ojrapT>, oRasbiBaiOTCfl qpesBuqaftno hhtb- 
pecHbiMH, ct> Harnett toieh ap^Hia, 8THorpa»HqecRi& akhhuji o 
Hapo#b, ROTopbifi nojiyqHJi'b bcio cboh> Ryxwrypy orb bojbc- 
crhxt> ace Gojrapnb h hxt> noTOMROB'b-qyBaiiieft, a hmohho o 
qepeMHcax^b. ^FoBopHTb 0 RyjbTypHoirb BjiamH qyaameft Ha 
qepeMHCT> a , asmerb aBTopi> npeBocxofleoti MOHorpaain 0 ?epe* 
MHcax-b, npo*. KaaaHcnaro yHHBepcHTeTa H. H. .Cmhphobt», 
^B'b HacToam,ee Bpena Moxerb aoRasaTbca CTpaHHbiMi>: qysaniH 
HHqfeirb He KyjitTypate qepeKHCb, ropHbie qepevHCu aaae pas- 
BHTfee hxt> h CMOTparb Ha hhxt> cb npeHe6 peace Hieiri>. Ho qy- 
BauiH He Bcer^a 6bun TaKHirb nmmwb HapoAOBfb, Ram> Tenepb. 
Cyn^ecTByen> BecbMa ocaoBaTeJEbHaa ranoTesa, qTO bto nieMR 
npeACTaBjiaerb co6ok> noTOMROB-b Sojrap-b, co3AaBinHXT> ijh- 
BHJuisaniio cpe^iuiro IIoBOJrabfl. PascMorp-bHie saHMCTBOsaH- 
nbix'b qepeMHcaMH y qyBann> cjob**, npoAOxaraeTb oht> A&nnie, 
noRasbiBaerb, qTO RyjtbTypHoe B03A*ftcTBie th)prcrhxi> Hapo- 
AObt> Ha lepeHHCb 6hjio rpoiiaffHO. Uoat> tiopkckhmtj Bjriam- 
em> cosAa^cH y qepeMHci> nepexoAT> on> oxbTHRqbeft jbhshh 

KT> CROTOBOffCTBy H 36MJieAlUliK>, CIOKHJCH OCifliblft OhlTb, ao- 

ManiHjjfl oocTaHOBKa, koctiomt>, BOSHHRJia ToproBJH h CBflaaHHaa 
cb Heft BROHoacnqecRaa AH^epeHi^ian.iR, hbhjuhcl sapoAumn 
oSmecTBeHHofi opraHHsai^in, aojyqHJH ^s^hwb&mee pasBwrie 



Mate. KoBaaeBcsift: 3aKoai h o6aqa§ ua Kasitaai. I, cxp. 190—191 • 



Digitized by 



CBAftRBHME OBPflflW Wb BOJirAFIH. 



11 



B'&poBaHia... IIoa'b 6ojirapcKHirb BjriaHieM-b npoiuja HCTopia 
paaBHTia nepeMHCKaro aca-iama, noaBHiacb ns6a ct> oiaroMi> 

H AblMOBUflTb OKHOlfb; OCBBHlifi HH ORBOWb IffeCTB lepeMHCb 

odsaBejccfl AOMamHHM'b crotomt>; aa crotoboactbomt> oht> o6y- 
HHJica y 6oJirapi> h seiueA^Jriio... noffi> SoxrapcRHM-b BjiameM-b 
okoxo qepeMHccKaro ABopa noaBuca oropoA'b (nax<ia), qepes-b 
6ojirapi> oht> nosHaROMUca ct> Teatirofi (opa6a); iioa* 6oarap- 
citHM'b BjdflHieifb cjiosHJiacB h AOMamHaa oficTaeoBRa qepeMH- 
CHaa; «HBa praomt> ct> SairapaMH, rt> ROTopuirb npi*3»aJiH 

KJUUfil mi> AU6RHX1> E3iaTCRHXT> CTpaHT>, qepeMHCM nOJiy^HJEH 

noHfliie o ToproBj*, o MftCTax**, rA* jhoah mAhbiotcb BemaMH 
(nasap-b), o AeHbraxi>, o RpeAHiii, o xo8aeBaxi> m pa6oqHxi>, 
o AOHainHeifb KOM^opT*, oa«3ra*, yRpameHiax-b, y hh3Rh hm xt> 
MOHeTaMH, o 601Tb, aarejiaxT> h op. Coc*ah sbuh 9th jfrxa. 
Jtyqme hxt>... apaScRie MHGcioHepu i*pocb*thjih hx*b u Ha- 
yqHJis... OrHomeflia ri> seamnB^ y cocfcAeft Toae cjaraJHCb 
HHaqe... BeanopaAoiHMa cHoineHia MesAY nojaMH npusBaBa- 

JHCb 3A*CB DOpOROMl> H RJte&MHJIHCb HM6H6M1* paSBpaTB, KBMflfiLB 

napa co cbohmh jfrrbm cocTHBiaja oco6y» rpynny, ROTopaa 
HasuBaJiacB ceMbeft (flem^), Kerala, CBasaBmaa cbok> sh3bb 

CT> SH3HBK) MyjKHHHLI, BaSUBaiaCB 6r0 TOBapHn^M'b, cnyrBH- 

romt> (floJAaun>); coscht6J[bctbo MysiHSM n senn^HBU ycTa- 
h &BJEHBUOCB cb coiuacia poAHTexeft nocjrfeAHefi, ROTopue no- 
jyqaiH sa Hee BMRyirb (r4jiumt>), jResn^HHa, y ROTopoft yMepi> 
Myact, BasBiBBJiacB baoboA (Tyjiyirb). Be* bth hobmb aBJieaia 
BonuiH nooreneaHO h bt> qepeMHccRiit ceMefiauft cTpofi a 1 ). Ta- 
rhmt> oopasoM^, h bt> o6MqaaxT> qepeMHCb mm, Moserb 6uTb, 
6yAeMi> bt> cocTOAHiH HaflTH o6i>acHeHifl toto, hto nacb 
ORaseroa HenoHflTHtiMT> b*b CBaAe6BMxi> o6paAaxi> coBpeMen- 
hjuxi> 6ojirapT>, no ahhhhbhihxcr , naRT> mm yBHAHM'b A^^^ie, 
BnoJiHi caaBariCROMy BJuaaiio, ho Bce-TaRH yAepxaBmnx-b y 
ce6a Koe KaKifl qepTM H3i> CBoero A^JieRaro nponuiaro. 

XpncTi a h ctb o ) BBeACHHoe wb BoJirapiH bt> IX b*r*, iiobh- 
AHMOMy, Be cpasy BHecjo cymecTBeBHHa H3M*HeHia bt> cTpoft 
ceMBH CMtmaBmnxca Messy co6ok> 6ojirapi> h cjaBaHi>. Y ca- 
mhxt> BH3aHTifln;eB'b 6paRi> ao VI BBKa eme 6mjh>, RaRi> H3b*ct- 

i) GupBOBi: HepewicH. Kaaaes. 1889, CTp. 24—29. 



Digitized by 




12 



9TH0rPA*H<lfiCK0E 0B03P*H1E. 



ho, ycTaHOBJieHieMT> qncro rpawAaHCRHBTh, n tojbko npu K)cth- 
HiaHfe npoBAJirb xapaxTep7» n,epKOBHaro TanHCTBa h oApn^a 1 ). 
Bt> nepBoe BpeMA nocjrfe npHHATifl xpncriaHCTBa ne tojibko 
rpeqecRia AyxoBHUfl BjacTH, ho h cemh BMaHTiftcnie HMnepa- 
Topu CMOTpfejiH CKB03b najn>m>i Ha nojieraMiio, a HHOrfta aa»e 
ee h npoTexHpoBajH *), bt> oco6eHHOCTH, ecjH OBa BBjisitacb 
bt> CManeHHoft *opM* jeraaro paaBoaa. T*mt> He MeHfce Ooiift 
bt> cBoein* nocjaaiH kt> ijapio BopHcy jtaerb y»e oqeHb enep- 
rHiecicifl HacTaBJieHifl nsdftraTb MHoroseHCTfia, KOTopoe y 6oje- 
rap* (KaKi> h y BC'fex'b, Bupoqcirb, ApyraxT* HapoAOBi») npaRTH- 

KOBaJIOCb, KaKT> H3B*CTH0, TOJIbKO Bit BblCIHHX'b COCJIOBiflXT*. 
^IIpaBHTeili, QHCaJTb OH1>, He AOJIffieHT, nOflqHHflTbCfl BJliflHlH) 

seHn;HHi> h 6hiTb pa6oMT> noxoTeft; tott> He rptnrarb, no 

HCHBeTb CT> OffHOft 3aK0HH0fi XeHOfi, HO MHOrOSeHCTBO CpftMHO 
H r H y C H 0 H CBOdCTBeHHO Heo6y3AaHHOCTH H HeHHCTOT* 6e3- 

cjiOBecHux-b"" 8 ). O^eHb Moacerb 6biTb, hto hsb^cthuo Bonpocu 
n,apn Bopnca nan* HasoJiafo I, 6mjh BbiSBHHbi orqacTH, xaKi> 
bto ffyM aero r.CoRoioBT>, HaAea&floft Ha RaRia-HHdyAb ycTynxH 

CO CTOpOHM pHMCKOft I*epRBH OTHOCHTPJIbHO MHOTOffiCHCTBai 

„Bonpoci> o tomt>, roBopHTT> BTorb yqeHMft, Raxoro nana mb*- 
Hix o rpeqecROMi* oowqa* 6paqHaro cosHTeucTBa, Mon> bob- 
HHKHyTb y 6oJtrapi> h caMOCTOflxejbHO, h6o hh'b TpyAHO 6hjo 

OTRa3aTbCfl OTb MHOrOWeHCTBa, H OHH MOIMtH OffiHffaTb orb FHMa 

MeH*e cTporaro saxoHa" *). Bonpocu 9th h SHaMeHBTbie otb*th 
na hhxt> aanu HHKOjafl I, rt> ROTopbim> Haira He pasi> npn- 
AeTCH o6pamaTbca b*b Hactoxn^efi CTa-rb*, noRasbiBarorb Me»Ay 
npo^HMt, qTo TorftaniHie 6ojirapw 6 aim oqenb saHHTepecoBanbi 
He TOJbKO, TaRi> cxa3axb, lopHARqecRoft CTopoHoft 6paRa, ho h 
BonpocaMH o 6paqBbixT> o6pHAaxT> qTo h BecbMa ecTecTBCHHO, 
Tam> RaRi> xpncriaHCTBO, oqeBHABO, He Mono oCHapysHBaTb, wh 

KOHU.'fe KOHIJOBb, OC06eHHOfi TepOHMOCTH Wb BSbiqeCRHlTb 06pfl- 



J ) CameeBi: CryxHa sipxy uaraeTO iiepcoaaiHo ctflpyxecTBCHBO npaio 

(C6opBHKl 8a HapOAHH yMOTBOp. IY. CTp. 160). 

*) ibid. CTp. 175. 

3) Gokojobi: Op. cit. CTp. 181 
*) Cokoiobi: Op. cit. CTp. 183. 

8 ) Responsa ad consulta Bulgarorum (Migne Patrologiae cur- 
sus compl. S. II, t. CXIX. p. 979, 980). 




CBAAEBHUE OBPflflM BT> BOJirAPIH. 



18 



Hhwb 6ojirapi> h cJWBflHT>. „Khhkhhrh Toro BpeMeHH, roBopHTb 

T. IIunHH'b, CMOTpfcjlH CBBlCORa BE HeRHHSfiOCTb HapOffBOft 

Maccw v .. nponoB^AHHKH acKeTHqecKofi HpaBCTBeHHoexn cmhtsjh 
BOo6me HpaBu h oStiqan HapoAa 6*cobckhmh h rp'fexoBHMMH u l )« 
Tftvb He MeHie HapoAHHH B033p*Hia h o6uqaH Aep»ajncb 
Kp*oKO, ii fta»e bi> ijapcTBOBame CsiteoHa BRsapxy IoaBBy npH- 
xoffMOCb sajosaTBCH Ha npoAOJUKaBmax-b eme cymecTBOBa-rb 

epeTHKOBT> H fl3IJqflHKOBl,, KOTOpblMH 6WJIH, B*pOflTHO, 

rjiaBHUM'b o6paaoM'b cjiaBane: „Aa ca cpamiflTCfl yfio, nncajrb 
oht>, bc* noinn6eHH h CKBepnin MaHHxen h bch n o ran h (t. e. 

A3MHHHRH) C JDL O B e H H H BCH fi3bf I*bl 3JU>B*pHm tt ■). „0«HMmiaJIb- 

Hbifl rpeqecRifi RjHpi>, OTHocHBinificx ci> npeBe6peseBiein> h 
BpasffOHi kt> HapoflHoft jkhbhh h ea aaTpiapxaibHo-CwroBOMy 
oSbiqaio, KaKT» bto 6hjio h y do.srap'b, h y cep6oBi>, h y pyc- 
ckhxt>, He Morb, KOHeqHO, HCTpe6HTb 9) 6tcoBCRHx , b whcewb"; 
no&THqecRaa noTpeSHocTb HapoAa He Morxa 6utb HCTpeSaeBa, 
h HapoA'b... coxpaHHJi'b h coBAaBaj'b cbok) ocoSyio ofixacTb 
nodTHiecRHX'b npeffaflift u 8 ). Ob ffpyroft cTopoHhi, aapoAy npn- 
xoAHJocb OTCTanBaTb 6paRi> ct> ero aauqecRoit oSpnAHOCTbio 

H OT"b OOrOMHJbCTBa. OflHHlTb B&h CyH^eCTBeHfe&IIIHX'b nyHRTOBl> 

Toro yqemM 6bixo^ HaRi> h3b*ctho, noisoe OTpHijaBie 6paRa. 
BftpoflTHo, bt» cbash c*b npeAaflieirb O TOMT>, 1TO AAaMT> H EBa 
6wjh Hayieau MOTCRoaiy rpfcxy AiaBOJiOM'b. KocMa npecBH- 
Tep*b roBopHTb, hto, no MHtHiio 6oroMMOBT>, ^Toro (t. e. Aia- 
BOJia) noBejr&Hie — xeHbi uoHMaxH HceBflmaaca qejroB'bKH h 
aHBymia bt> Mip* MauoHHHbi cjiyrn 30ByTT> tt ; 4 ) A*Teft 6oro- 

MHJW HeHaBHA*JIH H 3BBJIH HX*b MaMOHHHHU^a M A i a B O JI H- 

q h m a. 9tott> nocafcAHifi npeApascyAOK'b, npH6aBJifleT7> r. Ilbi- 

i) Uhhuhi b CnacoBHHi: HcTopia ojaB*Hca. jBTepaiypt, H3i. 1879. I, 
CTp. 60. 

*) ibid. CTp. 66. 
3 ) ibid. CTp. 76. 

*) Bnpoiem, no juisii) r.flpaHOBa, oorowuH bobcc He 6hjb tbkbmb acae- 
TaMH no OTHomeBii) ai xeamBBam, aaai axi o6hkhob6hbo upeicTaBijiDTi.^pH- 
hobi- K)edh6 cjaMae a BflaauTiii v% X Biat. M. 1876. CTp. 76). Ho Tin* He 
aeaie bt. namiTBHaaxi axi, xonie|mBxi 10 aaoi b HanesaTaauHXi, Hanp. upo$. 
£meii, roBopBTca: 9 Topbao 6o ecTb 6oroMWcsoe yieHie, 6paTie! Meca Be- 
jeTB ae 4ctb, Baaa ae bbth, xeaa ae bobmbti... rjaroj»me *ao bbbo h seaa 
on liaBoia ecn* (ib. crp. 76). 



Digitized by 




14 



9TH0rPAOH<IBCK0B OBOBPfeHIB. 



HHH'b, AO CHXT> HOpT> JKHBCTb BT> Cep6CK01Tb HapOfft, DO DOHfl- 
TlflMT> ROTOparO BT> 6pRVb eCTB rpfeX**, — H BT> BHHHeCROM'b fl8BIir& 

euirb o6wKHOBeeHO HaabiBaerb OTija cbohmt> ponuTeieMrb no 
rpnjexy, t. e. Hepea'b rp*xi> l ). Bt> nhxhwb&meu^ HSJoate- 

fliu Haw* npHAeTCfl BCTpfcTHTbCB Cb OCTftTKftMH nOAOfiHIJX'b 

H«eS h bt> Bojirapia. 

Ho, HecMOTpa oahbro Ha bc* nepeiHCAeHHua HaMHBJiiaHia 

H 06CT0flT6JIbCTBa, KOTOpUfl AOXJKHhl 6bIJIH CrXBAHTb BT> BOJ- 

rapiH HapoAHbifl Bosap'buis aa 6paKT> h cTapHHHBie CBaAe6Hbie 
o6pflAM 1 ohh Bce-TRKH yAepsaucb, ecjiH He bt> nciHofi qHCTorb 
h HenpHKOcHOBeHHOCTH, KaKT> y naJopyccoBi>,TO ct> He MeHbraefi, 

BaiTb y HHXT>, CHXOfi H CTO&ROCTBK), DpH HeWb CJiaBHH drift BJie- 

MeHTb, Kain> mbi yBHAHMt ffajrfee, B9hjh» pfemHTejbHbift nepe- 

BfcCb HaA1» TK>pKCRHMT> H DpO^HMH, OCTaBHBIDHMH DO Ce6* 
TOJIBRO He OCOOeHHO flCHUfl HepTbl . KaR*b H CJI*Ay6TT> OXHAaTb 

orb BCHKofi ropHott cTpaHM, bt. KOTopoft coo6meHia MesAy 

KHTejflMH pa3JHqHblXl> AOJHH'b OHeBh TpyAHU H p^AKM, Kb RO- 

Topoft itoith Ka«AHft ORpyrb HM-feerb cboh p*3Ria OTJiHqHTejrb- 

HLlfl qepTM, BbipaffiaiOU^iflCfl BT> OTT*HKaXT> fl3b]Rft, BT> pa3HHII,1i 
ROCTIOMa H BCeB08HO)RHUXl> o6bI 1 ia6B f b ) BT> p83JIHMHblX r b MftCTHO* 

cTflib BojrapiH — bt> boctoihoH h sanaAHoft npHAyHaficRoft 
BojrapiH, bt> ymejibflx'b BajiKaHt, bo MHornxT> qacTflxi> paB- 
hhhh GpaniH, Ha tosHhixT> CKJiOHax'b Poaodcrhxt* ropi>, bt> 
KMRHott h sanaAHofl ManeAOHiH *) — CBaAe6Hbie o6paAi* oneHB 

pa&IHIHbl, HO BT> OCHOBHblX'b HepTaXT> OHH HMilOTb BflOJIH* 

poACTBeHHwfl, cosepmeHHO ofinjift xapaRTepi h Hocarb, RaRi> 
Mbi cxaaajiH y»e, OTneiaTOR'b onenb rxy6oRoft CTapHHbi. 

Me»A7 bthmh paaGpocaHHUMH Tairb h cam* ocTaTRaHH 
CTapHHbi nepsoe m&cto aojikho npHHaAJieaaTb, paayMfceTca, npn • 
MHTHBHbiM'b aopMamb 6paRa, yAepacaBinHMCfl ao Hamero Bpe- 
MenH— 3aBJiHq an iio, hjh aacypHy BaHiio, h noRynR-fe 
Ateymerb. 

06bmaft 306AHH<lHUl, COOTB*TCTByK)mift yHHKHBlK) AP^B- 

He pyccRott j*TonncH h otmhu,* y Cep6oBi>, no cxosairh 
r. BoeBa, cymecTByerb em,e qohth Beapfb bt> Bojirapm: bt> 



IT u d h Ht: Op cit. CTp. 77—78. 

Boeai: K* 6paiaoMy np&By 6ojrapi, CTp. 2 — 8. 



Digitized by 



CBAABBHLIE OBPflftfcl BT» BOJirAPIH. 



15 



vb OKpyrarb Bojirpa«a, Pycqyra, KoTjra, Cuhbhr, flpaMM, 
Hpufena., h ecJiH HaiBHaerb HcnesaTB bt> IIpHRyHaftcKofi Boj- 
rapin, to AepatHTca enje bo Bcefi cm* bt> MaxeAOHiH. IIoxh- 
meHie A*BymeKi> npoHcxoAHTb oqem> qacTO gase bt> trkhxt> 
cnyiaflx'b, Korxa bt> h6mi> He npeACTasiifleTca HHKaKoti Haao- 
6hocth, Eor^a He cymecTByerb HHi&aRHX'b npenjiTCTBift m> 6paKy 

UH CO CTOpOHbl HeBtCTbl^ HH CO CTOpOHH pOffHTejefl 1 ). B*h 

TftKOMii bha* noxHnjeme bto npocTO npeffCTaBjiflerL co6oft 
oaKirb nepeaHBaHifl, tott> are o6pflgi>, HOToputt mm bhabmt> 

KHSTb BT> SOJirapCKOfi, TaKT> H BT> npOq«XT> CJtaBflHCRHXrb CBaffB- 

6axi>, ho tojlmco bt> ero HaHSojrfce coxpaHHBmeftca 0opn&. 
Sarfearb, qanje Bcero A*ByuiHy noxen^aiorb, bt> ciyqa* neco- 
rjiacifl Ha 6pairb co cropoHu en poAnxejieft; TorAa onenh qacTo 
A*jio ae oSxoahtch 6e3T> HenpiaraocTefi, noronH (noTepa) 
h Aaae RpoBonpoMTi* *). Bnpoqearh, onenh bo3MOkho, hto 
TaKoe Hecorjiacie co cropoBH poAHTejieft 6hiBaen> HHorAa 

TOJIbKO npHTBOpHMWb, H QOXHH^eHie HpOHCXOAHTT>, Cb HX*b Bi- 

AOMa, a^h H36*waHia cBaAc6HBixi> pacxoAOB?> *), icain> bto 
A&iaeTCfl bt> IIoboascrhx'b ry6epHiflxi» BejiHKopoccin 4 ). Ha- 
KOHe^, HaH6ojt*e npHMHTHBHtifi xapaKTepi> BM*erb noxnmeHie 
AfeByineK?* bdojib* BacHJBCTBeHHoe, npoTBBT> hxt> bom. Ecjih 
MOJioAoft qejEOB*Ri> aejiaerb OBjaA&Tb /vfeBymKoti, Koxopaa ae 
OTB^qaeTt na ero qyBCTBa h He xoqerb buxoahtb 8a Hero 
Banyan*, oht> npHnamaerb h^ckouko ApyaeS, noACTeperaerb 
Vb hhmh A*ByniKy h, Bu6paBiDH yAofiHuft MOMeflrb, noxHmaerb 



*) ibid. cip. 6 — 7. 

a ) B o 6 1 e b X — Hays a. Ill eh. II cxp. 34. 

») Do MHiaiD p. n. P. GiaiefliOBa, BiipameHooiiy bt> CTa-rvfe ero Burap- 
csiTi uocjoBim (IlepHoxaqecKO CnicaHBe II, 1888), Toa npeiima e, *e 
HOMmrb He mouii *o s&dj&th 6a6a-xaKft (o6Xma) h npoi. Bo6ieai. 
Op. cit. CTp. 84. 

*) „Bpaaa y&knm% coBepoaDTca bo BafoxaHie cBaAe6iraxi pacxojOBi, xjh 

BBJ.HMOCTB, 1TO aV^6Tl> MiCTO f BpaBOCJaBB BX1> KpeCTMH* BC*X% BBpOlHOCTefi. 

Taaie se 6paan coBepmaDTca h y pacxonHBXOBii, aoria oei oT^aDTi cbohxi xo- 
Mepei aa npaBocjaBHHx*, c* m^mud ee aoxasan xojoahocth k% cbohmi B*po- 
BaHun. Emit Cojobiobi — Ovepaa aapoaaaro Dpaxavecaaro 6ma. 
KaaaHi>. 1888 (otticbi nil KasaH. ry6epaca. B-fe^oiiocTefl, xoBeieHBHfi toj&eo xo 
72 CTp., Taai aan xauBiftmee le^aTaaie 6hjo vpeapaaieBO no pacaopaseBin 
MicTHaro rytfepaaTopa). CTp. 27. 



Digitized by 




16 



8TH0rPA«HHB0KOE 0B03F6HIB. 



ee cHJioft, npn h6mt> eft 3awHMaK>rb poTb, qTofo He 6bijio 
ojmuiho ea Kpina, h yTacRHBaiorb Ky«a - HHfiyAb bt> ropu m 
Aepwarb t&mt> HfeCROJbRo Aneft, noxa Be sacTaBarb ee, vb 

ROBUfb EOHIJOB'b, OTftaTbCfl CBOeMy BOXHTHTeJK), ROTOpblft, He- 

MeffjeHBO *pa3BfaH a*bctboto h u l ). 3aTfeirb hbjuik>tc« k*b 
AyxoBHOMy HaqancTBy, aoxopoe, erei> roBopflrb r. BoeBi>, 
HHKorga uosth He OTsaauBaerB bt> 6jrarocJiOBeHiH 6paRa, xoth 
6m h cosepmaeMaro npoTHBi> bojih poAHTejieft. CoBepmeHHO 
noffoSHwe we HpaBH mh HaxoAHifb h y qepemicb EaaaHCEoft 
ry6epHiH. Bt> XY1II b*k* y hhxt> xesHrb ct> TOBapunjaNH 
BpuBajrcfl chjeok) bi> flOMT> HeB&cTu, saxsaTUB&i'b ee H cn*- 
mHjn> BCTynHTb ci> Heft *aKTnqecEH bt> 6paxi> enje na Aopor* 

B'b ROWb H npH CBHA'feTeJflX'b. B'b MaJMbI WCROM'b yfc3R* H Te- 

nepb enje HeB*cry noxHn^atorb h3t> xopoBO^a hjh bt> jrfecy... 
h ecjiH oaa ne coiuamaeTca Ao6poBOjbHO c**AOBRTb sa noxn- 
THTeiflMH, ee 6bk)ti> h, HecMOTpa Ha oxqaaHHoe conporaBJe- 
Hie. yB03flTT> BT> aomt> weHnxa *). 

OnncHBaa nojoSHbie we HpaBbi AarecTaHCKnxi> ropueBi*, y 
KOTopwx'b toiho TaKi* we ^OTBepweHHbift seHHxi» noARapayan- 
BaeTi> xioSaiiyio hhi> A*BymEy, b* oSn^ecTBfe HfecROiibRHX'b 
TOBapHmeft OBjaAfeBaeTb ex> chjoB, TanjHrb bt> Hanepe/n* npn- 
roTOBjeHHoe y6fcwHme h HeaieAxeHHO eeaqecrarb ee% M. M. 
KoBajieBCBift npHSaBJiaerb, q-ro t bto A**aeTca ct> i;*jibio, hto6h 
he A^BymRa, hh ea poACTBeHHHRH He moimth OTRasaTb hoxh- 
THTejrto bt> ea pya* 8 ) a . „Qo yqeniio saxoHOBiiAOB'b MycyjbMaH- 
CRoft uiROJibi IIIaoaH u , roBopHTb A&Jitme tot* we aBTop'b, 
^OTeA'b BnpaBt pacnopawaxbca pyaoK) CBoeft AO^epn juiinb bt> 
Tom> TOJibRo ciyqa*, ecjra OHa tojibko A*BCTBeHHHija; noTepa 
ijfejiOMyApia npeRpamaerb CBodoAy oma bt> Bu6op* Myxa a*« 
Aoqepn" *). Mm He AyMaeafb, qTo6u bosmowho 6ujio npeAQOJia- 
raTb B'b SoJirapcROM'b o6biqa* BJiiafiie IIIapiaTa; HecoMH&HHO, 
qTo 9to o6biqafi ropasAO 6ojrfee ApeBHift h DpHTOMt o6n^eqejiOB i b- 
qecaifl, h, no Bceft b^pohthocth, y nycyjbMaHCRMXT> aapoAOB* 

l ) JD^eioBt. Ba6a-Era crp. 74; Bo^en Op. dt. 1. e. Bogisic: 
Sbornik sadosnijh pravnih obicala a juznih sloven*, crp. 193. 
s ) Ompiioit: ^epeHRCB, CTp. 129. 

3 ) Mate. KoBftjeBCRifi: 3aitom» h o6u4Ai Ha Kaetaai. I, crp. 176. 

*) ibid. CTp. 175. 




CBAgEBHUE OBPHRH Wb BOirAPIH. 



17 



owb 6hun> tojbko ocBtn^eH'b IIIapiaTOirb, bi» CMy AaBBeft 
npHBbiHKH, nepemeAmefi bt> 3aKom>. 

Pmaomt> vb paBHWMH BHflaMH noxHmenia bc* hctohhhrh, 
E3*b KOTopbin> HJbi qepnaeirb CB*ff*Hin o npasAHHqHHX'b o6bi- 
qaaxi> 6oirapi>, CTasarb o6wkhob6hho THKse h npHciaHKH, 
opnrHHarbHbifi bhat> 6paRa, saRJuoqaionu&ca bt> tomt> ? hto 
AfcBymRa, croBopHBinHcb HHorga npe/isapHTeJiBHO ct> vtemxowb 
h 3a6paBfflH bt> He6ojibuioMT> ysxfe cbok> OAesAy h BooSnje, qxo 

MOSerb S&XBBTHTb H3T> CBOHX*b HO'RHTROB'b, CSMa npHXOffHTT> 

kt> seHHxy bt> nowb ero poAHTejieft. Ilpnfla, ona npHfijosaeTca 
kt> orBH> Ha oiarfe h M^maerb ero, noRaBHBaa Tfeirb, sairb 
roBopHTb r. BorHfflHqi, too npumjia hoat> samHTy ofiHTejiH. 
3aTfeMi> OHa A*jryeTi> pyxn y AOnamBHxt oto8a* bt> yroin*, 

CTOHTb TaMl), B*b OKHAaHiH OTB*Ta OTb IMaBbl CeMBH — ROMa- 

BHHa. IIpuBBTie ea Bbipa»aeTca, no cjiosairb KaHHn,a h 
HojiaROBa, t*mt>, hto ee npHrjamaDTb c*ctb rt> oraio. DpH 
saRjnoqesiH tipana treem^ o6pa80irb, mennx'b He njiararb 
arapiHKa poAHTejiflMt HeB^cTu h He na,em> nOAapROBi> ea 
poflCTBeHHHKaM'b; caMa OHa He nojryqaeTTb npHA&B&ro; Ha 
CBaffbSfe He duBaerb hhrto h3t> ea poahh, ho aaTO, ecM nocxfe 
nepBoit hohh HeBfecTa ORaseTca He coxpaHHBmefi a*bctbch- 
hocth, OHa He Moseirb yae 6mH» OTnpaBjreBa o6parao kt> 

CBOHlfb pOAHTeJRM'b, RaR'b 8T0 6blBae«Tb B«b nOA06HbJXT> cay- 

qaaxTb npn o6urhob6hho& CBa«b6* 1 ). 

IIo o6i>HCHeHiK) aBTopoBi>, coo6n^aioii^Hx i b naarb bth noApo6- 
hocth, STorb bha^ 6paRa npaRTHKyeTca bt> t*xt> cjiyqaaxt, Ror^a 
poAHTejiH HeB^CTH hh 3a hto He coraamaioTca aa 6paKi> ea 
cb HdopaHHHM'b eio ffieHHxoM'b, a noxnnjeme ea He MoaceTb 
6uTb ycTpoeno hjhh no HeyAo6cxBy, hjih noTOMy, hto o6biiafi 
btott> BMBeJica H3T> ynoTpeSjieHia (BoeBT>), hjih ace npocTO 

H31> BROHOMiH, ROl'Aa JKCHHX'b H ero CeMbH He HM'blOT'b AOCTa- 

tohho cpeACTBi>, HTo6bi 3anjiaTHTL arapjbiR'b h KynwTb uoAapRH 

>) J[»6eHoti: Ba6a-Era. crp. 73; Hojiiobi. Op. cit. CTp. 27; Bogi- 
Sic, Op. cit. CTp. 193; Boeit. Op. cit. CTp. 9. 06maft, no KOTopoMy cam 
XiBymu upixoim a* *eaaxy, BCTptsaeTCH, noBHAHMony, h y Biaoropiixi npa- 
mhthbhhxi HapoAOM. Taai, vh raiaH*, one fille apporte son hamac a cote de 
celui de l^poux qu'elle a accepte, l'attache et tout est fini (Laumie r. Cere- 
monies nnptiales. p. 328. 

9THnrpA«iiqBCKOR oBoanniR. XXVll. 2 



Digitized by 




18 



dTHOrPAQHIECROB OB03PAHIB. 



(JlK)6eHOBT>, ^OJiaKt)BT>, C*aBellKOBT>). U0CJ^b]l,UEB H81> BTHXTb 

npa4HHi> HMfeeTO, B^poflTHO, yae nosAHfeftmee npoHexosAeHie. 
rtepsafl HMterb xapaKrep'b Sojrfee ecTecTBeHHuft h dojfee Apes- 
Hift, cyAfl no toA pojih, KaKyio arpaerB bt> Heft oroHb AOMam- 
Hflro onara h npHROCBOBeHie kt> Heiiy upHmeAmeft bt> qysoft 

pOffT* A*ByiDKH. CoBepUiaB BTOTTb HOCJrfeAHift aKTb, A*ByuiKa, CT> 
OAHOfi CTOpOHU, CTaBHTb pOffHTCJieti CBOerO SeHBXa Bl> H€B03- 

moshoctb nporaaTB ee *), a t*mt> caMuarb h cBHMaerb cb 
hhxi> h ci> neHHxa, paBHO naKT> h co Bcero ero pofla, BCflRyio 
OTB*TCTBeHBOCTb nepeA^ cBOHMb poaomx, ct> ffpyrofi se CTO- 
poHH, nocTaBHBmH ce6a noff'b samHTy onara hoboA cenbH, 
OHa paapwBaeT'b cbhbb ct> CBoeft ceMbeft h jramaerb ee npaaa 
aafipaTb ee caioft. Bt> btomt» oTHOineniH HHTepecHO to, hto 
B*KOTopwe asTopbi, kslvb Hanp. r. Bo6qeBi>, naahiBaiOTL n p h- 
CTEHKftMH BOoSnje BCflKifi bhat> noxnmeHiH A*ByniKH ci ei 
corjiacifl h aaiorb hmh np hctahy mH bchkoA jrfcBymfffc, 
corjacHBmeftcfl 6wTb noxHmeHHoft uh Boofime bmSth sajfysrb 

HOMHMO BOJIH CBOHXT> pOffHTexett H He C06.HOA* XOTb 6u a^ko- 

pyMa conpoTHBJieHifl HceHHxy*). Ho b osmose ho TaKHte, hto bt> 
npOHCXOSAeaiH btojpo oSbiqan nip a jo pojb h to npaBO, koto- 
poe npHBHaeTca npaKTHKofi AarecTaBcrax'b cyAOBi> sa sasAofi 
ofieaqemeHBoft h 3a6epeMeH*Bineft A&Byinsoft hah Aaae baoboS, — 

OpaBO BOpBaTBCfl CHJIofi B*b AOMT> 8fl Co6jia3HHTeM, pOAHTB 

TaMi> peSeHKa h rfean> npHByAHTb ero B3HTb ee ceS'b bt> aceHH *). 
Ha 8to rae HaMeKaeTi> OTqacra noAoSHbift xe yKpaHHCKift oShmaft, 
o KOTopoMi> Mbi hm&bh yae cjyiaft ynoMHBaTb bt» npeatHHxi* 
cbohxt> pa6oTaxi> no BTOMy Bonpocy. Ho cioBairb BonjaHa, B*b 
CTapHHHoft YKpaHB* A^ByuiKa TaRi> me npHxoAMja wb aomi> se- 
HHxa h TpeSoBajia, «ito6u oht> Ha Heft aeHuiicfl, npH newb poah- 



i) BoeBi roBopHTi, Bnpoiem, tto eon poxHreia xeasxa aecoriacBH Ha 
TatyD CBax*6y cioero chha uh Boo6ioe Be meiam* 6pa» aa cefa otb^tct b6h- 
hocth nepexi poxnejivi aeBicTH, to xtBymsa men bi xomt. Eoro-HH6yxb m 
poxcTBeiHiROBi xeeixa h Him ocTaexcfl tiki, nosa HoxiixBmaacji bcxbactbiq 
•Toro ccopa ee craxHen (ibid. cip. 9). Ho ■ bi otom* cjyiat AtsyniiA ace 
t&kh ocTaeTca nox* oxpaeoft cexefiHaro owi n xon* poxcTBOBBHia soaixa, r*% 
ee Bpeciixoian an B&m o6paTHO, oibbbxho, bbjilbji. 

») Bo6ieBi.- Hayxa III, cTp. 34. 

3) M . Koiajeicili' 3aaoei a o6aiaft, II ctp. 168. 




CBAABBHhIB OBPHffBI BT> BOJTAPIH. 



19 



Tera ero He carfejH BTOMy np6n jitctbob&tb , 6oacB rHfeBa Eoacia 
uh saRoro-Hfl6yAB HecqacTia, tari> Kasi> BBir-HaTB orb ce6a 
yfeByniKy 6bijo 6m bt> doaoGhoitb cjyiab ocKop6jieHieMi> Bcero 
ea po*a n moimto 6u noBJieiB pasHua HenpiaTHOCTH, a cb «py- 
roS ctopohu, SoacL rataa n HaxaaaHia co CTopoHBi ijepKBH, 
BOTOpaa, oynyHH oiera CTporoi bt> TaKHXT> cjyqax'B, upeA- 
OHCUBajca noicaaHie h H&iaraJia 6ojBmia HaRasaaia, nospuBaa 
bccb ffOMi> eeaqecTieMTb *). Uo Bceft b*poathocth, bto Birfenia- 

T6JBCTB0 U,epKBH BT> YKpaHH* H Rpa&He CHHCXOffHTe^bHOe 6B 

OTHoineeie rt> noAo6HBiMT> cjyqaflMi> bt> BojirapiH MOserB 
Hlf&TB toabro TaKoe O&BflCHeme. 

Hto KacaeTCfl, aarbMb, ^pyroro npHMHTHBHaro BH^a 6pai?a — 
Eymui Hes'bcTBi, to h oht> coxpaHMCfl Ha BajxaHCROifB nojry- 
ocrpoB*, hoaoCho yMMKaaiio, HecpaBHeHHO 6ojbine, h*btb y 
bc*xt> npoHHH» cji&BflHCRHX'b HapoAOBi^ a bt> BojirapiH npe*- 
CTaBJcaeTB co6ok) qpeaBbinaftHO 6ojBinoft TeopeTimecRifi HHTe- 
peci>, coxpaHHBmH bt> ce6* qepTu Kam> BBiKyna hcbIjcth, 
bt> cMucjb yAOBJieTBopeHia ea poAa 3a HaHeceeHBitt hm?> no- 
xHn^emeiTB ffbBymsH MopajBHbift h BROHOMHnecRift ymep6T>, 
Tamb h B03HarpaRA6Hii poAa, b*b jam* ea npeACTaBirrejia— 
AOMaRHHa hih 0Tn;a HeBfeCTi* 3a npaBO, npHHagJieHcaBinee eiiy, 
RaRi» TaROMy npeACTaBHT&ifo, Ha A*BC?BeHH0CTb aeBftcTBi. 9th 
ABa SHaiema tuaTbi aa A*ByoiRy, Bupasaioiaiaca bt> AByxi> 
poAax*B njnaTBHca — o6ymTa h arapj&R'B, SyAy^n oqeHB 
qacTO cosepmeHHO pasAfcJeHBi MewAy co6ok> h lopHAHiecRH 
Apyn> otb Apyra pauHiaeiiu, a^aytb Hann* bosmotkhoctb npo- 



») ...et voila de quelle facon lee filles amoureuBes ne peuvent manquer 
d'estre bien tost pourvues, car elles controignent (dans la perseverance) le 
pere, la mere et leurs serviteurs a ce qu'elles desirent et eomme je disois 
cydessus crointe d'encourir le courroux de Dieu, etqu'il leur en arrivast quelque 
sinistra mainour: car de mettre hors la fiUe ce serait offencer toute sa race, 
qai en aarait dn ressentiment, et anssi meame its n'ont pas pour ce suiet le pou- 
Yoir cPuser la voye de fait et de violence, sans encourir comma je disois l'ire 
et la punition de 1'EgliBe qui est rigoureuse en ce cas ordonnant qnand cela 
arrive des penitences et des grandes amendes et notant leurs maisons d'infa- 
mie, tellement qu'estans intimidez de ces fausses superstitions, ils evitent tant 
qu'ils peuvent lea infortunes qu'ils croyent comma articles de foy leur devoir 
arriver par le refus de leurs enfants aux filles qui les demandent. Beau- 
plan: Description de l l Ukraine, p. 118, 119. 



Digitized by 




20 



STHOrPAftHHBCKOB OB03P*HIB. 



cjtbhhtb h noHHTB ocTaTKH noRo6Hbix r b we o6wqaeBT> h y npo- 
hhxt> cjiaBHHb, a Taicne buhchhtb HfcROTopbifl oieHb aanyTae- 

HNH CTOpOHU npHMHTHBHO OpaHHNX'b OTHOmeHift. TaiTb KaKT> 
OHH He CTOflTb OTfl'BJIbHO OT*b COBpeneHHWXT> CBafle6HhlXT> 06- 
pHflOB'b, a HanpOTHBT>, TBCHO CT> HHMH CBJIgaHbl, H TftKl* KaiTb 

Kb 9thxt> oSpflAaxi* mm ria/rfteMCff HaftTH oieHb MHoroe a-ih hxt> 
o6-bffCHeHia, to mm ocTaBjjieMT> pascMOTpfeme hxt> ffo Toro 
MOMeHTa, Kor^a ohh noaBMioTCH bt> HopMaJibHOirb xofffe nepe- 
roBopoBTi, npeAmecTByion^Hxi> OBa^e*, h ca*ii*xi> CBaaeCHHX'b 
mepeMOHiit. 

TaKHMi> o6pa30»n>, mm bhahm-b, ^to 6ojirapcKift Hapog?> yffep- 
acajn> bt> ymejn>flxT> KaJTKBHT> bt> cocToaBin nojHoit TRHSHeHHO- 

CTH T* npHMHTHBHblfl fcOpMH 6paKH, KOTOpHH y npO^HXT* CJia- 
BflHT> OCTaJtHCB TOJIbKO BT> BHfl* nepeHHBamft BT» CBaAe6HBIXl> 

o6pHffaxT>. Bjiarogapfl reorpa*H*recKOBiy nojoaceHiio CTpaHN, 

«0pMfaI 9TH He HCqe3JEH, HeCMOTpH Ha MHOJKeCTBO CJtOSHUXl> 9 

KyjbTypHux'b BJiiHHift h aaate HecMOTpa Ha jojiro kMctbo- 
BaBmee bi> Bojraphr BHaairrificKoe (oco66hho gyxoBHoe) aaBOHO - 
ffaTejrLCTBo, npecjt^AOBaBmee bth aopMH, ocotieHHO se iioxh- 
meme »eHmHHT», ct> canoft ahkoA acecroKocTbio, Ha KOTopyio 
TaK'b cnoco6Ha 6wjia BroaHTia 1 ). 

Ho, MOseTb SbiTb, Han6oj[*e apRoe AOKasaTeJib ctbo saiife- 
qaTaibHofi ctoHrocth gpeBHExi* o6biHaeBi> y Sojirapt iu hb- 



t) 0 CTporocra 9THZI 3anoHOBT» i Bootfnje 0 xecroKOCTH npeciftiOBaBiji yxHxa- 
Bia, iase bi <|>opiii hhcto pHTyaibuoft, mu moblgmi coct&bbtl ceti* noBHTie no 

BHSftHTifiCKHM'B SaKOHatfl, I«BHCTBOBaBnfHMl jaxe B* ipeBBefi PyCH. Tftftl, 24 CT. 

t&ki» H&8UBaeiun» „8axoHHHxi> HH. r i tf nacHT* cjtiy»mee: 

„BicxHTHBmefi aceaoy, bxb odpoywooyi), bjm Heotipoyieaoyi), bib BiOBoy ame 
6jaropoxBa 6oyie-rt bjb patfa, hjh ocio6oxeuaia,. . . ante me eto b cbod o6poy^- 
hisx) bicxhtbti, ame oyfo cb opoy*ien* b new a naiflnaMB BicxHBteaie ctbo- 
put ooyieTb, TasoBuft KewMt nasaes* ooyieT&j a c%moco6iHDmfiv eMoy h cBixoy- 
mea xoTtBien npieMmea ce, ase xaKOBoe jh6o noTmaaie CTsopnaie o cen, 
6b6MB a ocTpiateHB, boch Hxi oyptaaTH. Ame ji ate 6es* Bcaxaro opoysia ncza- 
meHie CTBopima, axe oy<5o BtcxHrneaie CTBopaBBft, poyxa ero oyciveai xa 6oy- 
xoyn, coocniiDbCTBOBaBmeB blo b TaaoBoai ncxsmeaiB bjb rbxoymeB b nocjoy- 
sHBmefl b bo BOJ* upacTaBmeB b TOMoy, ase BasoBoe jb6o BOTBiaaie o ran 
cTBopBBBceB, 6hen\ ■ ocrpBseini, noToienH xa 6oyioyrB a . A. II a b j o b *. B KsHm 
saKOHUBw" (C6opsm OTitjeaia pyon&aro B8. b cjob6gb. Hun. AKaieniH Haymi. . 
t. XXXVni, >& 3, CTp. 67). 




CBAAKBHUE OBPBAH BT> BOJirAPIH. 



21 



xoftHMT> bt> oSmesrb ochobhomt> noHflTiH 6ojirapcKaro Hapo^a 
o cBaffb6* co bcbmh efl o6paAaMH, e&ri> rjiaBHOMt h e/uiH- 
ctb6hho p'bmaion^eMrb aRrfc, ycTanaBJiUBaioii^eH'b 6paHBoe co- 
»HTejibCTBO, domhmo 6paRa i^epKOBHaro, cocTaBjiaiomaro h y 
6ojirapi> TOJbKO Tpe6yeMyH> saROHoarb <DopMajbHocTfc. I1oao6ho 
yKpaHHi^aMb *), BejiHRopyccaarb *), pyMbiBairb 3 ) h npoHHMt Ha- 
poflaMT> 4 ), 6ojrrapu cMOTparb Ha oSpaA'b HapoAHoft CBaffbSti, 
Ram> Ha anrb, eAHHCTBeHHo ^aiomifi npaBO cqHTarrbca cynpy- 
raMH h BCTynaTb Me»Ay co6ok> bt> cynpyaecnia oTHoniema: 
^CsaffGaTa e ffpyro, a BfcHqaHHeTO Apyro", roBopHTb oahht» 
H3b jiyqinHXT> HBCJiiffOBaTeieft 6ojirapcRoft CBafft6bi r. Bo6- 
qeBi>: „ToBa Hfenjo co6HpaTe.iHTb aa HapoffHH-rt oSH^an He 
Tp*6Ba Aa nsrySaarb H3*b np&Ai> o«ra, Kora pacnHTsarb. Bt> 
CTapo Bp&Me Sea-b CBaa6a (coBORynHocxbTa Ha o6paAHT*), 
B'BHqaHHeTo e 6hjio h«b^o hcmhcjihmo. CfiaACaTa e 6ua no 
rjaBHOTO h ti ce e npoAi»SBaaa h'bkojko nena; vjtiwb Hea cee 
paarjiaraasajio aa cb6HTHeTO, Hpfc3i> Hea c& ce npaBora AOMa- 
oihhth BecejiSn; qpteb Hea ce e AasaJio &a ce posCepe, qe co- 
SHTHeTo HMa rojrfeMa BaacHOCTb". — „Cera", npoAOji»aeTb 0H«b, 
fl CBaA6a e H3ry6nja~CTapaTa en o6pbahoctb h chmbojhsm'b 4 '). 
Ho He CMOTpa Ha ocjiafijieHie CTapHHHWb o6f*qaeBi> noAi» 
BJiiameM-b o6njeeBponeftcKott KyjibTypu, ochobhoA BarMA* ua 
SHaneHie cbrabGiii sce-TaRH npoAOjaraerb, noBHAHMOary, ocTa- 
BaTbcn npeiKHifi- bt> nojbsy 9Toro, no KpaftHeft ni-Bpfe, roBopHrb 

i) G6opHHKi sa Hapo3H yMOTBopema, aay&a h bbb*h., t. Ill, cTp. 149. 

*) „BiaqaHie He Aijaen hs% Hen (HeBtcTu) menu h xeamjiBii— oBa no npeat- 
bom j npHBHaeTCJ ADBymaoft. . . ona ho meaa— - oh» jcBBymsa... tipani aiuaeTca 06- 
meapH3HaBaeMBm tojmo aa BTOpoA xeab Bocji BiBHaaia*. UoiOMapeit: 
06pa*0Bnfi otoaA (C*BepHHH B*bctbhki 1890, mn 9 otp. 71). 

3 ) „Bkfl?aBie, no bohhtIiimi HBornxi mojaobehi, aecMOTpa aa to, ito obh 
HcnoBt>jyK>TT> npaBocjaBie, ae cqHraeTca TajtHCTBom, a tojbeo oopaAom, anoTOMy 
ciyqaeTCH, *to, cnpasaB* CBajetiBHa <J>opna.imocTH, a HHorja ■ oesi 8Toro, He 
HcnojBJiji oopaja Binaaur, Mynuaaa a ateBHWBa atBByTi bbtbct*, aasHBaacB 
Hyson* a xeBoft. 3amyai: Beccapa6ciaji o6jbctb (MaTepiajn xjb reorpa<J>ia 
a craTHCTHBH Poccia, co(5p. o<{)Buepaiia Teaep. UlTa6a) Ci 6. 1862, 1, crp. 482. 

*) qepeMBcH aexaBBO eve „xot4 a BiaqaJBCB bi uepaBa, bo aioro Biauaia 
ae cMHTajH aa bo hto a neperfee^HBajH mojoxhzi aombl no cBoeny a . CupBOBi: 
HepeMBCH. crp. 182. 

*) Bo 6 1 e b i. MaTepaaja sa 6urapcaoTO o6asaaao apano (Xacapcaii onpyn) 
bt, atypB. Hay a a & II 1882, CTp. 35. 



Digitized by 




22 



OTHOrPAGHHBCKOE 0B03PMIB. 



aoJiHOTa CBa^eSHaro o6pflga, BHAHaa mt> bc*xt> ero coBpeiteH- 
Hbix'b onHcaHifi. 

HeoSxo^HMO, BnponeMi>, cRasaTb, hto iioaoShoc OTHomeflie 
kt> cBaflefiHOMy o6paAy, cpaBHBTejibHO ct> o6phaomt> i^epKOBHbiarb, 
BOBce He cocTaBJifleT'b RaRoft-HH6yAB oco6eHHOCTB cjaBAHCKuxi, 
njreMBH'b hjdeh mieMeH'b rt> hhmtj 6ju3KHxt> reorpaM^ecra. Ot- 
HomeHie sto BHTeajio joraiecRH h3t> caitoft cymHoc™ 6pana 
h bt» cBoe BpeMn cymecTBOBajio Bezpfi bt> EBpont, 6yAy*iH 
npHSHaBaeaio ^aace caMofi xpncTiaHCKofi i^epROBBK). 9 BpaBi» 
6biJi p b yse 6jrarocJOBJifleM'b bt> asbiqecRHX'b xpajfax*", roBopHTb 
ynoMBHyTbift h8mh. Bume Edelstand da Meril, peraria 
Sojrfee CTporafl, KOTopaa npoB03raacHJia iioctobhctbo 6panHUx ( b 
o6fl3aTejibCTB , b ? HyBCTBOsaJia ce6a babo&b* o6asaHHoft o^hcthtb 

TO ,1TO BT> HHXT> OblJDLO MOTCKarO, TaHHCTBGHHUlfb B03fffeftCTBieM'b 

CBameHBaro o6pflAa u . w Ho 6paKi> nojiyqajn* cHJiyTOJUbKO 6ypyw 
oaKTimecKH coBepmeHHbiM'b% npoAOiaraerb oht> canine, ccw- 
jaflCb Ha MHtme Gratianus'a „h caMa n;epROBb He Morjua 
ocBflmaTb ero HanepeA'b, nona oht> eme Be cymecTBoaajrb bt> 

A r bfiCTBHTeJIbHOCTH a . „T0JlbK0 B'b XV B*K* I^epROBb noqyBCTBo- 

Bajia HeoGxoftHMOCTb oTJosHTb Jioraxy wh cropoHy, h aajibn,- 
6yprcRift co6opi> bt> 1420 r. nocTaHOBHXb oSasaTejbHbiM'b npa- 
bhjiomt> coBepmaTb i^epROBHufi o6paAT» B*HiaHia He nocifc 
o>aRTHiecRaro BCTynjieHia Spaqymuxca bt> nojioBoe coacHTejCb- 
ctbo, k a k t> toto Tpe6oBajn> oSuqafi, a ao Hero aa ). 
n Ho Bce-TaRM, bo H36fcwaHie HenocjrfeAOBaTe-ibHocTH, Heo6xo- 
AHmo 6ujio HaflTH aopaiy, KOTopan, He saTporHBaa ij^jioMyApia, 
6bi.ia-6bi Bee TaKH MaTepiajbHHM'b coeAHHeHiewnb, h bt> KaiecTB* 
TaKofl «opuyjibi 6bun> BBeAem. ijgpKOBbio pHTyajibHbifl noEtftayfi. *) 
Ho o6t> 9tomt> CyAerb cRasaHO 6ojrfee— bt> CBoearb m*ct*. 



1) „Non est dubium illam mulierem non pertinere ad matrimonium, cum qua 
commiztio sexus non docetur tuisse". Grationus: De bigami* nou ordinandis. ch. 
V. (Ed. Du-Meril, op. cit., p. 86), 

2 ) ,Matrimonia quoqne quae benedicenda fuerint, non post, ut moria 
e x t i t i t, sed ante ipsorum carnalem consummationem ac solemnitatis nnptiarnm 
celebrationem, pro benedictionis ipsius reverentia benedicantur. n Hartzheim Coa- 
silia Germaniae. t. V, p. 190. (Edelst. Du-Meril, op. cit. p. 36). 

3 ) Ed. Du-Meril. Op. cit. p. 36, 37. 




CBAflBBHHE OBPHAH BT> BOJl TAPIR. 



23 



ECJIH HftMT> npHXOffHJIOCB JKRJIOBaTbCH Ha HeffOCTaTOKT* MRTe- 

piajoB'b ffjfl Haynefiifl yRpaHBCKoft cBaAbOw, to othochtcjibho 
Bojirapia btotb He^ocTaTOirb eme omyTHTejbHte. HecMOTpa 
Ha rjySoRift naTpioTuaifB, nocTaBHsmift rayqeme cBoeti Ha- 
POahocth bt> hhcjio caifuxii rjaBHMXT> saaaqt o6n^ecTBeHHofl 
A'baTejbBocTH, HecMOTpa na saicliqaTejibHyH) Beeprii), o6flapy- 
aHBinyiocfl bt> 6ojrapcRoft JiHTepaTyplj h HayRfc co BpeMesH 
Haqajia nojiHTHqecRaro BOspoargeHifl btoA CTpaHti, HecMOTpa 
Aawe Ha to, too rayqenie SojrrapcRaro riapoaa cAfrsajocB 
offHofl bbi rocyxapcTBeHHBixi> saAaq* ero npaBHTencTBa, — 
MaTepiajiOBT> Bce-Tann oqeHB Majro, h t*, xaxie hm*i>tch, 

CJIMHIKOMTb M8JT0 yflOBJreTBOpHTeJBHM. To 1TO 6WJIO CA*JiaHO 
EpeSHHMH H3CJrfeAOBaTeJHMH, PaKOBCRHM^BepKOBHieMl) 

HoiaKOfiUMi, 6p. MHJiaAHHOBUHH, JI K) 6. K a p a b e- 

JOBbUfb H ApyrHMH, KpOlfb KpftTKOCTH H Hpe3M'fepH0ft CTblflJIH- 

bocth, sacTaBJABinefi hxt> yuajpiHBaTb 060 Bceifb, qTo CKOJbKo 
HH6yAB Morao noRasaTBca HenpncToftHbiMT>, OTJtnqaeTca eme 
Tbwb^ qTO BHHMame aBTopoBt 6wjo o6pampno Ma hcrjho- 
qHTejBHo na o6pflffM, nps qem> onycRaracB rrfecHH, hjih Ha 
abCHH, npHqeifb noqra Bosce He ynoMHHaiDTCH oSpaAu- Bo> 
pesyjibTarb osaauBaeTCfl oTcyrcxBie xoth-6bi offHoro oaacaHia 
cbbabSh, KOTopoe 6m aaBajio secb nocj*AOBaTejn>Hwfi xoat> ea, 
ea ApaMaTHqecxoe scenario, #aBajio 6bi bobmojkhoctb iiojib- 

SOBaTBCfl nfeCHHMH flJfl OfrbflCHeHlfl oSpflAOBTb H T. a* Pa6oThi HO- 

B*ftniHx f b H3cjrfeAOBaTejie&, SyAyiH Taai&e cjhidrom , b RpaTRHMH, 
HM*iorb 6ojvbe sayqHbifl xapaKTept, ho HHorga noHeBOjrfe CTpa- 

AaiOTb H'&ROTOpofi OAHOCTOpOHHOCTBK), KaRT>, Hanp., BBCBMa 

noqTeHHue TpyAM rr. BoeBa, BofiqeBa, Kaacyxapoaa 

XpHCTOBa H AP HJIH OHflTb-TaKH H^ROTOpoft OTpBIBOqHOCTBH) 

h HSJiHniHefi CKpoMHocTbio, KaKi>, Hanp., jiyqmiii m*b HOB'feftnmx'b 
c6opHHROBi>, H3AaBaetf Bift r. nianRapeBHMT.. Hbi> hho- 
CTpaHHuxB yqeHbixt, nncaBinHx r b o 6ojirapcRHX'b CBa#b6axT>, 
6ojiBme Bcero cA*JiaHo npo*eccopoirb B. B.BorHmuHeui> h 
rr. KpayccoMT) h ^030homt>, ho MOHy MeHTajibHbifi TpyAi> 
nepBaro h3t> hhxt> RacaeTca tojibro AByxT> SoJirapcRHxt oRpyroBi> 
BocToq. PyiceJiiH, a oqeHB cTapaTe jibh 0 cocTaBjreHHaa rjiaBa o 
OoJirapcKHXTb CBaflb6axi> bt> rhhf& r. Kpaycca npeACTasjuerb 
tojibro Haqajio HayqHoft o6pa6oTRH npe»A^ H3AaHHBixi» MaTe- 




24 



8THOrPA*HWCffO* OBOSPfeBIX. 



piaiovb; Basra me flfizoua, nften xapasTepi 6oj*c +uo*o- 
raiecxiiL, h*mt> 9THorpa#Hqecnft. h Be ecerjia onraeici ao- 
craToHHO CTporofi sparaKoi. HaxoHen,*, bhmm ibibo Sua 
CA&iaBU BiiBOTopuui nonuTiH noxyqjiTb oracaaifl CBagefrb, ca*- 
iftBRUf no Harnett cnenjaxbHofi nporpaimlk Ki> co*aj'feHj», 
9to 6uio sarb paai» bo apeMfl boAbu ct> CepSieS h crtjoBaB- 
nnix'b sa aeio coowxifi, icoTopiu Maio cnoco6cTBOBajH coo- 
KoftHOM y aaajTiio TaRHMH npeAMeraMH, Kan> 8TBorpa#i*, h Han 
yxaxocb noiyiBTb tojbeo Aaa onHcasifl 6ojrapcKHx-b CBaaefrb: 
oabo, xora h oieab KpaxBoe, ho aaxxioqaiomee bt> ce5* b* 
KOTopiu oneBb AparoifbaflUfl AexaiH, on> r. HeTpa Paja- 
b ob a H3i> Bap flu, h Apyroe— H3i> Paaioxcsaro o«pyra Mase- 
xoaia, npeBocxoflBo cocTaBjeaaoe no Harnett nporpaim* Be- 
HaafecTHbiirb aaMi jLHuoifb, nepecaaHO bbmi> r-HOMT> /JaHa- 
AsieBUMi>. 06a oth onHcaaifi, aa KOTopua us* cms.ewb csoett 
odaaaBBOCTbH) npaaecTb hxt> aBTopaMi* aamy i\iy6oKyio 6*aro- 
AapBocTB, x ) 6yxyrb nepeAaau Sana bt> ne^aTB. Bee aro oieab 
ntHflo, paBHO KaKi> u^hhh a t* naTepiajbi, KOTopue 6hjh 
aaneqaT&Hbi y»e h doctobbbo npoAOJ[waion> neqaTaTbca, ho 
vbwb Be Mea^e acero BToro eme cjnunsoM'b aeAocTaToiHO. 

9tott>-to flHeBBO HeA0CTaT0Ki> cffbAfenift irhmaerb Ham 
npesffe Bcero onpeA'kiHTb h to, cymecTByerb « Meacjy mo- 
Jioaeatbio 6o*rapcKaro aapo^a KaBafl-Ba6yAB nocToaHHaa opra- 
BHsaiua, noAodHaa to&, KaKyio mu bhjIjxh bi> YKpaHH-b bt> 
bha* napyfioABoft h ahboakoA rpoMafli? Ho ecjra 
oaa h ae cymecTByerb bt> nocTOBBaoirb bha*, to, bo bcbkom*b 
ciyia*, H3t» onHcaaifi, KOTopua y aacb HM*K)TCfl, m&i Mowein. 
aasjaoiHTb, hto kba* Mojoaue jioah, TaK*b h A^ay id kb see 
TasH rpynnBpyioTca pi cbohxi> co6paaifi a npoiHX'b o6m,e- 
CTBeHHbixi> yBeceaeBitt n Brpi>. Taxifl coGpaaifl mojoabjkh, jyi- 
mee onHcaBie KOTopux?> sua mrbeirb B^IloKasajibn* PaKoa- 
cKaro, n3B*cTHbi boat* nueuewb c*AeHOKT>, noct^eHORi) 



i) He xoiem tasse He ynonaHVTB c% 6ou>mofi 6jaroxapHOCTBD o tom* jd- 

668BOMI COXlftCTBiH, KOTOpOB 6uiO 0K&8&H0 HftMl T, T. H B a H 0 M I A p C 6 H T h 6- 

bimi AaBaxaieBHMi, XapiamiieMi AHreiOBHMi, Xpacto- 
bhmi, Gtooobumi h xp. v coo6maBnra«H Han* pa3HHe neiaTHae ■ nacbueBBHe 
naTepUuH, yiaaafiiB a t. h. 




CBAftBBHblB OBPflffU Vb BOJTAPIH. 



25 



aonpeJioRi h np. 4 ) YcTpaHBaiOTCfl ohh o6mkhob6hho oceabio 
Ha xpaio AepeBHH Boxpyr* 6ojn>moro xocxpa, a 3hm oft bi> hs6^. 
Bck> Hoib pasAaiOTca nfeCHH bo scefi AepeBHft, h TOibKo noAT> 
yTpo pacxoAHTca. ^OceHbH> a , roBOpHTCx B*b ODHeamH Paxo- 
BCKaro *), KorAa eme noroaa ctoht'b xopoman, AfeBymxH a 
MOJOAwa seH^HHu, 8 ) bt> HapflAHbixT> njaTbax 1 *, cb 6y- 

BBTaifH HS 1 * JKHBhlXT) UB*TOBT> Ha rOJlOB*, OTDpaBJXIOTCfl 06blK- 

hob6hho h^ ryMHO hah ace Ha cejibcxyio njoma^b (hjhh Ha 
Aopory sa ceoEOM-b, kskt> roBopnrb HoiaiOBt, *) rA* npea^e 
ohh pac k jaffHBaioT'b oroflb, noToirb, doctbbhbidh bo- 
Kpyri> o r h a phhhua AepeBaHHHH jhbkh, caAXTca 
Ha hhxt> n HaHEHaiorb Bet bm*ct* pa6oTBTb, t. e. npacTb 
jLewb h t. n. Pa6oTa 9Ta conpoBosrA&eTca SeanpepuBHUnH 
n'bCHHMH. C-b Apyrofi CTopoHH, cejbCKie napHH Toace co6h- 

paiOTCH BM*CTfe H, paSAfeAHBIHUCfc Ha H&CKOJtbKO APyRHH'b, BO- 

opyacaioTCfi HoacaM h, najxaini hbtj onaceHia, hto6bi He caynnjiocb 
KaKoro-HH6yAB Hecqacria (b$pohtho, bto hm£jo cvucJFb bt> 
oco66hhocth bo speMH Typei^Karo rocnoACTxa), h sartBTb ot- 
upaB MioTCfl kt> A^ByjnKawb, hm*h ct> co6oft BcerAa xoro-HHCyAb,, 
yM^iomaro nrpaTB Ha KaKom> *HH6y a& HapoxHomb HyBusajub- 

HOaTb HHCTpy M6HT f fe . UpHAX Ha M*CTO, TA^ COOpaHbl yS6 A*Byffl- 

kh 5 napHH npHBiTCTByiorb hxt>, a A^BymKH^ oTBtnax na oto 
npHB*TCTBie, BCTaiOT'b h CToarb ao T*x«b nop-b, noxa bc* nap- 
HH ho ycHAyTcx Ha oahoS cropoH* xpyrooGpasaaro ciAainma 

H He npHTJtaCHTb C*CTb H HXT>, npOCfl BM$CTfe CT> TkWb n*Tb. 

^ByraxH caAHTca nojiyxpyroifb Ha Apyroft CTopoa* xpyra, 
o6pa3yenaro CKaMBflMH, bt> cpeAHH* xoToparo 6eanpepuBH0 ro« 
pHTi> oroHb, ocB-bmafl oojLinoe npocTpaHCTBO h npeACTaBJaa 

*) B* Bip6ini co6paBu Moioiexi Ha yiHn/B, iipoHcxoxamj* ooHRfloeeHHo 
on BejiMeu *o CnacoB*e«, hocjti BasBaeiji BeiepHnm, noTra co- 
BepmeHHO Taa* *e, aaai bt» YapaHHi (Be a pa 1689, Dhhh, Ji 1. CTp. 69). 

2 ) OraTba JRHB3H(j)OBa, cocTaBjeBHa* no ehbi"b PaaoBcaaro 1 noxi- 
meHHaa bi> H3BicTiaxi H. 06m. J»6HTejeft EcTecTB03Hayia, AaTpoDOiorin x 
3rHorpafiH. (Tpy^a dTBorpa^Hi. Orrfja, kh III, bub. I M. 1874 r. CTp. 51—58). 

3 ) Hto KacaeTCa ynacTia bthxi co6paHijtxi mojoxhxi z e b m h h 1, to 
oho Ham aaseTca oneH& coMHHTejBHHM*, Tim 6oiie hto He yooMHHaeTca hi b* 

OAHOM'Jb H31 npOHHXT* HCT0HHHK0BT> (B06Bl, Op . cit . CT}). 5; ^OJAXOfil, 

wp. 8, etc). 

*) ^oi&kobi, op. cit. CTp. 8. 



Digitized by 




26 



9TH0rPA<l>UqECK0K 0B03P&HIB. 



Becejoe 3p*jHme. *) fttBymKH HaHBHaiorb pa6oTaTb h h*tl 
nfeCHH, Tor^a Kant napHH chart* cmhpho n caymaiorb n*Hie, 
Bbipanafl npn btomi> yAOBOJibCTBie. Ilocjrh BToro napHH, cb 

CBOefi CTOpOHU, BC* BCTBIOTb Cb M*CTb H jmiHHaiOT'b BeCTH 

kojuo: KawAbift H3T» ehxi Sepera 3a pyRy Ty /rfcBymKy, ro- 
Topafl eMy apaBHTCH, Tara hto xopoboat> cocTaBjaeTca hb* 
K*BymeK r b h napHefi bm*ct*. [Io oROHiamH cuhckh, a*- 
syniRH ffaiorb icaacgafl cBoeMy jhoSobhbrj bx 3HaRi> npHBfl- 

3AHHOCTH KHTKy, T. 6. 6yR6THRT> H3T> IJB*TOB , b, 06BHThlft 

RpacHOio meJiROBOio HHTKoft. IlapHH, npHHflBmH 6yK6Tw h no- 
6jaroAapHBfflH sa bhxt» A*BymeK'b, paBHO Ran-b h sa nfcctni, 
npom;aiOTCfl cb hhmh h oTnpaBJiHioTCfl Ha ffpyryio ctfleHRy... 
Ha 3ap* RasAbiit m% napHefi HAerb Ha Ty cfeAeHKy, rff* na- 
xoffHTCfl ero cecTpa kjh ace ero OyAymaH HeBtcra, He HMtiomaa 
6paTa, h conpoBosAaeT'b ee &o AOMy. 

BHAOH3Bff*HeHie C&A6HRH cocTaBJifleTb y 6ojfrapT> TjfbRa. 
9to to ace hto tojok4 B"b YRpafiH* h n6MOHb bt> BeJH- 

ROpOCCiH, T. e. 06bliaft COSfclBaTb pOACTBeHHHROB'b H 3HaRO- 

mlixt> AJiff HcnoneHifl KaKoft-HHfiyAb pafioTM, TpeCyiomeft cpasy 
6oju»moro rojihhbctbb pa6oiHrb pyRi>, npH qeMt pa6oTa 8Ta 
HcnoAHfleTCfl bt> bha* BsaHMHaro OAOnreemH h 6esi> njaTH, a 
TOJEbRO 3a OAHoyromeHie r conpoBo»AaeMoe My3UROK> h nfeCHHMH. 
Bt> YKpaHHt, ocofieHHO bt> nocjrfeAHee BpeMH, 9thmt> qacTo nojb- 
3yH>TCfl h Aawe 3JioynoTpe6jrflK) , rb Rpynaue xosaeBa, oco6eHHO 
CBflH^eHHHRH h MeaKie noMfcmnRH. ^hh sa abb, sa Tpn no cejiy 
hah Aa»e no HfecRojbRHirb coc*ahhmt> cejaifb *3ahtt> npn- 
Kam,BKT> cb H*cROJibRHMH My3HKaHT8MH h n par* am a era na 

0 Hejbsa He otbtbthte aaiifaaTejBHoe cxojctbo Bcefi btob kbptkhh, npeicraB- 
juomoh (foirapcHoft cfcjeHEoft, do omcasiD PaftoicBaro, c% t-bmi, tto picym 
Ham HaitcTHaa BeiHiopycciaa sojajKa, noiiimaeiiaa bo wAx% xpecroMaTuxv. 



Bnpo?eirb, bi nocjfcjwee Bpevx itojwhhhoctl 3to3 komim nojBepraeTCH 

COMHiHiB. 



„Iftca ctohti ipeMyiie, 
B% rb» jricaxi orsn ropan, 
Ophh Toptm BejHBie; 
BoKpyn oraef cbbmbi ctoht-b, 

CiaMMI CTOBTB XJ^OBHB. 

Ha Tin cbamebx* xotfpa no jojwh, 



^06pH MOIOWB, BpaCHH l^BEO.H, 

IIodtl iAchb KOjrioxyDKB... 

Bt CpeXXBt HXl CTapHKl CHART*, 
Oh* TOHHTl CBOft 6yjaTHHfl HOXl. 
KOTeJl KHBHTl POpDHifl, 

Bosjtb KOTiaKOseji ctohti, 
Xotbti Eosia BapiaaTH... a 




CBAJP3BHHB OBPflflH BT> BOOTAPIH. 



27 



TOJOKy B*b BasHaieHHbift achb, o6hkhobobho bt> BOCBpeceBte. 
Ob yTpa bbjbiotch napHH h AfcBymKB, h pa6oTa after* rvfeauft 
fleHt, npepuBancb orb speMeaH ao BpeMeaH yromemeirb h 
TaHAaMH noAi> 3ByKH MysuKH. IIohth to ace cantoe npoHcxoAurb 
n bt> Bojrapin, ho TOJibso npHM*HHTejibHO kt> 3hmhbmt> pa6o 
t&jh>) h npHTOBTb coxpaHBH xapaKTepb Sojrfce nepBo6biTBO& 
saaHHHoft noMomH, ct> npHcoe^HHeflieifb kt> BTOMy scbxTb xa- 

paKTepHbIXT> OC06eHHOCTeft C*AGHRH. II 0 BCeft BipOflTHOCTH, BTO 

He hto HHoe, KaKb cjiiflHie bm^ct* AByxi» oSwqaeB b, npoHcmeA- 
mee, Moacerb 6utb, name caiio cofioio ecTecTB€HHo 9 bt> cnjiy 
o6uRnoBeHHUxi> ycjiOBifl cencRoft sh3hh. Bt» BejiHRopoccin, 
Hanp., no CAOBairb r. CymjOBa, jk>ah sasHTO^Hbic Be Aonyc- 
Raiorb ydpoftcTBa BeiepHHOR*b bt> CBOHXb ftOMaxi) H3T> ona- 
ceHia noABeprayTb csoe mmmmje BjiiuHiio neiHCTOft chjtu Ha 
ij'fejihix'b Tpn roffa. 1 ) OieHb Moaerb 6biTb, hto, scjiiffCTBie 
noAo5Hbixi> me oocroflTejibCTB'b hjeh name BOo6nje do npHiHBfe 
HeaejiaBin xosaeBTb ycTpansaTb y ce6a myMHOe c6opHme mo- 
JojiesH, . coGpaHiuM'b bthmi bt> BoJirapia npHnuocb HCxaTb 
npiiOTa h BOcnojbSOBaTbCH niKoft, RaK*b HaH6oxfee yAofiHtiirb 

CnOC060MT> COeAHHHTb C*ffeHhy Cb HHCTO BROHOMHieCRHlfb o6m- 

iaeMi> BsaHHHofi domoh^h bt» pa6orb. 

Be*iepoirb, bt> AeHb HasHaieHHiaft A*fl tji>kh, r/»a»h H3t> 
upHrjanieHHbixi) /vfeBymeK'b, oftbsmHCb b*b caMoe jiynmee h 
MCToe njaTbe, cb ije'feTaMH Ha rojOB* h npnroTOBHBniH k h t- 
. iy, t. e. 6yKeTHKT> ipfcTOBi*, fieperb cboio paayRpameHHyio 
npxjusy h, bt> conpoBOSAeHiH CBoero 6paTa hjh Koro-HHoyAb 
H3T> AonainHHXT>, OTopaBjifleTCH btj Rom*, KyA& ee oparjiacMH. 
KorAa BCfc A^BymKH co6epyrcH, oh* HanHBaiOTb HcnoJEHHTb npeA- 
jiaraeMyio mmt> aomoxosahhomt* paSoTy, name scero 6HTbe By- 
Kypysu hjh qTo-HH6yAb noAoSnoe, h bo Bee BpeHH saHflTin 
no4TH HenpepbiBHO nofOTb H3B*cTHaro poAa nfecHH. Ob Apyroft 

CTOpOHbl, napHH COCTaBJIflK)TT> H*CKOJIbKO Apy»HHT> HM*fl BO 

rcaBfe CBHp^Jibin.uROB'b, OTnpaBJflioTCfl bi> aomi>, rA* nponcxoAHTb 
Tjn>Ka. Ha BCTpfcHy hmt> bbixoahti* xo3flHHT> h npHrjramaeTb hxt> 
boAth bt> KOMHaTy, rA* naxoAflTCfl A^symRH. BoftA« bi» 8Ty 
ROMHaTy, napHH npesAe Bcero SAopoBaiOTca ci> A^BymHaMH, 



i) H. CyimoBi: ^ocsiTsa a doch^4jeh. K. 1886. erp. 6—6 




28 



OTflOrPAftHUSGKOB OB08P&HIE. 



KOTopwa bt> 3HaKi> yBaareiiifl TOTqacb BcraiOTB cb m*ci-b h 

CTORTB AO T*XT> HOpT>, HOKa DO HXT> npOCb6* napHH Be CSfiJTb 
Ha npOTHBOnOJIOSHOtt CTOpOH*. 

Hoc** Toro napHH, bt> cboh> oqepeffb, npHrxamaiorb A*BymeR , B 

C*CTb H npOCATb HXT> H*Tb IT&CHH HaiHHaeTCfl OHHTb pa60TH, 

conpoBOacffaeMaa ntaieirb h nrpofl Ha cBHptjiH hjhh Ha RaRomb- 
HH6y«b ApyrOMb HHCTpy M6HTb . IIopa6oTaBUiH TaKHMt oGpaaoMi* 
H*KOTopoe Bpenfl,HHorAa aoboxbho AOJiro, bc* BCTaiorb bm*ct* 
h, Bbififfji Ha ABop*b hjih, ecjH OToro He nosBOJiaerb norofta, 
ocTaBaflCb bt> Tofi are ROMHaT*, HaiHHaiOT'b bbcth xopo, npa 
qeifb HasAuft napeHb CTaHOBHTca phaomt> cb xofi ffbBymRoi, 
KOTopaa eiiy 6oju»me ApyrHxi> HpaBHTC*. Bt> cpeAHH* ae npyra 

CTOHTB Caifb XOSflHH'B H CO CB*HaMH HAH jyiHHOft Wb pyRaX«B 

ocB'tmaeTb TaHuyioin.HX'b . IIocje* BToro bc* ohrtb npH hhm aiOTCfl 
3a pa6oTy. Xopo BoaoSHOBXjieTCfl TaKHMb o6pa30M r b h*crojebro 
pa»T>. ^IIo nojyHoqH xo3hhht> HaxpbiBaeTb Ha ctoji Bbicra- 

BHBIOH, CMOTpfl HO COCTOHHilO, paBlHIHHJI RymaHB* H BHHO 

AtjMMH BeApaMH, yromaerb paSoTHH^. IlapHH *art*b bm*ct* 
Cb A^BymBaMH, yroman Apyn> Apyra, ho A*ByniKH BeAyrb 
ce6* ckpomho, BHHa me oh* hjh bobco He nbiorb, hjch oqeHb 
Majio. Hmt> npHCJEysHBaeT'b can* xo3ahhi> h bc* ero AOMaineie. 
Ilo OROB^aHin ysHHa bc* bbixoahtb Ha abop*b h cHOBa Taa- 
uyioTB xopo. Qocj* SToro, oTHpaBaemHCB bt> KOMHaTy, napHH 
npocfiTB npHHBCTH hmt> p*mexo cb mepcTBK) h BepeTenaifH. 
KOTopoe HeneAaeHHO hphhocatb h RjiaAyrb ero b-b cepeAHH* 
KOMHHTU. TorAa Ha»ABift nm napHefi 6eperB H3i> ptmera He- 
MHoro mepcTH h BepeTeno, ROTopufl nepeAaeTB CBoeft B03Jno6- 
jieHHofi, npocfl ee nonasaTB eMy, naxTb npnAyrB. Orb aroro 
npeAJKOsenifl hh oAHa A*BymKa He no»erB oTRasaTBCfl, h6o, bt> 

npOTHBHOMT) CJiyqat, 8T0 6bJ JO 6h CHJIbHBlM'B OCROp6jeHieiCB AJCfl 

MOJiOAoro HejiOB*Ba. IIodTOMy A*ByiuKH cb paAOCTBio h totob- 
hoctbh) 6epyrB npeAJiaraeMBifl hmt> sepeTena h, HaMOTaBnm 

Ha HHX1> HCMHOrO OpflHtH, CHOBa B03Bp anjaiOTB HXT> HSpHfllfB. 

IlocjrBAHie, aejiafl CA*JnaTb A*BymKairB yAOBOJtbCTBie h noKa- 

3aTB HlfB, HTO H OHH yHaCTByWTB BT> SeHCROlfB TpyA* H HO- 

TOraiOTB ero, npaAyrB HesiHoro, hocjt* qero ohh ohhtb MaAyrb 
BepeTeHo wb p*meTO. 3to osHa^aerB, ito HacTynHJia nopa pac- 
xoAHTbCfl. Ho, npe»Ae q*Mi» paaofrrHCb, A^ayniKH BejwqaK>Tb 




CBARBBHllB OBPH^N Wb BCiTAPIH. 



29 



nfeCHHMK Kasgaro est* napHeft ct> toA A*BymKoft. ROTopaa npit- 
Hfljsa on> napHs sepeTeHo h 9thmt> ^aia SHairb, <ito h ohb He 
npoiB juo6htb ero. Bt> bto BpeMH AfesyniRa, KOTopyio Bera- 
qaKWb, ne noerb, ho, xona RpacHfta, rmK&vb bhhbi> ao t*xt> 
nop*b, noxa He HanHyrb BeraqaTb apyryio A*BymHy. IlfcCHH bth 
saKJuo^aiOTb bt> ce<5* o6biKuoBeBHO HameKH Ha 6y*ymee cobah- 
Heme «*ByuiKH h aapHa: 

Kipma, Toxopo, juiii, Uap* ■ ijapma, Toxopo; 

IIpaiH, T<uopo, MocToie, He mhhs napfc h ippma, 

Hi me xa vine, Toxopo, He Mm Ctcmhi h Paxa. . . 

IIo oKOHMaHiH noAo6Hofi ntcHH ocTajbHbia Kbnymnn h napHH 
noaApaBJiHiorb BejiHqaeMbix'b, roBopa hmt»: ^a 6yAeTi> ohb 
Te6t cqacTJHBOK), Ctohhi hie ^paraHt! #a 6y- 
Aefb oht> Te6* cMacTJTHBUM^, Pa^a hah 3jaTKal* 
Ilocjrfe BToro A*ByniKH pasftaiorb napHairb, KaacAaa CBoeMy, 
bhtrh h HairaaioTb pacxoAHTbca no AoicaMt bt> conpoBora- 
AeHiH 6paTa hah poACTBeHBHRa; a rfcx*, y xoTopmb h*tt> 
6paTa, conpoBOKAaiorb hxt> jioSobhhrh. Ecjih ace qncjo npn- 
cyTCTByiomnx'b A^Bymerb npeBbiwaerb hhcjio napfiett, H— Ha- 
oooporb, to m&cto HeAOCTatoumxi^ jhu,t> BaMftHJUOTB iiajoifrr- 
Hia a*th, KOTopbia He npHHHMaiorb HHRaRoro yqacria bi> urbrfe; 
bto A*JtaeTCfl toabro ajw Toro, HTo6bi mhcjio napHefi paBHajocb 
HHCjy A*ByraeRT> h Hao6oporb. tt 

IlepecM aTpHBaa HeMHoria aanncaHHwa ao chxt> aopi> u*chh, 
noionjiaca Ha bthxt> coCpaHiaxi, MOAOAeacH, mbi He HaxoAHMi> 
bt> hhxt> hh qeprb oco6eHHO apxaHqecHHXT>, hh yxasamft Ha 
nepBofiuTHoe SHaieHie 9thxt> coopamfl. RbCHH BaHJUoqafOTb bt> 
ceSfc TOJibRO qepm hhcto omtobmh, doapo6hocth, HMtionija 
xapaRTepi> qncTO onncaTejiBHuft h oneHB qacTo BecbMa hobth- 
qecaifi. OAna H3i> bthxt> ntcefirb Aaerb nawh npejiecTHyio Rap- 
THHEy, HBoCpaaeaiomyio AByxi* OBqapoBi>, co6paBinHxca ysn- 
HaTb h ycjibiuiaBiiiHx r b BHHsy bt> AOJiHH'b n*Hie A'hBynieH'b: OBqapu 
drhmaTb koh^htb CBoe „neqeHe arHfc% htoGu coMth bbh3t> u 
npBHHTB yqaarie bt> ctAGHRt l ). ^pyran nliCHfl pncyerb Hani> 
A^BymRy, poAHTeJin ROTopoft npnRaabiBaiOTb npnSpaTb ROMHaTy, 
nocTJiaTb nocTejb h joshtlch cnaTb; ona HcnoJiHflerb Bee bto 

0 C6opHiKiaa napoxHM ynoTiopeHiui, nayaa h auBXHRHa, II, CTp 36 y % 11. 




80 



OTHOrPAftHIBCKOE OBOBPfeHIE. 



h ae cnHT-b, a AO&A&BniHCb , noKa ycHyrb en po^HTe^H, hoth- 
xoHbKy yxoAHTi> kt> CBOHM*b noApyraarb Ha yjomy, ta* y»e o 
Heft cnpaBJfieTCfl ea mojoaoS Apyn> TpeTba n$CHa, oqeHb 
HBTepecHaa, npeACTaBjaerb Ha&rb AfcflRa-aajiyrepa, ycjumaB- 
maro B03jrb MOHacTbipa a*aie AfeByinRH h npoKJHHaiomaro cbom> 
cyA*6y: ecJtH 6u oht> ycAunuurb paHbme ea nfeaie, 



^Bymaa Beaa He CMymaerca, Biiponeirb, o6*TaMH, npona 
HeceHHUMH hojioaumii MOHaxoirb, h coB*TyeTb eiiy: 



IIo cjioBaMT> CTapHHHiax'b onncuBaTejieft fiojrrapcKHXt npa- 
bobT), A*BymKH h conpoBO»Aaiomie hxt> ct> efeAeHOR'b NOJOAue 
jioah pacxoAaTca no AOMairb, h9thmi> Bee ORaHiHBaeTca. Ho y 
hobMiiihxi» n3CJi*AOBaTej[[e8 mu HaxoAHMt ynoMHaaHie o tomt», 

HTO ^Bt H*KOTOpMX'b M*CTaXT> Ha nOC*AeHRaXT> MOMie H MO- 

mhijm HoqyK)TT> bm*ct* napaMH, ito, noBHAHMOMy, wrfcAyeTb 
noHHMaTB wb cMbicxi Aonymeaia m noJOBoro co»HTejn>CTBa, 
TaKi> KaKi» bcjtJ&at> 3aT*MT> cooSnjaiomifi o6t> btomt> aBTopi 
(r. BoeBT>) roBopHTb: „Bo MHorHxt M*CTaxi>, BnpoqeaM>, nooio- 
Bbifl CHomema yace He AonycaaiOTca*. TaKT>, Hanp., bo MHorax f b 
AepeBHaxT> okojio Pycqyaa cymecTByerb o6biqaft AonycKaTb 
Toro H3*b napHeft, KOTopuft noJibsyeTca pacnojroseHieifb a*bhi^m, 
HOHesaTb ct> Heft, ho tojkko c r b ycjiOBiearb secTH ce6a cRpoMHo; 
bt> npoTHBHOMX anyqafc, Hapymffrejieft npaBHJta o ij-fejroMyApeH- 

HOCTH SaCTaBJiaiOTb CROp'be BCTyHHTb bt> 6paKT» *). 

BoTb H BCfc A&HHblH, Kaflia MOrJIH Mhl OTMCRaTb Bl> JHHTe- 

paTypt BToro sonpoca o6t> o6mecTB6HHofl opraeH3ai£H mojio- 
AesH o6oero nojia y 6ojfrapi> h o nocHA*HRax r b. Ecjih mm He 
HaxoAHifb bt> hhxt> noApoOHbix'b ynasaHift Ha cymecTBOBaHie 
bi> BojirapiH TaKoft ace npaBHJbHoft opraHHsaiuH MoaoAeaH, Ra- 



ti ibid. cxp. 35, M 10. 
i) ibid. crp. 86, ft 12. 
3 ) Boesi. Ki 6paiHony npasy Bojrapi, crp 5. 



9 JtflM.6 Be 6ex ce woaajyr^pHi, 

nowuyrSpHJ, Hue opeMtaiu, 

ApeH opeipe«Hj, xyma noT6nnj...« 



». . . . (J>KpjH TjRt&B na 8 *JTa xynua, 

H UUHMOBKa B BOBft sxiHia 

Ta na ch xoUh kox MOMa Baia! tf *) 




CBAAXBBUB OBPHJM Wb BOJTAFIH. 



31 



Ryio Mil BHff-kra Ha ynpaHHCKHXT> napy (JoijbRoft h pBoi^b- 
Kofi rpoMHAax'b, to mju Bce-raHH aaM^qaescb acHue ca&ah 
cyn^ecTuoBaHia noAofieofi opraa&3aiUH npe*Ae. TaKHMH <yi*AaMH 
CHHTaeMi> Mbi apewAe acero echo BbipaseHuyi) rpynnnpoBKy 
napaefi h A*ByuieKT> ota^jibuo npjvb on Apyra, noEBJieflie 

TfcXT> H ApyrHXl> BT> BHA* OTff*JIbHHX'b KOMIiaHifi, ROJUeKTHBHblit 

npie*n>, A*JiaeiiMft A^BymxaMH napHflMt h t. a* Bo aceMb btobtb, 
KaKi> napHH, TaRi» h A^syuiKH hbjihiotch, Raffb rpynna, a He 
KaKT> cjiyiaftHoe co6pame mojoaux^ juoAefi, xota y hhxt>, no* 

BHAHMOMy, H*Tb, KaK*b BT> YRpaHflfc, HH CKJiaA^HHW, HH DOCTOflH- 

huxt> b3hocobt> bo> o 6m,e ctb6 h Hy io Baccy, hh oco6bix?> npeACTa- 
BHTejieit, KaKi> yspasHCBie o t a m a h i> h ot&m&hb^ h t. a* 
Enje bt> Sojrfee crpynnHpoBaHHoarb bha* h bi» 6oj*e bchoA, 

H'bWb BT> yKpaHH^^OpM* HBAflDTCH 9TH TpyUHfcl M0JE0A6SH, HpH» 

HEBiaa yiacTie bt> cBaAe6Hwxi» ijepeiioHiHX'b, rA* ohh oieHb 
qacTO HOCflTb qpesBbinafiHO xapaRTepabia aaaBaHia no6pa- 
THMOB'b h nocecTpHMT>, npaMo nepeHOca nacb BT> TOTb 
nepioA*b, KorAa bc* MOJiOAbie juoah siafla 6jujh ne»Ay cofioio 
SpaTbHMH, a AfeBymKH — cecTpaMH. Ho o6t> stout, mbi 6yA6M?» 
roBopHTb Acurite) Tenepb me oSpaTHirb Hame BHHManie aa APy* 
ryio, BfcpoflTHo, enje 6oji4e apxanqecsyio h 6ojrbe aasHyio, ct> 
toirh 3p*Hia HCTopiH KyjibTypw, oco6eBHocTb 6ojrapcBHXi» cfc- 
A6hori> — AonymeHie noJiOBhix^ cHomemft KexAy napMMH h 
A*BymBaMH, KOTopoe bt> YHpaHH*, xarb h bt> 6ojbmeft nacTH 
MiCTHOCTefl Bojirapin, ycirfejio npeBpamrbCJi y«e b% npocTofl 
o6biiaft nepeaHBaHifl — bt> coBifbcTHoe enaHbe 6ez r b bcs rhx% 
HHTHMHOCTeft, ^aRTHHecRH HapymaioinHX'b nfcJioiiyApie. 

„06biiafi CBo6oAHMXb nojOBbixi* OTHomeflifi aaMtieH* Obu* 
H3CJn*A0BaTejiflMii u — rbri> mbi CRasajra y»e co cjiobT) r. Boesa— 
H Ha nocHA*HKax r b 1 rfffe napHH h A^symRH HoqyiOTb BM&CTfe 
napaMH 44 . Ecjih mbi npHnoMHHMi> npn 8tomt> ynoBtflByTuft yxe 
hbmh Bbime *aRTb, ^to B'b to Bpenfl, KorAa nocj* TJTbRH nap- 
HH h A^BymRH pacxoAaTca no AOMaM**, oSpamaeTca ocooeHuoe 
BHEMasie Ha to, iTo6bi hhcjio napaefl paBHRjioob incjty a*- 
ByuieRT>, TaKi> htoGu RasAuft h RasAan hm4jih cbok> napy, h 
ito, bi> cjiyqa* aenapaocTH, HeAOCTaioii^HX'b jihi^t* aaM^HaiOTh 
MajiojrbTHie, He npHHimaiomie a He Moryn^ie npHHUMaxb yqa- 
CTie B r b Hrpaxi>, to Hain> Raaeica, hto hbi> bthlx* ^brtob'b 



Digitized by 



82 



9TH0rPA#HHBCK0B 0B03P*fflB. 



# 



mu uontewb BUBecTn saKjnoqeirie, qro otfuqan era npe«- 
CTaBjfl K)T*b co6ott Gojbinee, qfeMB o6biKHOBeHHwa co- 

SpuHifl MOJOffeTKH ffjfl yBecejeHifl, h HyarAaiOTCfl bb 6ojfee 

06CTOHTeJbHOMT> H3CJ&AOBaHiH, T*MT> 6oJTbe 1TO OHH, nOBHffH- 
MOMy, MOXO BflSyTCH CT> 06mepaCnp0CTpaH6HHHMH nOHffTiflMH 

o nojOBoit HpaBCTseHHOCTH y BojrapB. 

Knb coacajrbHiio, HaKB npejKHie, TaRT> h HOBMmie nncaTexH, 
roBopfl o itftaoMygpiii SoarapcRax-b veHiiwH'b, HRBor^a Be npo- 
BOffHTb CROJii>RO-HH6yAB p*3Koft nepTbi Meatfly noBeffenieirb 
areHD^HH'b ao sanywecTBa a bt> aaMywecTB*. He hm*h bb m- 
Teparyph pfemaTenHO hh o*Horo *aRTa, ROTopwft 6h npaMo 
yRaswBajrb Ha jierKoe noBeAeme saMyjRHHXB areHmHH'b, bth 
ckxohhij nyuRTb) hto oon^epacnpocTpaHenBoe MH*Hie o HXT> 
saM^qareJibHott b*phocth MyatBHMB «e MoareTB 6litb ocnapn- 
BaeMO. OTHoevrejfbHO ate DrfejioMyApia /vkBymeKB mbi HM^eirB 
OT3HBhi ffocTaToqHO npoTHBoptiHBbie. He roBopa yxe o tom*b, 
«ito T*-we nHcaTejH, ROTopHe yTBepstAatoTB, qxo Hapymeaie 
i^*jOMy/tpia fftByinRott ecTb Benjb bt> Bucraefl CTeneHH pfeffRaa 
h HCRJUOiftTeJbHaa, ^aiorb BM-feerfc cb rhm> yRasama Ha 
paaHaro poAa oSwnaH h o6paABi, cymecTBy»mie Ha cjyqatt, ecjiH 
HestbOTa ORaweTCfl He ffbBCTBeHHoft; bt> cB'feA'bHiax'b ate hob*S- 
mHXTj H3C4tffOBaTeieft mm aaxo/jHMB yate npaMwa yRaaaein Ha 

TO, TOO B*B H*KOTOpUXT>, DO RpaftHefl M*pt, MfeCTHOCTHXB EOJT- 

rapin ff*BCTBeHHocTb OH6HB Mdio ^hhtcx h HapymeHifl ea npo- 
hcxoartb aoboibho tocto. Tarn,, no cJOBaifb r. BoeBa, cBo6o«a 
hojobbixb oTHomeHift ao saiiysecTBa BCTp*<iaeTCH bb 6*jirpaA- 
qHRCROMB onpyrfe h 3arfeMB bt> MeRe^oHiH, bt> onpecTHOCTAx'B 
IIpHjrbna, rpjb oua npHKpBiBaeTca BCTytuteHiev b napHH cb a*- 

ByjUKO* BB TBRTb Ha3H& HOSpaTHMCTBO h nocecTpHM- 
CTBO. IlapeHB CB A*BymKOft OTHpaBJTfllOTCH BT> TipaSAHHRB KB 

o64ah*, bo BpeMfl MTesifl EBaHrejria ctoatt> bmIjct* orojo cbh- 
njeHHinta, 3aT*MB nocjfc o6*ahh ijfcjiyfOTCH h «1)jraK)TB Apyn> 
Apyry no^apRH. IIocji* dToro oSpa^a ofiiueHie hoaoShbixb no- 
6paTHM0BT> c«b cbohmh nocecTpHMHHH npoHcxoAHTb, RaRB y My w a 
cb weHoft, paBHHua tojibko s r b tomt>, hto ohh atHByrB BposB 
h bt> i^epROBHbia 6paKB MearAy co6ok) ue BCTynaiOTB. U,*jto- 

MyApeHHOCTB BB BTHXB WfeCTaXB He COCTaBJAeTb am A^BymRH 

Heo6xoAHMaro ycjiOBia npu BCTynjreHiH bi> 6paRi>, ho B*b sanyare- 




CBAflBBHblE OBPflflbl BT> BOJITAPIH. 



33 



ctb4 bth »e nocecTpuMM CTporo coCJUOAaiOTb cynpyraecRyioBfcp- 
HocTb 1 ). TaK7>-2se toiho bt> 6^Jnrpa^MHRCROM r b oRpyrb, no cjOBairb 
Toro ace aBTopa, Heu^JiOMyApeHHocTb HesicTw Baeqerb sa co6oio 
tojibko to, hto ee Rynaiorb bt» 6jH2Kaftiueft pfcR* Ha Apyroft a^hl 
nocjrfe o6i>flBjeHiir en bhhbi. Enje Sojrfee HHTepecHU bt> btomt> ot- 
Hoineflin, xom h He ourcmaiOTCfl aeaaTejibHoft onpe/rfejeHHocTbio, 
CB^A^Hifl, coo6n^aeMHH BepBOBHHesfb, o KHTeAflX'b Maxe- 
AOflin — KonaHOBijaxT> h IliHBijax'b. 0 nepBiwb, atHBymnx'b bt. 
M'bCTHOCTJix'b CRoncia, KyuaHOBCRa h BpaHCKa, oht> 
roBopHTb npflMo, hto „»eHCRifi nojn» y hhxt> pa3BpaTHLifl u , h 
qTO passparb y hext* n c4HTaeTCfl npeHMymecTBOM*b tt *). 0 bto- 
pwxT>, HacejiflK)n^HXT> npoorpaHCTBO iiejKAy ropaMH Cmort>, Ko- 
raHOBCKa, MejeniOBcna — ao Bhtomckhxt* h PnjibCHHX'b ropi>, 
roBopHTCfl TaRse no noBOAy o6biiafl nosadbiBaTb A°*a3aTejib- 

CTBa A*BCTBeHHOCTH HeB&CTbl, HTO BTOTb 06bIHaft HpOHBOmeJTb, 

BiipoflTHO, ^OTb HeptAKoft pasapaTHOCTH aceHCRaro nojia" (3Ha- 
qHTb ao saiiysecTBa). ^niflHeifb, roBopHTb BepROBHVb, 
jerRO cHOCHTb CesnecTie aceHmHHhj... Tpe6oBanifl HpaBCTBen- 

HOCTH H6 HMfefOTb HHRaROrO BjriflHJfl Ha HHX«b, OOBTOMy OHH 

Bosce He oOawaioTCfl, bhah lacro 6e3iecTie (HeBtcrb), xoth h 
qpesBWHafleo MCTHTejbHbi 8 ) tt . 9th oieHb HHTepecHUA caMH 
no ce6* arhblih, ycTaHaBJMBaiomitf BMiicrfe ct> BumenpHBeAeH- 

HHMH CB*A*HiflMH I\ BoeBH OttRTb CymeCTBOBflHifl B*b H*RO- 

Topwxb nrfeeiHOCTHx-b BojrapiH cbo6oabi no.soBbix'b oTHOiueHifi 
AO 6pana, AonojiHfliOTCfl y BepROBH^a abymh eme 6ojrfee bhjr- 
hume, aereHAaMH, ROTopwH, Moarerb 6biTb, bt> cocTOflHiH GpocHTi* 
H^ROTopuft cb*tt> Ha cymecTBOBame BToro poAa HpaBOBi y 
6oj[rapi> — njieMeHH, HMtemaro yse HHAHBHAyatfbHbift 6pain>, no 
Bcefi B*poflTHocTH, ropasAO paHbme cBoero uepecejeinH Ha 
fljH&ft. JlereHAa o npoHcxowAeHin KonaHOBii.eB'b roBopnrb, hto 



i) Boesi, op. cit. crp. 3—4. 

*) TypXH 9 t h o r p a 0 t *. H. OtimecTsa JId6bt. EcrecTBOBHamj!, AHtpono- 
joriH h 0TBorpa(J)ii kb. Ill, ran. I. M. 1874. ctp. 8, 9. Cwha B e pro- 
be h a BepeBexeBa h B8*aiia oiwbj&bo bo - oojirapcu ooai aarjasieMi Onaca- 
ii6 6htiti hi MasexoBCKBTi Burapi. K»CTeBAUi (roji bo 
o5o3Ba«ien). 

a) ibid. erp. 9. 




34 



BTHOrPAfclRECKOE OB03PHHIE. 



9TO DJieHfl, pa3MHOWHBIDHCB. „ffOCTHrJO rpaHHIfb HG^HCTBIXT) 

jioffefi, orb CHoniema ct> ROTOpUM h ohh HapymHJH noBexfeeie 
Bora", KOTopuS npoRJiaxB hx*b B qTo6u ohh 6bijh cjyraMH pas- 
BpaTHocTH h HCTpe6jeHiH tt . /Jpyrafl JEeree^a— o niflHUiax-b — 3a- 
MfoqaeTb bt> ce6* ho^th To-»e canoe: „Bon»... HanycTHJTb 
Ha hhxt> Rgxoe-TO CBHptnoe noKOJf*Hie aio^eA... 

H COBC'feM'b nOKHHyJTb HXT>...' BT> 6e3qHCJeHHHX r B fiHTB&X'b CT> 

Ahkhmh HapoAami h Me&B*bnnm ohh... pascfeajiHCB no pasHUMi 

M'feCTaM'b H C T a JH H W H T B, K a K T> C R 0 T H tt *). 

Ecjih Mbi npnnoMHHM'b ce6* npHBe^eHHUH h&mh Bbime xa- 
jo6h 8H3apxa IoaHHa no nosoAy cymecTBOBaniH bt> Eojrrapin 
^noraHMX'b cjiOBeH'b", to, no Bceft B*poHTHOCTH,Cb Harnett cto- 
poHbi He 6yAerb cjHmRoirb pHCKosaHbiM'b CA*JiaTb npeAno- 
jioaeHie, hto ^HenHCTbie h CBHpfcnHe jhoah" bthxt> * ereHA*B, ct» 
KOTopwMH npnxoAHJiocB ctbji khbrtb cfl 6ojrrapaMT> h,> 6.iaroAapfl 
CTOJiKHOBemio Cb KOTopwMH, 9th nocjr&AHie CAfeJaJracb „paa- 
BpaTHbiMH", t. e. CTaJH paBHOAymHO CMOTp*Tb Ha yBjeneHin 
A^BymeKTi ao 6pana, — hto bth jeioah— He kto hho8, RaRT> cia- 
BHHCKifl njeMeHa, HacejiHBniifl ApeBHioro Mnaiio ao npsxofta 
6oxrapi> h, nyTeirb CMfcraemH cb hhmh, noToarb nepeAaBmie 
hmi» rfe HpaBu, Kanie mbi HaxoAHirb bt> Ty-7Re anoxy h y ah*- 
npoBCKHxi> cjiaBflHij npnmeAHiHX'B, Kairb roBoparb jrbTonncB, 
Toae ct> AyHafl. 

IlpocMaTpHBaa HajoaceHHBie Bunie aaRTbi, HHTaTejrB o6pa- 
thjb, B^poflTHO, BHHManie na to cTpaHBoe cb nepBaro B3rj*AA 
o6cTOATej[BCTBO, hto KHBymje Me»Ay C06010 bt> CBA3H napeHB 
h A*ByniKa hocht-b HHorAa HaasaHie no 6p&thmobi> h no- 

CeCTpHMOBt H C0B6pHiaH)T f B Aawe B*b IjepRBH H*HTO BT» 

poA* o6paAft, 6jtH3Raro rt> TOMy ^HHy 6paTOTBopemH tt , koto- 
pbift h ao chxt» nopi> enje He BBunejb h3t» ynoTpegjiemH bt> 
Cep6in npn saHjnoqeHUi no6paTHMCTBa. Xoth coo6maH)mift 
9tott> aaKTb r. BoeBT> h npaBT>, rosopa, hto „Hejn>3H cmotp*tb 
Ha BTOTb o6bnaft, nam* Ha cosHaTeibHyio BRcnjyaTauiio 
pacnpocTpaHeHHaro Me»Ay ioxhmmh cjiaBflHEMH o6niafl no- 
SpaTHMCTBa h nocecTpHMCTBa bt> nousy pasBpaTa u *), t*mt> ae 



J ) ibid. CTp. 10. 

*) Eoee-h. Op. cit. CTp. 4. 




CBAABBHbltf OBPflAbl Wb BOJtfAPlH. 



MeH*e, ecjiH He npoHcxomAeHie, to, do KpafiHeft Mfcp* v 6jHi3Raji 
CB83b.9Toro o6hiqaa cb no6paTHMCTBOMT> bbmi> RaseTCfl He noA-ie- 
aameft coMHtHiio. <IIoRa aepKHTCH MaTpiapxarb*, roBopHrb 
M. M. KoBaaeBCKifi: cpoACTBeHHoe oTHomeme 6paTa h cecTpu 

ABJUeTCfl 0C06eHH0 rfeCHblMT^ eCJH Ha JIHIJO H6 HM*eTCfl GH3H- 

^ecKHro 6paTCTBa, to ero CTapaiOTca saMiHHTb 6paTCTBOMT> 
HCKyccTBeHHUMt h ct> BTofi ivfejbio oCpamaiOTca RT> TaR*b Ha- 

3bIBH6MOMy DOCeCTpHMCTBy > . <TaKOe HOCeCTpHMCTBOi, npOffOJU- 

saerb oht> a a ate: cnpeACTaBjiflerb hbmT) o6uqafi, bt> cHay 
KOToparo nmaBCRafl AfeBynnsa Bbi6Hpaen> ce6t Roro-HH6yAb 
H3i> HesceHaTbix'b nysHHH% bt> ,>i*aijajibi% hah HapeqeHBwe 
CpaT^fl. 8tott> uau,aia He tojlbko conpoBOKA^erb noBciOAy 
cboh) Hape^eHHyK) cecTpy, ho ct> B^Aoaia poAHTeaeft h cnnrh 
ct> Heio Ha OAHoft nocTejH. BecbMa p*ako, BnponeMi>, bth ot- 

HOJDieHifl HCKf CCTB6HH0 HOpOAHHBQIHXCfl MeSRAy C060H> MOJIOAHX'b 

JitOAett BbipasAaroTCB bt> OTHomemfl jek)6obhhka h Jno6oBHHi^bi ttl ). 
3to coBepmeHHO ecTecTBeHHO, TaEi RaEi> bhito ao TaRofi (vre- 
neHH He npoTHBopfciHTb cynpysecROMy coacHTejrbCTBy, Ran 
oraomeHifl opaTa h cecTpw, xoth 6t> h HCRyccTBeHHbifl . Ho 
ecjH aarbM'b, BCJifeACTBie HciesHOBeHia itaipiapxaTa, SHaieHie 
bthxt. oTHoraeHift yveHbinaeTCH, to t*mi> 6ojrhe yMeHbmacTCfl, 
pasyM^eTCH, h saaieHie HCRyccTBeHHaro poACTBa, npoAcnraaio- 
m,aro HHorAa aepaeaTbCfl bt> bha* TpaAHiun. OieHb HHTepecHO, 
hto noAoCnoe nocecTpHMCTBo bt> Cep6in, se nepefiA* eme bt» 
JHo6oBHbifl OTHomeHia, upHHRJO cb o6paAOBoil CTopoabi Toace 
topjty 6pana, xoth ROMMyHaxbHO-asbiqecRaro. Ilo cxoBaarb Byna 
KapaAauraa, bt> HeroTHH* h PmaB* bo BTopofi noHeA*xbHHR , b 
nocxfc QacxH— AeHb, Hocamifi xapanTepHoe HasBame druzi- 
calo — oapHH % H A*ByniEH eoOnpaiOTCfl bm£ct£, oSpasyiorb 
nap w, njieTyi^ b^hrh h3t» hbobuxi Bfrroirb, itfbxyiOTCH CRBOSb 

9TH B'bHRH H, 06M*HHBaflCb npH BTOMTj IiaCXaXbHblMH afiljaMH, 
3aRJtfOiaH)T'b MeSAy C060fi HOSpaTHMCTBO H HOCeCTpHMCTBO, 

ROTopoe ajhtch Becb roA^, ao cx*AyK>maro druiical'a, h hoto- 
poe TaR-b are, RaRi> h y nmaBOB'b, He nepexoAHTb o6urhob6hho 



i) Mokc. KoeoAtecKiu: 3aKOHi a oGmai Ha KaBKasi. M. 1S90. I. crp. 21. 



8* 




36 



BTHOrPAWTCECKOE OB03P*HTE. 



rpaHHui> HHCTO-6paTCKHX'B OTHomemlt 1 ). IJoAo6Hoe ase nepesH- 
Bame, ho bt> eme 6ojrbe HSMfeHeHHoirb sua**, mbi BCTp-fe^aeirb 
bt> BeJHBopocciH, rat, Hanp., bt> ATKapcxoirb y. CapaTOBCKoft 
ry6. AOCTHrraia 6paqearo BoapacTa A*ByniKH coSnpaiOTC* bt» 

npa3AHHKT> IIflTHffeCHTHHIi;H, BOffflTT* XOpOBOAU, fffeJiaiOTb HS'b 

3ejieHbixi> bAtok'b B'feHKH, itfuryiOTCfl qepe3i> HHX'b h saitJioqaiorb 
Meac^y co6oio H*qTO bt> poA* coioaa ApywSu, KOTopony aaiorb 
HMfl Ry MOBCTBft. B4hkh aarfeirb Gpocaiorb bt> BOAy*). 3axo 
bt> Apynixi. M*cjax'b Pocciir, a hmchho bt> IIcKOBCKoft ryG. n 
bt> Chohph, nocecTpHMCTBo BbipoAMOCb, KaKi> h bt> BoarapiH, 
bt> oTHomemji ropaaAO Cojrfee Oraairifl, Kan* bto mosho BHA*Tb 
avh Toro, hto bt> IIcKOBCKoft ry6. caosa no6paTHHi> h no- 
fipaTHM Ka ofioaHaqaiorb jno6oBHHKa h jno6oBH0ijy, a B*b 
Ch6hph cjiobo 6paTaHHuqT> osflaqaerb qejroB*Ka, poAHTera 
KOToparo npHHaAxewajH kt> paajmqHbiM'b HapoAHOCTflVb, Hanp. 
oTenrb pyccrifi, a Mara TaTapna h HaoSoporb *). 

IToBHAHMOMy, coBepmeHHO bt> cTopon* orb bc*xt> ohhch- 
BaeMux'b npoaBjemfi nojiOBoft cboSoam hrxoahtch ynoMHHae- 
Mhift r. BoeBUSfb (ib. CTp. 3) o6uqaft, H3BfecTHbi& noA* HMeneirb 
napaTCKo, cynjecTBOBaBmiit HeAaBHo, a MOwen> Clitb, h 
Tenepb eme He coBcfcirb HsqeBHyBmiit vh jsfijx'b cejeHiaxT*, 
rafipoB* h HoBOcejrb, bt> kmkhoB qacra /JocnaTCKHxi* ropi>, h 
3aKJnoHaiomiftcfl bte> tomi>, qTO ^momij.w h A*BoftKH Bbi6npaK>rb 
ffpyr'b Apyra, rto ct> K*in> Hcejiaerb, h napaMH OTQpaBM iotcs 

BT> JltCb, ME, eCJH BTO HpOHCXOAHTb 3HMOfl, TO Ha C*HHHK r b H 

TaMT> BCTynaiorb Apyn> ct> ApyroMi> bt> npoTHBoecTecTBeHBHH 
OTHomeHifl (per anum) . . . cTapHRH n cTapyxn CMOTpfli-b Ha bto, 
KaKi> Ha Benjb He npoTHBoaaEOHHyio, HeaanpemeHHyio: obh 
TOJibKo yjurfaiOTca, RorAa o6t> btomt* saroBopnnfb ct>hhm0; b4ab 
bt» csoe Bpevfl h ohh noBBOJHJiH ce6* gjramHee". OaRTb nporaBO- 



t) Vuk: Zivot i obycaji 274 mrr. y Bog&ka „PraYni obycaji > Slovena*. 
Zagr. 1867 CTp. 150, ■ KraMmtax Sitte and Brauch der Sttdslaven, b. 613. 

*) Munx-b: Hapojume oohtoh, o6paiH h op. y apecTuim GapaToscaofi ry6. 
1890. CTp . 104. 

*) Aom. ToiaoBHft CioaapB SHBaro Bejmopyccaaro usaaa I. 127. Boo6me 
o&k 9TOMI, aaai h paamat raxaxi no6paTHMCTBa, cm. Hamy CTann: La Fra- 
ternisation en Ukraine (M&usine, V, Mars-Ayril 1890. )4 8>. 




CBAAHBHhIE OBPRAU B*B BOJirAPIH. 3 7 

ecTecTBeHHbix'B cHouiemfi caur* no ceC* cctl flBJieme cjhih- 
ROirb o6bikhob6hho6 h BCTpfcqaiomeecH hohth y bc4xt> AHKapefi, 
a Tax»e 6biBinee oieHb pacnpocTpaHeHHWMi> y Bcbxt dohth 
ApeBHHX'b, ocofieHHO boctotohxt> (eABa jh He 6<wrfce Bcero y cbbih- 
THiecRHX'b) HapoAOBi* 1 ). Bi> ^aHHOMi> cjnyqa* oht> o6pamaeTb 
Ha ce6fl oco6eHHoe BHHMaaie rbirb, wo obt> npoHcxoAHi-b iiea^y 
oco6aMH pasHaro noja h npeacTaBjaerb nairb 6yA T o Hcsyc- 

CTBGHHyK) 3aM*Hy T*X*b eCTeCTBeHHbiX'b OTHOffleHifi, KOTOpUfl, 

KaKi> vu TOJibBO hto CRasajH, npeacffe AonycRaucb, a Koe-rffb 
coxpaHHJiHCB eme h ao chxt> nop-b. Kt> cosajrbHiio, hemi> pfcmH- 

T6JIbH0 HHierO He H3B*CTHO 0 TOMt, 6bIJI0 <IH BTO 06bIRH0Be- 

Hie pacopocTpaHeHO bt> EoarapiH npeatA^, h mm, TaKHMt o6pa- 

30M1>, AHmeHbl B03M0JKH0CTH CKOJIbKO-HH6yAb AORJMeHTaJIbHO 
COHOCTaBHTb BTOTb <&aKT"b Cb H3B*CTHMM r b SHaHemeMTi CJtOBa 

bougre, T.-e. bulgare, bo <&paHn;y3CK0irb ASbiRfe. Cjiobo 
bulgare, nepeA*JiaHHoe b no c Jri* ACTBi h bt» boulgre h, HaRo- 
Henp>, bougre, npHjarasmeeca CHaqajaKt ajibSHroflijaBMb f ), 
noTOM-b Ha^ajio osnaiaTb epeTHKOBi* Boo6me, a bm*ct* ct> 
t4mt> ynoTpeSjtflJiocb h y aoTpe&iaeicfl bt> cmbicjtb c o a o m h t t> $ ). 
Ho CAOfiairb III m hat a, HasBame bto jvlsl o6o3HaqeHifl epecH 
KaTapoB-b HanaJto ynoTpeSiHTbca bo OpaBuin tojbro ct> XIII 



i) Kh. Cyjeft, XIX, 22; IIocj. I n KopHHe. VI, 10; BiiTia XIX, 
4 — U. Demetmier : L 'Esprit des usages et des coutumes des difftrents peuples. 
Lond. 1776, II, 309-313); A. Beville: Les Religions des peuples non civilises. 
I. 318—314; Goya: Ce>6monies nuptiales p. 97 etc. 

*) Bougre- nom d'hSr^tiques. On les appelait Bulgare s. C l 6tait de 
la Bulgarie qulls Staient rtpandns dans le pays des Albigeois, de Bulgare 
on fit Bougre „(La Curne (fe Sainte-Pc&aye Diction, historique de Pane, 
lang. francaise. P. 1877); ,Dans le moy en-age des doctrines religieuses semblab- 
les rfgnaient parmi les Bulgares et les Albigeois, de la le nom des b o u g r e s 
donne* a ces hlrltiques" (Littord, Diction.). 

3 ) „B u 1 g a r i -Dicti praeterea Bulgari puerorum corruptores, unde Bouge* 
ronner— cum pueris rem habere. Hispan. Bujarron — masculorum concu- 
bitor. Interdum Bulgari seu Bougres dicti xTqvofiaxai (Dt* Conge: 
Glossarium ad script, me d. etinf. la ti nit is, v. Bulgari); 
Bougre— vient de Bulgare, parce que certains h6r6tiques bulgares 6taient 
accused de se livrer a la sodomie,— Sodomite. (Larrousse: Gr. Diet. Univ); 
Bougre, Bo ul gre — sodomite (Diet. Richelet, P. 1728 h Diet, de 
Trdvaux 1771). 



Digitized by 



38 



3THOrPA*H<USCKOK 0BO3PBBIB. 



B*ca h He ynoTpeCxwocB &o t*xt> nop* HHr#fe Connie. Oho 
6huo npHHeceHo bo OpaHnjio, no ero mh^hih), HeconB*HHo 
specTOHOcuaiui, ooTopue bo ©panda n Bo*rapiH Bcrpftqani 
6p6THK0B*b HcnoB^AUBaBmHX'b jyajHCTHqecnie aornara, a Ba- 
rt mt» Ha q a jo npuaraTBCfl si» epeTBKaMi> BOo6m,e, npn newh, 
mawb 6&mo crb cjiobomt> Ketzer bt> repMamH, vandois bo 
<X>paH£ciii, e*y npBftaB&M Heorja cmicrb enje 6oj*e raycHuft, 
ynorpefijiBfi ero jura o6o3BaieBi* yaracHaro h npoTHBoecrecTBeH- 
Haro npecTyajeHiB^ 1 ). Do mh^bih) r. lesre, cflenaBHCTB varo- 
MEEOWb npoTBB* 6oroMMOBT» 6hua npHHHHOfl 06BHHeBia, CBH- 
saHHaro b*b cpeame B*Ka co cjobomt, Boulgre 1 ). Ho npo- 

THBT> 9T0T0 MB*BHi*, KftlTb H OpOTHBl> MWhulB HlMB^Ta, MOKBO 

BOspasHTB, ito o6BHBeaie 6ojirapi> bt> epecs b coaomckom-b 
rpfexli, Barb roBopHTb caifb HTmh^tl, He cyn^ecxsoBaJO nnrjfr, 

BpOMfe <I>paHIUH, H npHTOVb OTHOCHTCfl nOieiiy-TO HCKJnO<lHTeXb- 

bo rt> SojirapaMT*, 6e3i> BCflearo npHJoarema Vb ^pyrawb epe- 

CfllTb, KOTOpid*, XOTH H 6bIXH o6BHBfle*H BO MBOrOlfb, BO HM6BB 
HX*b BCe-TaKH Be C^JtaiBCB CHHOHMMaMH HSBfeCTHblX'b rpfeXOBl*. 

CoffOMiB Be MorJia Be 6htb H3B*CTB0it bo ^paeiyH, Tas-b Km 
oaa cyn^ecTBOBaja eme y xpeBBHxi> raxioB*b •) &n h BooSn^e 
fitixa AOCTaTOiHo pacnpocTpaHesa B63A* h Bcerja, toto 
HTo6*i eft Be oco6eBHO yAHBjHTbCH. Ecjth me mm o6paTHm> 
BBHMaaie sa to, hto CojfrapcKie 6oroMB*bi, RaRi> mm ynoMH- 
HdJiH y»e, 0TpHD,ajni Spain* h BOoSnje CHomeBifl ct> weBmHBami 
h CTapaJiMCb Be hm4tb A*Teft, c^HTan hxt> „AiaBOJiH<iHmaMH% 

H eCJLH COnOCTaBBM'b CT> 9THM1» TOTT> ttaBTb, HTO y TypOK*b 

h npoiHX'b bocto^hmxt> HapoAOBT* „apr6s avoir commis btotb 
rp*xi> avec les hommes, on le commet avec Ies femmes et 
chez la plupart des Mahometans un abus secre ^oppose a la pro- 

i) „Ce nom n'a 6t6 employe* ni avant le XIII 8. ni ailleurs, qu'en France. 
II fat apporte* en ce pays sans doute par des croista qui en Thrace et en Bul- 
garie avaient rencontre" des he>6tiques professant les dogmes dnalistes . . . De 
meme que Patarin en Italie, Bougre finit par designer les he>6tiques en general 
et de meme qu'au mot Ketzer en Allemagne et au mot Yaudois en France on 
lui donna quelquefois an sens plus detestable encore, en s'en servant pour 
qualifier an crime horrible et contre nature* (Schmidt Histoire et doctrine de 
la secte des Cathares ou Albigeois. Paris-Geneve. 1848. II, 282. 

*) L. Liger, cjmn „Bogomiles a bt» La Grande Encyclopedic 

3 ) Diod. Sicul. lib. V, cap. 21. 




CBA/lKBHhlE OBPflflhl BT> BOJrAPIH. 



39 



pagation de Tespece" 1 ), a Tasace, hto no yqeHifo MaTOHHKOBi> 

MOJKHO 6UJEO npHMHpflTB IlOTpeCHOCTH jhoCbh ct> TpeCdBaHiflMH 

Ao6poA$TeJiH, h qTo y hhxt> <)es femmes qui faisaient profession 
de chastet£ ne rougissaient point d'habiter avec les hommes et 
demandaient la visite des matrones pour prouver qu'il ne se pas- 
sait rien d'ind6cent, npoTHBi* qero B03CTaBaJii> h hto oSxaqajTb 
bo» cbohx'b nponoB*ffaxi> cb. KHnpiaHt *), to, Hoaserb 6tiTb, 
ORaseTCA npaB^onoAo6HHMT> npeAnojroaceHie, qTo HUHfeniHee 
SojirapcKoe napaTCKO np e^c tub jia era co6oft ocTaTOK'b Ranoro- 
HHoyAb noAoSHaro, cymecTBOBaBmaro H^Bor^a bi> BoJirapin 
peJinriodHaro yBJeqemfl, sairbqeHHaro RpecTOHocn,aMH, roto- 
pue h pacopocTpaHHJiH CB'fyfeHifl o6t> 9tomt> bo OpaHi^H, 
r^*, KOHeqHo, noAoGHoe H3B*CTie He Morjo He 6utb noAXBaqeH- 

HblMT> H oSpameHHIJM'b Bt CBOK) II0JIB3y RdTO JIHq eCRHlTb HyXO- 

BeHCTBOMi*, ne pa36HpaBmHMT> cpeACTBi> bt> 6opb6* ct> epera- 
KaMH. Bt> ROHitfb rohuobt>, o6t> btomt* o6wqa* HejiBSfl noRa 
CRasaTB HHqero 6ojrfee onpeAfcaeHHaro, a& h Hame npeanojio- 
seme OTHOCHTeJibHO cjioBa bougre ecTb He Cojrfee, RaRi> npeA- 
nojioaseHie, ROTopoe oqeHB jrerao Moarerb saitfeHHTbCfl coBep- 
meHHO ApyrHMi oS'bflCHemeM'b, TaR^-ace RaRTb, HanpiiMfcp'b, bto 
cjKyqHJEOCB ct ^paHniyscRHMT* are BbipaaeHieit'b grec. Kain> 

H3B*CTH0, CAOBO greC B*b HBlH'fefflHeM'b *paHDty3CR0MT> B3BJR4 

Rpoarfe cBoero npaMoro 3HaqeHifl o6o3HaqaeTB eme noHaiie 
myjiepa, qejiOB^Ra oSaiaHhiBaiomaro bt> RapToqHoft arp*. E<yre- 
CTBeHHte ncero Cbijio 6bi ayaiaTb, qTo noBOAOMt ri> npBAaBiio 
BTOMy cJiOBy TaRoro CMLicjia arorjia cjiyjKHTB penyTan;ifl, npi- 
o6p*TeHHafl bo $paHn,in RaRHMH-HH6yAB jiHn;aMH, npHHaAJiesa- 
hi,hmh rt> rpeqecRoft Hau,ioHa.iibHOCTH. Bt> pjfA ctb HTeJi bh o cth se, 
Rant HaMt JiK)6e3H0 coo6mnjn> r. E. Rolland, bto ecTb He 
6ojiBme RaRt ocTaTORt CTapHHHaro *paHny3CRaro BwpaaceHifl 
BpBMCB'b nceBAOHJiaccHn,H3Ma: 6tre grec dans l'art, dans le metier 
h T.n.,ynoTpe6jiflBraarocfl ajth BupaateHia npeBoexoACTBa bt> qeMi> 

J ) Demewnier, Op. cit, II, CTp. 818. 

*) „Nec aliqua putet se hac excusatione defendi quod inspici et probari 
possit an virgo sit. . . et si incorrapta inyenta fuerit ex parte sui, qua mulier 
potest esse, potuerit tamen ex alia corporis parte pecasse, qua violari potest et 
tamen inspici non potest". (St. GypriamtB. Op. ijht. y Dememier. Op. cit. 
II, ct. 324—325. 



Digitized by 



40 



9TH0rPA«HqECK0£ OB03P*BIR. 



6m to hh 6ujeo; 6tre grec dans le jeu saMfcHEJiocb npocTo 
cjiobomt* grec, ROTopoe t£lrhmi> oSpasoifb He EMfcerb he 
Majrfeftmaro OTHOinemfl rt» jiobrocth hxh sJioynoTpeojieHiflM-b 
rpeKOBi> bt> KapTOHHofi arp*. 

BosBpamaacb rt> Bonpocy o cboCoa* Hp&BOBit y 6oairap- 
CKHXb fl*BymeK!> ao saityaecTBa h, bt> lacTHOcrn, o noJOBoft 
cboSoa*, AonycKaeiiofi noairfe noc*AeHOKi>, bt> cbash Cb bo- 
npocoMi> o SHaqemH 9text> nocjrfeAHHX'b Boo6in,e, mm aojukhh 

6yA6MT> 06paTHTbCfl KT> MH*HiH) 06l> 8T0MT>, BLICK&BaBHOMy 

bt> nepBofl qacra HacroHmeft paSoTM, h HaAfceitCH, hto oaRTbi, 
npeACTaBJifleMue SojirapcKHMH ofibiqaaMH, AaAyi"b Basra bos- 
MOfflHocTb BucnasaTbCfl Sojrfee yTBepAHT&nbHO. OSbiqafl co- 
BMtcTHaro cnaHbfl nocxfe BeqepHEn,b bt* YKpanH-fe, HaRT> mu 
CRasajin, HBJifleTCfl, BfcpoflTHO, nepeatHBUHieM'b Sojite Ap^BBjaro 
e ropasAO MeB*e irfiJiOMyApeHHaro npEMHTHBBaro o6wqafl. Bt> 
BoJirapiB, rA* He coxpaHBJiocb ao TaRofi CTeneRH hcho, RaRi> 
bt> YRpaHH*, oSmecTBeHHafl opraHH3ai;ifl MOJiOAewH, ho ta* 
Bce-TaRE coxpaHHJECb HBHbie cji^aij en, mu naxoAHMi* btotb 
ofiuqaft bt> <&opM* 6ojrfee apxaaqecRofi, AonycHaromefi He TOJbRo 
coBM'beTHoe cuaHbe, bo e dojiobmh OTHomeflifl. 9to o6ctoh- 
TejbCTBO Ha pflAy ct> oaRTaME nojiOBoft cboSoaw ao saMysecTBa 
BOoCm.e Aaerb HaMi> npaBo AyMaTb ct> Sojibinefi yBtpeHHocrbio, 
hto noc^AGHRH h BeqepHHnjw npeACTaBjfliOT'b co6ofi octa-tort* 

OAHOft E3T> npHMHTHBHHX'b *OpMT> 6paHa, TfeMT* 6oji*e 4T0 

SojirapcRie o6uqaH SToro poAa yRasuBaiOTb Basra Ha e3b*ct- 
Hyio peAHriosHyio TopwecTBeHHocTb bthxt> cofipamfi, Bbipa 
waiomyiocfl bt> pacnojioraemH yqacTByiom.HX'b BORpyrb orBH, 
bi> xopOBOMT> irfemE, ROTopoe, RaRi> mu yae He pa8i> roBopHjra, 
MoweTTj cjiy»HTb aobojibho HaAeKHbura npHSHaRoira pejiHiios- 
Haro CMbicjia n,epeMOHiH. Bi> CBoeHi> cnen.iajibHOM'b EacjrfeAOBa- 
Hin o AOCBHTRaxi> h BeqepHEn.ax'b npo<&. CyamoBT> Btipawaerb 
MH*Hie, qTO BeqepHHn,H He aaRjHOqaiorb bt> ce6* HHqero pera- 
rio3HO-ME6EqecRaro, He 6yAyqn CBasaHbi he ct> RaREMB-Hfl6yAi> 
ApeBHEME, ca> A3biqecHoft oRpacKofi, nicHAME, he cb ynoTpefi- 
jemeira ofipHAOBaro RymaBba, e cqETaeTb hxt> DepeaKEBaaieira 
TaKT> HasbiBaeMaro npo6Haro 6pana hjib, npaBEJiBH'be CRasaTb, 
HSB&CTHoft cbo6oam nojioBbix'b oTHoraeHift, npeAmecTByiomefl 
opaRy ci> i^*Jibio y6*AHTi>cfl bi> cuoco6hocte A*BymRH rt> a*to- 





CBAAEBHUE OBPflftbl BT> BOJirAPIH. 



41 



powaeiiiK) *). Mu no3BOJHM'b cetffe BBiCRasaTB npeAnojioaceHie, 
qTO r. CyMii.OB'b He npoBejn> AOCTaToqHO pa3HHn,M Meatfly o6m- 
qaeMT> AonycRaTB aceHHxa npoBOAHTb hohh ct> HeB*CTofi nepeAT* 
CBaAi>6oft h coBM*CTHLiM f b cnaHbeirb mojioaux'b JHOAefa nocirfe 
BeqepHHn,T>. IlepBuft H3i> 9thxt> ofiuqaeBt, A'^ft ctbhtcjcbh o , npeA- 
CTaBjflerb cofiofi ocTaTOK'b 7) npo6HBix f b Hoqeft tt , ho oht> otho- 
CHTQfl ki anox* h hah b HAy a jib Ha ro 6paRa, t. e. kt> 9nox* 3Ha- 
HHTejBHO no3AH*firaeft, TorAa jsaEi> BeqepHHijBi, oRaHqHBaromiflca 

COBM*CTHBIMT> CDaHBeMT>, HHRaRT> BB MOryTB SaKJIIOHaTb B*b 

ce&h 9JieMeHT0BT> 6pana HHAHBHAyajn>Haro h, hm*a xapaRTepi> 
HecpaBHeHHo 6ojrfee ApeBHift, othocatch necoMHtHHO m> bhox* 
o6m,HHHaro Cpana hjih, TOiHfee BwpaacaHCb, KOMCKTHBHaro 6pana 
no rpynnaarb. BescnopHo, bt> yKpanHCEHxi> o6uqaBxi> apxanqe- 

CKH-06pHA0BBlft 9JeMeHTT> HOHTH BOBCe OTCyTCTByeTB, HO, KHKTj 

mm GEasajH y»e, bt> ora*, BOKpyrt Koioparo co6HpaeTca 
6ojirapcKaa mojioackb, bt> xopoBOMT> nfemn h npoq. HejB3* He 

npH3HaTb HSB^CTHOft OSpflAHOCTH; HaROHeifb, COBM*CTHafl *Aa 

cymecTByeTb bt> YRpaHH*, a, mo»cti> 6htb, TaE»e h bt> Boji- 
rapin, h ecJUH OHa He coctohtb hst* KaK hxt> - h h 6y ab pHTyajiB- 
hbix'b KyraaHBeB'b, to hhao saarfeTHTB, hto b*ab h Kpyr\mft 

CBaAeSHMfl XJI'feG'B (KopOBafi), O ROTOpOMTb rOBOpHTT> T. CyMI^OB'b, 

yKasbiBas Ha Hero, RaRi> Ha xapaKTepHwft npn3HaKT> peJinrios- 
Haro SHaqema CBaAB6u, ycnfejra yace coBepnieHHO hohth ncqea- 
HyrB bt> BeJiHRopocciH h IIojiBm* h ocTajiCfl BTb bha* eABa sa- 

M'bTHHX'b TOJIBKO CJllAOfi'b y K)5KHh]X r b H SanaflHhIX'b CJiaBflHl>, 
3aM*HHBmHCB *AOfl CaMOfi 06HKH0BeHH0ft. TaRHMT> o6pa3o&n>, no 

Hameiiy MHfcHiio, OTcyTCTBie bt> BeqepHimax'b h noctReHKax'b 
qeprb HHCTo-apxaHqecKH-pejiHrio3HbixT> Hejrt3fl enje cqmaTB cy- 
n^ecTBeHHHM'b OTJiKqiearb 9thxt> co6paHi* otb cBaAe6i>, Hanp., — 
h sa hhmh HejiB3fl He npH3HaTB H3B*CTHaro h Aaare oqeHb 
KpynHaro HCTopmecKH-RyjiBTypHaro 3Haqenifl, ho tojh>ko, pasy- 
M*eTCH, He bt> CMBicjrfe npo6HbixT> SpaKOBt, KairB 9to Ay^aerb 
r. CyMmoBTj, a bi» cmhcji* opeAmecTBOsaBniaro HHAHBHAyajtB- 
HOMy 6p$Ky— fipana KOMMyHajiBHaro. 

i) H. 9. GyMWM*: ^ocBtiKH h aocaA%»B. Kie»i 1886 (otthck* m Kies- 

CKOfi ClftpiHH 1886. KB. Ill) CTp. 10 — 11. Mtftflie 3TO IIOBTOpH6TCfl saT^Mi 

bi, nosAHiHfflefi KHHri toi-o xe aBTopa: n RyjbTypBHA nepesBBaHu u . KieBi 1890. 
dp. 188—189. 



Digitized by 



42 



dTHOrPAOHSBCKOB OB03PHBIB. 



Bt> nepBofl qacTH HacTOflm,eft pa6oTbt, roaopa o6t> yRpaaa- 
CRHX'b ftOQBHTKaxi>, Mbi ynoMaaajra yree o6*b opraaa3ai*iB aesce- 
HaToft MOJioffeatH y hphmhthbhuxtj aapoAOBii, o6t> ota^Jbehxi. 
aKHJiHii^ax'b AJ» AocTHrmaxT* Gpaqaaro BOspacTa mojioawxi> jk>- 
Aeft h AfefiymeKik, o bxt> co6paaiax*b a-npoq., ito Taai* aano- 
MHHaerb b ofi-bacaaerb Hama yapaaBCEia napy66i*bRy a 
A hb6 i^i> e y r p o m a ^ hi. Ho Tain* mu ae caasajB noqTH 
aaqero q6t> peryxapasania y 3thxt> npaMBTBBHbix'b aapogoBii 
CpaHHMX'b oTHomeBift, otaoshbibh bto ao asjioweaia hrmb 
CojirapcKHX'b ofiuHaeB'b, wa.iowjiLX'b bm£ct* ct> yRpaaacRBMH 
noqTH nojBtift MaTepiajra a*h bo3mo»bocth conocTaBjieBifl h 
cpaBHHTej&Haro ascAfeAoaaaia. Y aBCTpajriftcRax'b njieMea'b, 
r8et> h y 6oumHBCTBa AHKapeft Boofime, yAepsajca eme 
ooith bt> nojHofl hhctot* icaTpiapxarb h npoHCTeRaion^afl aa* 
Hero MaTepHBCRaa oajriania. TaRT>, y CTOJb asBfecTaaro, nocxb 
TpyAOBi> Fison'a h Howitt'a, njeMeaa Kamilaroi, RasRA&ff uvb 
AByxi> ero qacTeft pasAkaaeTca Ha ABa RJiaaa, noApa3A*Mio- 
nyeca qacro B'b cbok) oqepeab aa BTopocTeneBaua rpynnw, otjlh- 
qaionuaca cbohmh tot6M8mh. Coo6pa3HO csoeKy npoacxoatAeaiio 
no MaTepa r oabh mi> 8thxt> bjibbob'b hjih hxt> noApa3A**eaitt 

pOACTBeBBH KeSAy COGOH)^ H HJI6HBI HXT>, CHHTBHCB BSaHMHO 

6paTi>aMH a cecTpaMH^ He hm*k>ti> npaBa BCTynaxb Apyrb ct> 
Apyrowb bt» nojroBwa cHomeaia; ueau se Apyraxi> uaaoBfe 
iuh rpyrrai*, aaofioporb, cqaTaioTca, TaRi> CRagaTb, ecTecTBeH- 
HbiMH cynpyraMa: bc* Mysqaau oaboto Rxaaa cqaTaiOTca MyatL- 
bmh Bcbxi> »ean^HBT> Apyroro a oSpaTao. To-ae canoe mbi 
aaxoAHMi y nJieMeaa D i e r i a np. Ho 6oji*e bjh ueafee y bc&x?> 
bthxt> oieMeanb npoasonuio yace aaqajio aa AHBHAy axasania 
6paaa, xoTa 6paKb no rpynnam> Bce-Taaa npoAOjusaerb cy- 
mecTBOBaTB bt> yKasaHawx'b npeA*Jiaxi> poACTBa, noAqnaaacb 
bt> 6ojn>nieft hjh MeaBmeft CTeneaa b3b*ctbmmi>, peryjiapyio- 
n^HMi> noxoBBifl OTaomeaia oSbiqaaMi*. OShiRBOBeaao mojioawb 
juoah bi> Bospacri 14—15 jrbTT>, a A^Bymsa orojo JQ-th jrfcrb 
nojiynaiorb yace npaBO hojioboio coacaTejibCTBa nearAy co6obo. 
9to BCTynxeaie B'b npaBa Bspooiaro qejioBtoa npoacxoAHn» 
6ojrbe hjih Mea*e TopacecTBeaHo: B'b H3B*CTHhie ahb, jvlz BToro 
aaaaaqeaaHe, ycTpaaBaiOTca nojroBwa opria, npaqeMi moxo- 

AMMb JIK)AflM r b OSOUXT* flOJOB^ A^TCa A^K6 CHraaJTb, B03B*- 



Digitized by 



GBAABBHBIB OBPfl*M Wb BOJfAPIH. 



43 



maiomtfl cBo6o«y OTHomemfl; cjryqaeTCH ops btoitb, too a*- 
BymxH ocnapHBaiorb apyn> y ffpyra KaKoro- Hn6y ab napH* h 
oqeHb qacTO BCTynaion> no oroMy noBOAy Me*Ay coCojd bt> 
Apaxy. y ueiieBH ftiBpn bto enje 6oj*e peryjmpoBaHo: 6yAy- 
mie cynpyra— piraflrA — BbrfapaiOTca coB'feTOM'B CTapfeftmiifl'b 
njieiieHH, h sarbMi» hm6h& hx* TopaecraeHBO npoBosrjiainaiOTca 
bt> aapOAHOMi co6paHiH Beqepoirb bo BpeMJi uepeMOHia o6pfc- 
aama. 3aT*m>, bt> Haaaa^eHBoe am CBaAe6aaro npaaAHua 
BpeMff, ycxpaHBaeTca ^opria, h mojioahm'b jmnnwb npeAOCTa- 
BjflftTCfl cBo6oAa BcrynHTB Me»Ay cofioio bt> cbsbb. TaxHiTB 
o6pa80MT>, KasAufi Myanma, noABeprmifioa onepacuH ofip&aama — 
ijepeMOHiH, cb KOTopofi co6cTseBHo BaqHHaeTCfl 6pa^flufi ce- 
3oht» h Bocflm.eft oiemb xapa BTepHoe Ha&Baaie Mindrai, r. e. 
m Hp ft ( r raKT> k&kt>, B*poaTH0, bt> BHAy BToro TopsecTBa npe- 
KpamaioTCfl BCXRifl BpaaAeSHBia oTBomeBia Meaay coc^ahhmh 
ujeiieHaMH) — Moaerb hm*ti» piraftrtL Bo BpeMfl xaaAoft h3t> 
cj*AyK>in,HXT> 3aT*MT> boao6bhxi> ae ijepeMomit oht> MoaerB 
npio6p*cTB enje OAHy oynpyry ht, a.h hm*tb hxt> h4ckojbbo. 
A'bBymKH bt> cbok) oqepeAB Moryi-b BuftTB b*ckojib«hxt> My- 
aeft. Ecu ABoe iiyaqHHi> hh^iotb OAay h Ty-ae cynpyry, to 
b*b cjryqafc, ecu He oxameTca wb AaBHom> M'bci* Apyrott aeH- 
mHHM Toro-ae RjiaHa, osa AOCTaeTca no npaBy CTapmeny 
Boapacrowb *) Bi> HSCjfcftoBaHiH o6*b yKp&HHCXoft CBaAfc6i* mm 
BHAfrRH yae hotoh cosepmeHHO aHaiorHiecxie 9thmt> apaau 
y a4>pHBaHCKiix f B ByiycoB-b h t. n. Be* bth npHMipu noxa- 

BBlBaiOTb BaMT>, TOO y UpHMHTHBHBUPb HapOAOBT> Ha H3B*CTH0ft 

cTeueflH paaBHTia xyxbTypij h npu HaBfecTBOMi* CTpeMjemH 
peryiHpoBaTB hojobbih OTBomeHifl, cofipaaia MOtfOAean, octb- 

TOK*b KOTOpblXT> MM BHAHMT> BT> HMHtUDHHX'b Be«iepHBI^aXl H 

nocHA*Jwaxi>, HMtioi-b xapaxTepi* ofiiqHBHO-Cpaiflaro ycTaao- 
BxeHia. TaKoe ae saaieHie aojuhhm 6mjih hm&tb, crfbAOBaTeJiBHO, 
CJfaBBHCBia bocha^hkh h BenepHHi^u; oh* MirbJiH ero em;e Ht- 
croibro cTOJi*Tifi TOMy BasaA'B h name ewfi BT> DpOHlXOlCB CTO- 
ji*TiH, Kor^a npoTHB* hhxi> BoopywajHCb np 6 act&bhtqjeh xpn- 
<5TiaHcaofi ixepKBH, xaK* npoTHBi> ^Bory h hcjiob*kom^ aeaa- 



0 Georges Raynaud: La femme, h mariage et la famille en Australie (Bulletin 
de la 0oc. d'Ethnographie, Aout, 1890, Ji 42, p. 145, 147). 




44 



9TH0rPA*H1£CK0B OBOSPftHIB. 



BHCTHaro 6*cHOBamH a r „Mep3Raro 6e33axoHia a , o nearb mm 
ynoMHHtuH ywe Bume. XapaKTepeua Hepra 6oxrapcKHXT> no- 

CHA*HOKT», 3aMK)HaH)iniHCa BT> TOMT>, HTO BT> HHXTj MOryTT* yna- 

CTBOBaTL tojbro Mojioffbie JUOAH h AfesyniRH, AOCTBrmie 6pan- 
Haro BospacTa h He BCTynHBmie eiu,e bt> Span*, hto H3i» hhxt> 
HCKJuo^aiOTCfl bobcc bc* cocToanjie bt> 6paR$, HTO A*ayniKH 
Ka»Aoft Ha era cejua mh ropo^a coCnpaioTca Ha OTAfeiBHyK) 
nocHA*HKy, hto napHH, co6paBmHCB ota*jbho, xoahtb ch 
OAHott nocHffbHKH Ha «pyryio, hto co6pama bth npoHCxoARTb 

CT> H3B*CTHOft T0p3R6CTB6H fl OCTBK) JrfeTOMT> BH* flepeBHH BO- 

npyn» orHfi h conpoBOKflaiOTca irfeHieMT>, hto ORaHHHBaiOTCfl 

OH*, no KpafiHeft M*p* BT» HfeROTOpblX'B MTbCTHOCMXt, COBMfcCT- 

humi> cnaHbem> h hto, HRKOHen^ npn ygajeHiH ct» hhxi> o6pa- 
m;aeTca oco6oe BHHMame Ha to, hto6bi hhrto ne ocTaBtuca 
6e3i> napw, npHHeirB HeAocTaiomia a** ofipaBOBama napi> 

JfHD,a 8aM*HflK)TCfl nOACTaBHUMH, H3*b Hero BHAHa pHTyaAHOCTB 

dToro ofiHHaa, — bc* bth nepTBi, nepTbi, HecoMH*HHo, ohbhb ap- 
xaBHecRifl flaiorb Hain>, RaseTca, npaBo npeAnojiosHTB, hto 
bth co6paHifl MOJEOAesH npeACTaBMiorb co6ott He hto raoe, 
Ran nepesHBaHia h name ocTaTOKi> onHcaHHUX'B jslsmvl npn- 

MHTHBHUX'B 06UHaeB7>, Cyn^eCTBOBBBIHHX'B BT» CBOe BpeMfl h y 

cjiaB*HT>, ROTopue no cxobbitb jrbTOiiHCH „6pan,a He HM*axy, ho 
nrpHH^a Mesio cexu* — h hmshho m ewio cejuu, Tasi* Ran» 
ceia Torja npejCTaBjuura co6oft He6ojn>mia eme nocejeuH 
ota^jebhuxi* poAOBi), ecjH He npocTO 6ojn>niHx r b MaTpiapxan- 
HO-ceiieliHHx'b oChihh'b. 8to He 6bijih cofipama mojloacjrh am 
oAHoro tojibko BpeManpoBoac^eaia h Bti6opa Apyr** ffpyra aih 
BcrynJieHia bt> 6paRT>— bto 6uxe upHMO 6paHHua TopaecTBa, 
ROueRTHBHbia cBaAbfiw, — arpnma bth 6mjih HMeHHo 6paHHuin» 
ycraHOBJieHieM'b, ROTopoe 3aM*HHJ0CB dotoitb 6paRom> hhah- 
BHAyajfbHBiBfb h B03HHKraeft H3i> Hero naTpiapxaiBHoft cexbefi. 

OnHCbiBaa BCTynjueHie aBCTpajiificRHxi* h a®pHRa hcrhxt> 
AHKapeft B r b 6paHHBia OTHomeeia, mu cTapamcB otm*thtb to 
o6cToaTejBCTBO, hto BCTynjteHie Aospbsmefl MOJioffeacH bt> en 
HOBhifl npaBa h «yHRi^H conpoBoarAaeTca y hhxt> hsb^cthoU 

TOpateCTBeHHOCTBK) H COBepmaeTCH Bl> H3B*CTHOe BpeHa. Qo 

aHajorin cji*AOBaJio-6Bi npeAnojiaraTB, hto nepTBi noAo6HO&-sce 
onpeA*JeHHOCTH aojurhbi 6bi 6mjih coxpaHHTbca h bt> o6BiHa-fe 




CBAJBBHHE OBPXflbl B*b BOXTAFIH. 



46 



nocfcjteiHOK'B h Beqepmnvb. T*M*b ne MeHfce mm BToro hc sbm*- 
qaeMT> bt> cKoabKO- HH6yn,b acHOfi *opMt hh B'b Bojrapin, hh 

B^bYKpaHH*, HH BT> npOqHXT> CiaBflHCEHXl> CTpaflaXb. 06WKH0- 

B6HH0 bth cotfpaaiu uojogesH npoflOJiaraiOTCfl Cojrfee mm MeH&e 
Kpyrjiuft roA*b: HaqHHaxcb cb oceHH, t. e. co BpeMenH okoh- 
hAhih nojEesux'b pa6orc>, npepwBaacb hb HfcKOTopoe Bpeufl, 
bt> TeneHie doctobt*, ohh uoaofiHOBJUMOTCfl noTOMt bbchok) m> 
bha* c6opHncb Ha yjraivfe hjih aa cejoirb h npoAomaiOTCH 
oojte hjh MeHfce see jt&to *). Tojbko bt> ohqhb HeMHoraxi* 
M*cTHocTflXT> sairbqaiOTCfl H*KOTopue npH8naKH onpeA*JieH- 
hocth. Taicb, Han p., Barb mm cxasaxH y«e, bt> BpSm;* seqep- 
HHn,u npoxojKvaiOTCfl on BejiHKOAHHAO CnacoBAeHb, fi b YKpan 
h* BeqepHimbi RaquHaiOTCfl co aha cb. CsMeoHa JlfcTonpo- 
BOflwa, b*b Opefi6yprcRoft ry6.— on YcneHia, b* OjioaeijKofi— 
ott> PosRgecTBa h t. n. *). Hh aaqaao 3hmhhxt> coGpaaitt, bh 

jfeTHHX'b, HH KOHei^b HX*b H6 O3HaM6HOBblBai0TCfl HHKajRHtfH 
0C06eHHbIMH TOpSBCTBaMH H B006Qie, KBJKT> Mhl I'OfiOpHM'b, H6 

npiypoqeHu hh kt> xanoMy npasgHHKy, a o6yc*OB4HBajOTCfl 
»aBHUM f b oSpasoM'b npnqHHaMU qacTO BKOHOMHqecKHMH h 

OhlTOBWMH. QpOHCXOAHTb 9TO, HO BCefi BfcpOflTHOCTH, OOT> TOrO, 

qTo, noTBpflBHiH BCflRoe SHaqeBie GpaqHaro ycTBHOBJieBi*, bth 
codpaHifl MOiOAesH npeBpamincb bt> c6opHffi,a, jameaHbifl bcj- 
xaro pHTyajbHaro xapaxrepa h hhcto yBecejHTenflJUfl, coxpa- 
HHBfflH bt> ce6fe TOJibKO cjtbaij CTapHBHaro CBoero duaqeHia, 
no KOTopuirb Mbi eABa mohc^mtj BoacTaHOBHTb hxt> npesHiit 

CHHCTb. 

CoBepmeHHO hhob bhahmt> mu, nepexoA* co6ctb6hho kt> 
CBaffb6aMT> h ofipaman Hame BHHMasie hb o6biqHoe BpeMa hx-b 
coBBpmeHifl. Yse bt» yspaHHCHofi CBaAb6fe mbi bbmAthjih h*ko- 
TopbiH qepTH, yRa8biBaK>mia Ha to, qTO 6paqHua TopsecTBa bt> 
ApeBHOCTH coBepmajHCb, no sceii b*pohtbocth, bt> hsb^gtbha 
Bp6M6H& roAa, na too yse paHbme 6hjo oGpameeo BHHMame 
K a BejH hij mt> h r. Cy mijob uicb, h, ocHOBUBaacb Ha 
hhcto cojiapfiOM'b xapaKTepfe cBofiOAHbix'b peJuuioBHbix'b u,epe- 

MOHifi H CXOgCTBfc HX*b Cb 06pflA0B0& CTOpOHOfi BeC6HHHXT> H 



t) H. Cymuoe%: Aocb%tii ■ Be^epHiHH, crp. 2, 3 ■ cjfcx. 
*) ibid Op. et loc eit. 



Digitized by 




461 



8THOrPA<DHHB0BOB OB03P*HIB, 



KyiraiBCKHXi nrpnb, mm BHCRasaiH B03M0SH0CTb npeffnoJioseHifl 9 
tto TasHicn speueHaMH ro^a moiuh 6mtb hm6hho cojaeiBue 
npas^HHRH. TaRix nepTu, yKa3MBaK)in 1 ifl Ha cymecTBnBaHie 
npesAe onpeA'kaeHHHX'b 6paiHbixi> QesoHOBi>, co6ctb6hho bt» 
yspaHHCRHrb cBaAeoHux'b o6Hianx , b, o6pflAaxi> h ir&CHax'b 
OH6HL HeMHoro^HCJeaHbi h saKJioiaiOTCfl rja3Hbiin> ofipaaoirb 
wb coxpaHHBmeifca bt» HtaOTopux'b cBaAe6HwxT> nfeCHHX'b yno- 
MHHaBiH o flpMapKaxi> HeBfecrb h b» *aKrfc cyniecTBOsaHia 
noAoSHux'b flpMapoKT> bt> oieHb eme HeAaraee BpeMfl bt> Kap- 
naTCRoft PycH; bc* se oTHOcHnueca cH>«a buboah hjh, Jiyiioe 
CRasaTB, AoraARH h npeAnoioseHifl 6ujlhl cA^Jtaau RaR-b hemh, 
TaKT> h Sojrfee paHHHWH HacjrbAOBaTejtaMH^ npeHMymecTBeHHo Ha 
ocHOBamH p*3KO 6pacaiomarocfl bt> rjiasa 6paiHaro cmmcjr 

BCfeXT* HOHTH B6C6HHHX l b H J&THHX'b HrpTb H npa3J,HHKOBT^ CO- 

BDaflaiomHX'b cb npasAHHRaiiH cojraeifiaro nyjubTa. Mesgy rfeM* 
oHeHb 6oJibmaH TeopeTH^ecKaji saiRHOCTb axHxi> npeAnojOKemii 
o cyn^ecTBOBaHiH y ap^bahxi caaBam, onpeAfeAOHHaro BpeMBHH 
AM aaiunoqeHia 6paBOB% HyaAaeTcn bt> Sojrfee oaRTHiecROM'b 
noATBepwAeflin, KOTopoe Mbi h HaxoAHirb bt> 9THorpa*ra 60 j rap*. 

OtibtRHoseHHo bt> pacToamee BpeMfl cBaAfcGu bt> Bojirapia, 
HaRi> h Bib npoHHX'b CTpaHaxi>, 6ojrbe un MeH*e yse z*hbh- 
jH30BaHHbixT>, npoHcxoffHTb bt> Teieme Bcero roAa, aa hchjuo- 
qemeirb, padyBrbeTCfl, hoctobt*, RorAa BfeHqame h6bobmo ah o no 
npHHHHaifb qncTO peuriosHbiMi. BucoROCB&ie roAw, Bnpo- 
qeirb, no cJOBaMT, r. IIIanRapeBa, He cqHTaioTca oiacuHBUMii 
Au saRJHoqema 6paROBi>: *a bt> BbicoROcaa roAHHa ae ce ate- 

HHTb 3a mO TO BtpBaTb, He ROB TO C6 SeBRTb fit TaBBa 10- 

AHHa, HeTpamiH, t. e. yMHpajrb eABHHft hah Apyrfltt ueHi 
ott» TOBa ci>npysecTBa a 1 ). SaTfeMi* bt> pacnpeAfeJeaui cBaAe6i> 
no BpeMeHaMi> roAa bt> Bojrapiu, Rain, h noHTH bo actob 
npoHHXT> CTpauaxi>, Hrpaio-rb pojnb Sojrfee Bcero npHHHflju bro- 

HOMHHeCRifl, BCtffeflCTBie ROTOpbIXl> HaHSoJIbfflee ROJIHTOCTBO CBa- 

Ae6*b npHxoAHTca Ha ocenb. Bt> HfeKOTopmra MfccTax'b Bojirapin 
oh* HanHHaiOTCfl orb rojrbMa BoropoAHaa (15 asrycTa) *) 



i) mannapen: C6opmt% on Boirapcxi BapoxHH ynoTBop8HM i, m. ir. 
VU, Cfp. 87. 

J ) KapaeeM>e%: IlaifjiTHBKi eapox. 6hte Boirap% 1 ctp. 251 




CBAREBHttK OBPflRlk BT> BOJrAPtH. 



47' 



mh, HanaBinHCb ct> KOHnia iiojiE, tibiBatorb Bib' asiycWb h cen- 
TflCpfc; o^eHB qacTo Tajsae cnpaBJifliorb esaAbSbi orb Boro- 
flBJueHia h ao Hanajna BeuRaro nocTa *). Ho Bb oahoB hst* 

M^CTHOCTeft, AOBdJIBHO BUpOqeifb 06lHHpH0ft, a HVeHBO BT> AG" 

fopcROirb OEpysiH bt> MaKeAOHin, mh BCTpfcqaeMCH ci> o6n- 
qaeMT> oqeab opHrnHajbHbiirb n dobhahmomy coBepmeHHO hcrjio- 
qHTejibHHMTb — coBepmaTb CBa&b6bi tojtlko bt> oaho onpeA&ieB- 
Boe BpeMH roAa, ecjin Aase He bt> onpeA*JieHBbift A^Hb. IIo 
cJOBaarb r. flcTpe6CBa, ^bt* cejraxi> Ae6i>pcBaro onpyra cBa- 
tobctbo coBepinaeTctf bt> aeHb IleTpa * IlaBJia (29 iiOHii), toiho 
TaB»e Kain> h CBaAbGbt Cusaiorb bi> btoti ace jn&nh. Cocsa- 
TaBtnift A*ByuiKy 29 i»Hfl AOJraceHT> wAaTb ivfejrbift roAT>, qTofibi 
aceHHTbca bt> BTort se jifiBh^ *). HftcROJUbRo 6oji*e noApoSHoe 
pa3i>HCHeHie B-roro oGuqan HaxoAHBTb mm bi> „CBaAf>ap- 
cbhxi oSbiqaax'b h ntcfiax'B ott» fteS^pcRO-TO 
aanHcaHHbixT> r. I^tneHKOBHBTb. CBXpmyaqRHTe bt> /Je6*pcRHTe 
cejua Pexa h CBaA^HTe ce npaarb bo 6nen ueceu, Ha CaeAeHo 
(cBerb nest) inTO ch ro HMaaT* UjHrgeH, HeTpoBAen hah 
Boroponija, qyHBH PeRaraiTe ceT nocRe no TyraHa, no pa- 
6oTa, no MaicTopjiyn, Aa Torai ch HAaT no AOMa. Tne iqto ce 
aa cBgpuiyaHbe, Re ce cB*pmaT, h roe mro eeT aa attaeabe, 
Re ce jrAu&t'i a» ROJRy <Wa6h idto Re ce npaaT bo 6aho 
cejuo, CHTe bo eAen a^h Re h npaaT. Koi bo Roi pen ro ce 
CBiRpinHT, nxpBHO ao nocjieacBHO, nono co peA Re ch h aann- 
ihht h ao roAHHaTa Rora Re h BeHqaa cenoro nas cnopeA 
CB&pmyaHRa-Ta: Roi noHanpeA ce CBapurajni, h Toi nonanpeA 
Re ce seHqaT* 8 ). HaROHen,^, aaHSojrfce noApoGHoe onncame 
dToro bi> Bwcineli CTeneBH HBTepecHaro o6biqari mm mtben 

BT> H3B*CTHOfi CTaTb* BepKOBHqa. „OaHHT> H3*b rJiaBH^ftfflHX'b 

o6uqaeBT>, no ROTopoiiy ohh (Mbijrh) p*3Ro oTjraqaiOTCff orb 
npoqiixTj MaHeAOHCKHXT> 6ojirap'b, saRJioqaeTCfl Bt tomt>, qxo 
y hhxt> o6pyqesie h nteHHTb6a CbiBaiorb bt> H3B*CTfloe Bpetta 
h AeHb roAa a** bc*xi» 6e3i> HCRJiioqeBifl; Bb APyi*oe Bpetffl, 
a T&K3K6 h bt> ACHb roAa, 6e icoserb 6iirb HHRaRoro o6pyqe- 



BepKoewn. Op. cit. erp. 12. 
s ) Xctnpe6oe%: Odmwn h d*chh Typ^wixi Cep6on, crp. 408. 
3 ) C6opH ai't> sa aapox. yvoraop., uaysa h ebhxh. t. Ill CTp. 66 




48 



9TH0rPA®H1KCK0B 0B03PSHJB. 



Hi£, BH S6BHTB6u: TOrO H3*B MhJTKOBI*, EOTOpuft OCMfcXHJCff 

6m oOpy^HTbCfl bjkh me aceBHTBCfl bt> RaRoe-jra6o ssoe BpeMfl 
roja, ofimHHa CTporo HaKaahiBaerb h cqHTaen> ero Benecr- 

HUMT> HeJIOBiKOMt. TaKHlfb CpoqHHMT> Bp6MeH6Ml> BaSB&HeHbl 

h o6H4aeMT> ocBameBii bc* abh ct> 20 iiojifl M£can;a (nenb 
npopoKa Hjiin) no 15 aBrycTa (neuh YcoeBifl EoropoAHn,H). 
Bt> Teieaie dToro MfcCHija BCHKifi, kto noHejiaeTb, noxmewb 

06py^HTBCH, HJIH S6HHTBCfl; BT> npOTHBHOBTb CJiyia* OWb ftOJI- 

mewb AOSHAaTBca Toro me BpeMesn cjrbAyiomaro roAa. „Ot- 
KpuTie BToro CBaAeSaaro nepioAa npoHcxoaurb cji*AyH>mHin> 
o6pa30MT>. 6% Aefib npopona Hjrin, nocjit oROBHaaifl jnrryp- 
ris, caMufi CTaptftmift h3t> nocejiflBi* buxoahtb b-b cpeAHHy 
ceja, OKpyacbBBbifl HapoAOirb h HMfea no npaBoft cxopoafe cbh- 
meBBHKa, a no j*Boft cejfcCRaro CTapmHfly (hbjihhk'l xoAwa- 
Samn), 3a kotopwmh ct> od^Hxi* CTopoab wbnyiDTb Apyrie <yra- 
Phrh; CTaBt nocpeAHB* ceaa, btotb cfeAorjiaBuft noqTeBButt 
CTapeui* npHrjamaeTb kt> ce6* mojioaa6bt> ) oa*tmxt> b% npasA- 
HHHBoe naaTbe, h oS'BHBjfle'rb hmt*, qTO „no BoatBefi bo** 
cbbabCbi BaHHHaiOTCfl a . MojuoAeHCB KjaBaeTCH eMy, CTaaoBHTCfl 
Ha KojrtBa nepeA'B CBameBBHROin> noAt ero GjiarocjOBeaie h 
uttuLjeTb eiiy pyKy, uoTOirb bc*, BCTaBmn, CTpfejiHioT'B BtcKOJibRo 
pa3T> H3i> pyrceft bt> sbbki*, hto CBaAbSa yace HaiaHaiOTCfl. 
CnycTH BfccKOJiBKo MHsyrb, BanHBaiorb pa3BfeBaTBCH saaiiefla 
(npenype) aaAt KpuraaMH t*xte> aomobt^ bt> EOTopbixT> aojihchbi 
6mtb CBa^b6a mh ofipyieflie: 3tiaMfl 6uBaeTT> Kpacaoe, inHToe 
sojotom'b u ct> noaoJiO'ieHHtiMb flSioKOM'b aa BepmHfl^ ero, ecjin 

XOSflHB'b BBOAHTb BT> CBOfi AOMt CBOXy, eCJDLB Hte 0BT> TOJIbKO 

o6pyHaerb CBoero cuaa, to nosojioqeBaaro a6ji0Ea ae GuBaerB 
aa SHaMeHH a 1 ). 

?HTaTeJib H3BHBHTb flaifb BTy AOBOJIBBO A*HHByK> BBlBHCKy, 

ROTopaa oRasufiaeTCfl Beo6xoAHMofi, trrt> rbrt* oaa cocTaBjaerb 

eAHBCTBeBHLlft A0RyM6HTl> 0TB0CHT6JIBB0 BTOrO BTBOrpa^HReC- 

Raro flBJieaifl, TaR'b Majio enje H3Cjr&AOBaHHaro, bo HirBion^aro 
B*b BHcmefi CTeneaH Basaoe TeopeTHHecRoe 3Baqeaie. flfln o6t>- 
RCBeHia BToro RBJieflia h cbhsh ero ct npoHHMH aBJieaiflMH dBO- 



J ) BepKoeum Op. cit. CTp. 5. 0 cea^Hom sBaieuiH n6jORa 6y^eTi ca»- 
saao juurfee. 




CBAAHBHMB OBPfl^H BT» BOJirAPIH. 



49 



jhoiuh 6paKa h ceMbH, Bonpocb o hsmt* Aooteirb 6&m> nocTas- 
jieui> Ha T04Ky spfcHia, rjaBHUMt o6pa30Mi»,aHTponoJiorH<iecRyio. 
KaKt Shjto TOJTbKo hto CKaaaHO, Ha6j»AaeMoe bt> Hac-roamee 

BpeMfl IIOHTH y BCfeXT> CROJIbRO-HHfiyAb KyjIBTypHHX'b HapOAOB*b 

pacnpeA*JeHie 6paKOBi> no BpeMeHaMi> ro^a saBHCHTb HecoMHfcH- 
ho orb oneHB 6ojn>moro ROjmqecTBa npHHHBT>, MesAy ROTopuMH 
rjiaBHyio pojb Hrpaiorb npuHHHii pe«rio3HMH h brohomh- 
qecKifl bt> o6idhphomi» cmmcjh* BToro cjioBa. Ho bo BpeMeHa 
Sojrfee OT«ajieHHUfl Ha bto moimh BjiflTt npHiHHbE 6oji*e ecTe- 
CTB6HHUfl h npejK/je Bcero, pasyarbeTCH, rfe, ROTopwa Bjafliorb Ha 
nepiojpj coBOKynjeHifl y mchbothmxi*. Ct> btoS to^kh 3p*Hia 
Bonpoct o CBafle6HuxT> nepioAaxi> hjih ceaoHaxi 6bun> bt> 
nepBufl pa3i> nocTaBJieH'b h bt> SHaiHTejbHofi CTenesH paspfe- 
mewb *hhjhhackhmt> yqeHUH'b r. BecTepMapROirb bt> ero 3a- 
M*HaTeJbHOMi> coHHHeHiH The history of human marria- 
g e. IIocBfln^afl 9TOMy sonpocy ufbxjv} rjaBy CBoero o6nrapHaro 
Tpy^a (chapt. 11. A human pairing season in primitive times), 
aBTopnb npe?KAe Bcero pascMaTpHBaera HM*K>miflCfl bt> AayRfe 

flaHHHH OTHOCHTeibHO TeiRH y XHBOTHblXT> H, B*b laCTHOCTH, y 

aHTponoHAHuxTb oSesbflH'b h, npuHHMaa bo BHHMame cynjecTBO- 
saHie H3B*craaro saKOHa, ofimaro am Bcero atHBoraaro n,apcTBa, 
h T&cHoe 6iojorHHecKoe cxoactbo Me»A7 nejioBfcKOM'b h aHTpo- 
noHAHWMH o6e3bflHaMH, npaxoAHTb kt> saRjuoiefliio, wo nepioA*b 
cnapHBamfl y ApeBHMmnx'b JiOAefl hjth hxt> qejroB*KonoAo6Hbixi> 
npeAROBb AOJimeHi* 6bijn> 6biTb npiypoqeHHMMTb rt> HdBfcCTHOMy 

BpeMeHH rOAa 1 ). /JMCTBHTeJTbHO, MW HaXOAHMt OCTaTRH 8T0TO 

h ao HacToamaro BpeMeHH y HanSojrbe ahkhxt> njieMeHi>. Y 
KajrH*opmficKHX'b HHAifin;eBT>, y TyseMn;eB'b aanaAHofi ABCTpajrin, 
y H*KOTopbix r b ApaBHAificRHxi* HJieMeH'b Hhtuh, y MHorHxt aopn- 
RRHCRHX'b njieMeHb, no Bupaaemio Oldfield'a o6*b aBCTpajriitijax'b: 

„#HRapb, nOAOSflO IlOJieBhlM'b SB'fcpHM'b, HM*eTT> TOJTbRO OAHO 

Bpeaifl coBOKynjieHis bt> roAy Y Mnorax^ hsi» bthxt* Hapo- 
^OB , b,RaR'b Hanp. y syjiycoBi*, RaRb mu pascRaaiJBajui bt> nep- 



t) Westermarck: The history of human marriage. L. 1891, ctp. 27. 
*) „Like the beasts of the field the savage has but one time for copulation 
in the year" (ib. p. 28.) 



aTHorpAwrecsoB OBOsnnx. XXVH. 



4 



Digitized by 




50 



9TH0rPAftHHBCK0B OBOSPftHIE. 



bomt> OTffftjrb HacToameft pa6oTM J ), BpeMH bto npasAByeTca 
ci> oco6ofi TopsecTBeHHOCTBK) u upeflCTaBjifl evh co6oft yate 
AOboju>ho MHoro o6maro ct> HamnHH „HrpHm,aMH Memo cejibi tt . 
y MHAiflcKaro njieMeHH rocoBT>, no cJOBaM^ liojkobhhkr ftaab 
TOHa, ShiBaerb bt> AHBap-fc, „KorAa kbthhuh BanojrHeHW xji*- 
6omt>, h HapoAi> a , no ero co6ctb6hhomy BbipaweHifo, „npeMcno.a- 
HHeTca qepTOBn;HHoit tt , Cojibinoft npasAHHK'b, oneBh nanoMHBa- 
lomift caTypHajiiH, bo BpeMH KOToparo npoacxoAHrb noJiaoe 
nojiOBoe CMtmeBie, He B3Hpafl name Ha poACTBeHHiin OTHome- 



Bl> HpaBaXT* Ap6BHHX r b MOHapxift AMepHKH H AsiH Mbl Ha- 
xoahmt* H^CKOJibKO yKa3aHift Ha cymecTBOBame ooao6huxi> 
are o6uHaeBi> h, bo bchkomT) cayqa*, Ha to, hto 6paBrb hm^a^ 
CBoe onpeA'bJeHHoe BpeMfl bt> roAy. Bt> Ilepy, Hanp., 6paKi> 
6bijrc> coBepmeHHO rocyAapcTBeHHuifb ycTaHOBJieHieifb h Tanace 
Hirbjrb CBoe onpeA*JieHHoe BpeMH. KastAbitt roA'b bo BceMi> 
rocygapcTfife bc* mojioamc jiioah h AfcayniKH, AOCTHruiie 6paq- 
Haro BoapacTa, aojiwhh 6wjiii . hbjehtbch Ha njomagb CBoero 
ropoAancejia bt> ycTaBOBjeuHiad a«m stoto abhb. Bb Kycno caMt 
MnKa coneTajTb 6paKOMi> qjieHOBi> CBoero ceMeiicTBa Ha ny6- 
jinqHofi njoniaAH. Bt> Apyrnxi> ropoAax^ HanaJtbHHKH onpyroB'b, 
H'bHTO bt> poA* HMH'bmHHX'b ry6epHaTopoBT> hjih npeoeETOB'b^ 
A*JiajiH TO-«e caMoe oth 0 CHTe «n» h o jihht> Bucinaro h hhbidhxtj 
KjraccoB-b. BcHKift 6paKi> bh* CBoefi aAMHHucTpaTHBHoft rpynnu 
6biJTb cTporo 3anpemeHi>. OSnjHHa Kaataaro ropoAa hjih cejia 

AOJHKHa 6bUa BblCTpOHTb AOMT> AJfl HOB()6paiHblXl>, a poACTBen- 

hhkh h npoiie rpasAaHe CHa6»ajiH ero bc*mt> Heo6xoAHMUM r b 
AJH xoanficTBa 3 ). MeBAoaa, nyTeiuecTBOBaBinift bt> CpeAHeft 
AsiH h KuTaB, pa3CKa3UBaeT r b, hto bt> □pobhhi^hxi> Khtbh, 
rpaHHqamax'b ct> MaHAacypiefi, bt> HSBfeCTHbie onpeA*JieHiibie 
A*fl dToro ahh bc*, aceJiaBniie aceHHTbCH h bmAth saMynrb, co- 
SnpaiHCb wb HasHaneHHue ajih BToro ropoAa bt> KawAoft npo- 



1) C(5opH. a a h a p 0 a. yioiBop , Hayaa h kbu. t. V, CTp. 222, 
npmii. 

*) ibid, cxp. 28—29. 

') QarciloMo: Histoire des Ynkas. L. IV chap. 8. Letowmeau: L'Evolution 
du niariagc et do la famille. p. 216. Laumier: C6r6monies nuptialea. p 33G, 



Hifl a ). 




CBARBBHME OBPfl^M BT> BOJBTAPIH . 



BHHlriH H T&MT> 3anHCUBaJIIICb OCO6WMH HHHOBHHRaMH. EcJIH 

My »4HHb oKa3biBajiocb 6oJbme, q1»Mi> A'kByineK'b hjih Hao6opo r rb, 
to OpocajiH wpeSifi, h ocTaBmieca aojmkhbi 6um ««aTb ao airfe- 
Ayiomaro roxa, Bor^a hxt> noiwfemaJiH bt> nepByio oqepe^B. 
3arbM f b ynoMAHyTBie hhhobhhkh aIulhjih bc*xi> reeHHxoB'b h 
aeBtcrb Ha Tpn KaTeropin, cMOTps do hxt> cocTOHHiio h icpa- 
corfe, h seHHJiu Soji-fee 6oraTuxT> lOHomefl Ha 6oji*e KpacHBiix'b 
«*By inKaxT>, BSHMafl ct> nepBHXTb 6ojrie BHCOKyio naaTy, koto- 
paa mja Ha npHAaHoe MeHfee KpaciiBWMT> A*BHn;aM'b. 3a bthmh 
Spa^HhiMH n,epeMOHiflMH catAOBaiiH Gojibmia npasAHecTBa wb 
oco6hxt> ffoaiax'b, HapoqHO am Toro nocTpoeHHwx'b bt> khtkhomtj 

ropOA* H CHa6weHHWX r b BT> AOCTaTOHHOM'b AJfl BCfeXTb KOJIH^eCTB* 

nocTeJiflMH, 6y*eTaMH h npo^HMTb xosaftcTBOM'b, HeoSxoAHMMM'b 

ffJIfl H0B06paHHWX r b BT> Te^eHie BCbX^b 9THXT> npa3AHHKOBT>, 

KOTopwe npoAOJSHJiHCb 50 AHeft. 3arfeMT>, bc* OTnpaBjriuiHCb no 
CBOHMii AOMaMi l ). IIo cjcosaifb IIjaHO-KapnHHH, MOHrojbcmft 
xaHi> r ecitH noTpefiyerb y Koro aeaaMywHioio aohb hjih cecTpy, — 
ee SeanpeKOCJiOBHO OTffaiorb eMy. EaeeroAHO hjih qepe3*b h*- 
CKOJbKO jLtTb, cofinpaerb oht> a^bh^ hbo bc*xt> BjraA*Hift Ta- 

TapCKHXT>, H3T> HHX'b OCTaBJUfleTb OHTb Ce6«fe TtX'b, KOTOpWX'b 

xoneTb, a Apyraxi> paaAaerb cbohm'b jnowwh, Kan* eMy B3Ay- 
MaeTca Bt> AP6BHeMi> Phm* KawAuft roAt bi> anp*jii npo- 
hcxoamh npasAHHRH Beaepw, a y MaHHrapATa h Kyjunmepa 8 ) 
mohcho HafiTn ijftjibift pflA'B yKasaHifl Ha to, hto bt» repMamn, 
AHrjiin, 9cTjflHAiH h npoH. coxpaHHJiocb MHoro oSbiqaeBi, cbh- 
A*TejbCTByioiHHX'k o npiypoHEBaHia 6paxoBi> k*b HSBfecTHOMy 
BpeMOHH roAa, qanje Bcero ri> BeCH* h Han any jtbtr. Bt> ap^b- 
Heft PycH CBaAfc6bi hm-bjih, nouHAHMOMy, Toate CBoft onpeA*JieH- 
Hwfi nepioAi>, no KpaitHefi M*p*, mn> AByxi> MtcT'b TeKCTa IIckob- 

CKOfl JltTOnHCH Mbl MOffieMl> 3aKJ[!0HaTb, HTO H3B*CTH0e BpeMfl BTb 
rOAy, a HM6HH0 KOHei^T> flHBapfl H HHMaJIO «eBpaJtfl, CblJO H3- 

B'bcTHO noAT> ifMeHeM'b cBa«e6T>, h bto Bbipaseme ynoTpe6« 



i) Gaya: C6r6monies nuptiales de toutes les nations 1580, reimpr. p. 100—102. 
*) Becmyace<rb-PwMUHT>; PyccKan HcTopifl I CTp. 280. 

3 ) Mannhardt: Waldund Feldkulte I. CTp. 449, 450, 469 et seq . ; Kulischer. 
Die geschlechtliche Zuchtwahl bei den Menschen in der Urzeit (Zeitschrift far 
Ethnologie t. VIII CTp. 152-156), wrr. y WestermGrcV* . Op. cit. p. 29. 




52 



9TH0rPA&H*IRCK0R OBOBPfcHIR. 



juuocb, 0HeBH«H0, wb astiRfe, KaKi> coBepmeHHo onpeAftieHHutt 

TGpMHBL'b, ffJIfl 0603Ha?6HLfl 9T0F0 JiepiOfla Bp6M6HH l ). 

TaKt HaawBaeMwe 6aaapu hjh apaiapHH h6b^cti> othoch- 
nuecfl, oieBHAHO, rt> btoHl we RaTeropin HBJienifi, npeACTaBMOTb 
co6ok) He MeHte BasHuft <paKrb bt> stomt> oTHomeHin. EaeeroA- 
HUfl SpaHBWfl co6paHifl mojioachh — bth ^Hrpnnja Meaio cejibi" — 
6bijhi, no Bceft b*pohthocth, ae tojibxo npasAHHRaiai, BLisuBaB- 
inuHH npeKpameme bchrhxt> bo6hhijxt> A*ftcTBifi Me»Ay njne- 
MeHaMti, qacTO Haxo ahbihhm hch bo BsaHMHoft Bpa»A**), ho Aa- 

BBJIH TaRRCe B03U0KH0CTB npOH3BOAHTB BlffeCT* Cb rJ&M'fa o6ntflhi 
CBOHXT> npOH3B6AeHift H SaRAEOiaTb TOprOBMfl CA*JRH, HTO 

BM&CTfc ct> BaRJuoHeHieafb opaKOBt, npHHABinHX'b co Bpenie- 
Heifb xapaRTepi* Kynjm hjih BhiKyna HeBfccrb, h hoamo no- 
boat> rt> BToro poja Haasamio. TaRie 6asapbi blh apMapRH 
HeB-fecTb cymecTBOBajH BORpyrb Bcett ctoepHofl oropoHbi Bail- 
RaHcnaro noayocTpoBa h hcbojibho sacTasjifliOTb bcoomhhtb o6i> 
H3B*cxiu IIoMaoflifl Mew oTHOCHTejubHO BpaRifti^eBTb, npHseAeH- 

HOMT> HaHH Bfaime. Y CTapHH HBIXB HHCaTeJiefl Mhl HaXOAHlfb H3- 

B&crifl, qTO bt> BeHeiUH A*By hikh, AOCTHrrain coBepmeHHOifrrifl, 
6iuh co6npaeMM h bbiboahmbi Ha pwHoirb, rA* hxt» ORpysajia 
TifriHR TOjna MyatHHHT>, h nyGiH^Hhifi KpHRyin* npoAaBajrb hxt» 
ct> ayKiyoHa s ). Bt> pyMURCKoft TpaHCHJiBBaHis cymecTBOBas- 
raiff npe»Ae flpMapRH HeBtcrb bhaohsm^hujihcb bt» cencRie 
apasAHHRH, npoAOJiacaiomiecfl h ao chxt> nopi> Ha bobbbiiubhhocth 
Gal a a, h hxt» HteepecHOMy onncaHiio nocBan^eHa nfbian rjiasa 
bt> HeAaBHO b hi me Aniens noApo6HOHi> coiHHeani r. MapiaHy o 
pyMMHCRHxi> cBaAb6ax?> 4 ). B"b ApyroM m*cthocth — Halm&gy— 
cyn^ecTsyerb h ao cHx*b nopT>, thrt) HaauB. 6a3ap?> nouixyeBTi: 

0 Bi DcKOBCKoft Jiion. boa* roAOM* 6910 (1402): 9 &b*c* 8b*3W xbo- 
CTftTfui Ha 3ana^HOH cipaH* h Biexosame ci> npoqHMH sBtawmi orb c b a a e 6 1 
(4>6Bpaj« Hie.) ao Bep6aofi cy66oTH a , h xaite uoai 1460 r: „reHBapji 22 o 
cift Xb6axi 6hctl noxapi bo IIcKOBt . * (/Copa*3uf». HcTopw TocyA. Pocciftcs. 
npmifri. n t. Y. 222 ■ 386). 

*) y aBCTpaiiftctaro nieiieHH D i e r i uepeiioHia o6p*3aHiii, sa aoTopoft cjtb* 
Ayem exeroAHHft o6nuiHBO-(5pa^HHH npasAHHBi, aaai caasaHO BHme, bochti uasna- 
aie Mindral, T.e. nap*. G. Raynod op. cit. p. 147. 

3) Be Coheres. Laforeste nuptialeP. 1600, reimp. Bmxelles 1863. p. 27* 

«) S. H. Marian*. Nunta la Roman i. Bucuresci 1890. naBa X: Tar- 
gulft de fete. CTp. 70—80. 




CBAAEBHHB OBPflAhl B*b BOJirAPIH. 



53 



Bc-fc BumeAinia bt> Teqeaie roAa 3aMys r b mojoama seHiuHHu 
coSapaiOTCfl bt> HSBftcTHuii aghb Ha flpMapny, oa*tmh bt> cboh 
B*Hiajii>Hue koctk)mw,h A*JiyK)Tb Bctxi> MyK t iHHi>, KaKie Hlfb no- 
naAyTCfl Ha BCTpfcqy, sa qTO nojiyqaiorb ct> Hanaro He6ojrbinoft 

nOAapOKT) UH HfeCBOJbKO M*AHMXT> MOHerb 1 ). 3aTtMTby pyCHfl- 

KOBi> bt> YropcKofi PycH ao KOHija uponutaro, a Moacerb 6biTb 
h ao Haqaja HUHtmHaro cTOxfrriji cymecTBOBa-nH apMapra He- 

B*CTT> B*b KpaCHOBfb BpOA*, OHHCame KOTOpHXb KOSHO HaflTH 

bt> Ann ale s des Voyages Malte-Brun'a bt> H3BjeqemH nat 
craTBH Rohrer'a, noM*meHHoft b*b Vaterlaendishe Blaetter 1810 — 
1811 roAa a ), a Taxse bt> Casopis Ceskeho Musea (1859, 
I, 101 *). UaxoHeE^b, bt> uepBott qacwi Hacroanjeft paSoTM mh 
ynoMHHajiH yse o6t> yKa3aHiHXT>, Kama hm*k>tch bt> yKpaHH- 
ckhxt> cBaAe6HMXT> n*cHBXT> OTHOCHTejiLHO cymecTBOBaHiff no- 
Ao6hhxt> are 6a3apoBT> HeBtcrb bi> MeAwnSoac* h KpynHH* 4 ). 

TaKHirb o6paaoMT>, mm bhahmi> ? hto cymecTBOBaHie onpe- 
A^JieHHaro pa3T> bt> roAy BpeMeHH a^h BajsjuoqeHia 6paR0Bi> y 
MaK6AOHCKHx < b 6o*rapT> BOBce He npeACTaBJiHeTi> co6oh> HBjre- 
Hifl cjyqaftHaro hjth HCKjnoqnTeibHaro. Phat> npHBeA6HHbix'b 
h&mh <DaRTOB*b noRBSUBaeTb ct> AocTaTOHHoft, saaceTCfl, flC- 
HocTbio, hto flBJieme 8to ecTb ocTaToirb qpesBbiqaftHO ApeBHaro 
m, BtpoaTHO, noBceMtcraaro oSbiqaa, HM*K>maro CBoe Haqaao bt> 
qMCTO '^HsiojiorHHecRHX'b ocHOBaxi> cymecTBOBama h paaMHO- 
sema npHMHTHBHaro qejiOBftsa, nepemeAmHX'b noTOMi> srb o6h- 
qafi, AOJtro coxpaHaBiniftca, ho QOTOirb HSMfeHHamifica hah Aa&e 



i) R. CMlard. La Hongrie contemporaine P. 1891. p. 66. 

*) Annales des ? oyages. t. XVI (1811) p. 109—111. Cam Rohrer 
H3Bjen cboh csixiBui H3i Szirmai; Notitia topographica inclyti Comitatus Zem- 
pleniensis h Bartholormi: Memorabilia proyinciae Czetneck, Neasold. 1799. 

9 J GB-bxtHM H3T> Cag. Ces. Musea 6hjh coo6meHH bt> co&pameBHom, 
Bnpoiem., bbx4i bi KBBrB r. Cyjmnoea: „0 CBaxetifliixi otfpaxaxi", h bo omfl6afc, 
KaxoTCJi , OTBeceHH ai Hexia (cTp. 22). — floiate ohh BpHBexean b* eamefi cxaTb* 
.Rites et Usages nuptiaux en Ukraine 41 (L'Anthr opologie, 1892). 

4 ) C6opH. sa Hap ox. y m o t b o p. IV, CTp. 197. yaasaHie na noxoCaae 
se 6asapn hjh apuapaH x*»ynieai mh HaxoiBMi, Moseri 6HTb,Taaxe h bi oxhoh 
H3i ooxrapcKHxi B^ceai: 

xoftxerai, Heno, xa xoftxenii, On xesen cexa momh-tc 

Ua xy6aBH xeHb Bejaxeei Recero ceio— earn e- to a . 

roxBMi ca co6opi co^apa,— ( loMHtom. CTp. 103). 




54 



9TH0rPA«H1BCK0B 0B03P*H1E. 



noHTMHCHe3HyBmift,BCJi'bflCTBie aoflBjemfl HOBbixb y cjoBift wh3hh 

H HXT> OCJOaHeHifl. 

BosBpanjaacb sarfeirb rt> caHOMy o6pfl/iy Ha^aria cBane6i» 
Bb ( 2Je6T>pcKOM'b ORpyscin MaKeAOHie, mm aojukhh o6paTHTb bhh- 
MaHie qHTaTejifl enje Ha to, noBHflHMOMy, oneHb BasHoe o6cto- 

ATeJIfaCTBO, HTO BT> TOTTb 3K6 CaMHfi A6Hb^ KOl^a OTKpMBHBTCfl 
CBflAeOHhlft Ce30H1>, a nM6HH0 P,eUh CB. HjUH, BT> H'feKOTOpblX'b 
M*CTHOCTflXT>, a HMeHHO BT> BeJiefflKO, XOTfl H H6 BXOffflmeMT> 

bt> cocTaBi> ^e6T>pcKaro oRpysia, ho BacejeHHOMi MhiAKaMH- 
»e, BbixoffuaMH H3T> ^eS'bpw *), no cjioBaan> r. IIIanBapeBa 
„CTOBaeffHHT>o6mecejicKHHJiH o6m,HHCKH KypfiaBij cjiyac6a. Bnq- 
kht* cejffHH h3jih 3 aTb B'bH'b ott> eejioTO ua 6aho onpeA*<neHO 

BTfeCTO, (BtpOflTHO Ha oSpOHHIIje). TaM«b ROJflTb e^BB'b BOJTb, Ba- 

pHTb ro bt> o6njH RasaHi*. Orb csapeHOTO m*co pacnoA*MTb 
no qacTb Ha Bcenoe ceMeftcTBo., ncnoc&AHajH BceKoe, Ha oco6hh 
rbpnesH. Kyp6aH r b ctobh ct> h4koh o6p£RH h mojihtbh orb cTpaHa 
Ha ceJECRuit cbabd(6hhhri> *) u flo^oSHbie are Kyp6aHbi h npasgHe- 
cTBa ycTpaHBaiOTCfl bo MHorHxi> Apyrax-b M*CTaxT> MaReAoniH 
h ciBepHofi BoarapiH. Bi> HeBpoRoncnoM'b ORpywiH (ceao CRpe- 
oaTHo) „Ha HjiHH'b AeHb cHxa eAHa Roma ch 3aBa.ua ejs,m r b 
6paBi> (oBeHi>) 3a RypOaHT*. KypSame to o6wkhob6fho b*b Apyra 
Aeme Tpa6yBa Aa ca roTBHTT> HHApo6eHH B*b xapaem, a Ha toh 
AeHb ca neKOTi> Ha mniub OBHH-rfe bt> nemo tt8 ). Kyp6aHi> bo- 
o6me coBepmaion> bt> HacToau^ee speHfl B r b BojrapiH bt> bha* 
AOMauiHflro, ceJbCKaro hah o6m,HHHaro npasAHHRa. o6biKHOBeH- 
ho bt> AeHb naTpoHa ceMbH hjih toto cbatoto, soTopoMy hocbr- 
meHa Mfccraaff u,epKOBb. Ho Bpjwb an bo3Mojrbo coMEcfeuaTtcn 
bt» tomtj^ hto npasAHecTBa bth hh^iotb xapaRrep^ bhojih* ao- 
xpHCTiaHCKifi 6yAyiH nepBOHaqajibHO n p as ahhk3 mh AOMani- 

HHX*b H MliCTHHXTj 6o»eCTBT>, TOJbKO BHOCJTfeACTBiH 6bIJIH Hpi- 

ypoqeHbi rt> npa3AHOBamK> naMBTH xpncTiaHCRHX'b cBHTbix'b, 

COXpaHHBfflH, EnpOHeMT), BHOJIH* BCH) CBOK) H3bmecRy» o6pflA- 

HocTb, HaHHHaa ct> npBHecemfl RposaBofi arepTBbi, rbri> hs 
b*ctho, BOBce He AonycRaeMoS xpH cTiaB ctbomtj . Bt> KiocTeH- 
AHJibCROBfb oKpyaia, RorAa aepTBeHHoe aKHBOTHoe yme CBapeHO 

1) BepKoetm, op. cit. dp. 4. 

2 ) IUanKapeei. C6opHHn-B oti 6wrapcKH Hapox. yitOTBop. q. III,m. VII, CTp. 185. 
3> ) tloMKoei: HapoAOHi C6opHHii, CTp. 110. 




CBAflBBRHE OBPHAM BT» BOJuTAPIH. 55 

h pasjonceno bt> naHHi^u ^jla *aw, hhkto He Ha4HHaerb tcTb, 
noKa Tpaneaa He Sy^eTb SaarocjiOBJieHa. Ho „nona cera He 
Moace Aa 6jarocjiOBH; Tyk«b Bb tqh cayqaft, me 
OjiarocJiaBfi Ha&-CTapnft ott> ceJieriH-T* tt , a cbh- 

JHeHHHK'b SjiarOCJIOBJiaeTb TOJIbRO HOTOMTb X ). HfcROTOpblfl o6cto- 

ATejibCTBa yKa3MBaioT r b Kara 6yAxo 6u Ha cojiHenHuft xapaic- 

Tept BTHXT> npa3AHMKOBl> H H&IOTb flOBOA'b KT> cSjUHKeHilO HXT» 
Cl> OAHHMb H3T> rjaBHJUX'b peJIHriOSHblX'b OOpflAOB'b CBaAb6bl, a 

HM6HH0 ci> npnroTOBJieHieM'b h TopjKecTBeHHUM'b BKymeHiearb 
RopoBafl. Ha BTopofi AeHb qaeTHo-ceBiefiHaro BypSaHa y Ma- 
KeAOHCKHxi> oojirap'b, ROTopufi npoAOJiacaeTCfl „ii,*jih Tpn ahh, 
KaTO Ha caaAoa", npiiroTOBJUfliorb ocoSbift xjrfc6T> (npocawpy), h 
^CBemeHHHK'b aoclmjaBa Bcenoe ott> Dpa3AHyioni,HT r b AOMaKHHCTBa 
HnpoMeTBa hh rbpneaaTa cahh* npHHocb (npoc«>opa),Rofi-To, paa- 
P*3hhi» HOCJi*HaMaJiRHKiRCHeTa,pa3AaBa ro Ha HCHT*npHc*rcTBy- 
iod^h, AOMaraHH n iocth. . . TOBa ce Hapnqa : „RpeBaHbexjifc6 
a noHerA* „npecB*Ta U2 ). Bee bto, paayMfceTCH, cjiHinRoarb 
aeAOCTaTOHHO eme am OKOHiaTeJibHaro c6.mmemn Ryp6anoBi> 

Cb COJHeqHMMH, a 3aT*MT> H Cb CBaACOHblMH TOAOBblHH DpaSA" 
HHRaMH, HO MU CHHTaeMT> BCe - TaRPI yMLCTHblM'b ynOMHHyTb 

o6-b 8tomt>, xoth 6w AJia Toro TOJbKO, hto6m oSpaTHTb BHHMaHie 

Ha 8TH <Z>aKTbl Cb H3B4CTH0fi TOHKH 3p*Hifl S ). 

») fflamcapee-b, op. cit. c-p. 187. 9 ) ibid. wp. 183. 

8 ) TpyAHO,aoHeiHo,npeAno*araTb, *to6"h aypoaH*, aaat oahbi h ji bhaobi xep- 
TBonpHBomeiJMt, BpexcTaBjuji co6o» oco6eHHocTb aaiioH - aatiyAb oT^'fejbBofi pacu 
hjh napoxa,— Btpute Bcero, mto btoti o(5H*iafi ecrb oahb H3*s (f>op*rb oo'iaeiejOB'B- 
lecaaxi. Ho no oco6eiiHocTJiMi cbobmi 6ojrapcicifi ayp6aHx hm'&gt'l HaH6ojfBe 
cxoactbb ct> noxo^HUMi ze o6p*Aoirb y lepeMHct (o nepeMHcaxi h hxi otho- 
meHiH kt> tiojrapam mh roBopuiH BHine) c% tod tojbko pasHHuea, ito lepeMHc- 
enfi otfpaix, 6yxy?H eme BnojiH* bsuhockhmt*, coxpaHoii bi ceo** ropasAO 6orle 
lepn npHMHTHBHO-apxaHqecKHxi. h pa3Haro poAa AeTaiefi, rotophxi yxe ho cy- 
mecmyeTt bi 6ojrapcsoifi. Taai, y qepenacx aepTBonpHHoraeHie npoecxoxHTi 

06HKHOB6HHO Bl JIBCy, B% CBAUlOHHOfi pOm.'fe, 3aifBHJIDiaeft Xpaifl (K 6 p 6 N 6 T b), H 

aApecyeTC/i a* aaioMy-HH6yAi wpeBy, nasi kt. 6o«ecTBy. (C7mujpho0i: Hepe- 
mhch CTp. 199—202), o6pflA'B cosepraaeTCH ai^mfb o6m;ecTBOH% (ib. CTp. 205)TjaB- 
hhmi 6oxecTBom, KOTOpOMy npBHOcarb«epTBy , *BuieTCB 6orx He6a, 6on ypoxaeB* ; mo- 
jbtgs, o6paniaacb Ha boctori at cojHuy; dpohcxoabti imackh napaMH, opa ien 
npHHATo 3a upaBHio, tto6h nyz% ne niacajii ci atenofi; uasoHem, oti hmcbh 
6oroBt 6jarocjioB^»TCii MOJOiyuiKH, BHraexraia saMysi* co BpeMeHn npomjo- 
roAHaro npa3HHHsa. TopsecTBOHBoe npHiiomeaie Coraai HanorAa He coBep- 
maerb cajii xepTBOBaieib (xotb 6h ohi 6hit. h oahhi): oui Bbi6BpaeT% nocpeA- 



Digitized by 



56 



dTHOrPAOHIBCKOK 0BO3PUHIK. 



Bo bchkomt> ciyqa*, oaKTb cyn^ecTBOBaHifl ao HWH*raHaro 
BpeaseHH ocoSaro CpaqHaro BpeMeHH roaa y fio.arap'b aaerb naM'b 
HOBoe h bt> Bucmeft cTeneHH BasHoe noffTBep«AeBie Tofi Teopin 
onpeffbJieHHKX'b 6paqHMXT> nepioAOB'B, ROTOpofi Haqaao nojo- 
seHO 6blko npeAnojoaceHiflMH KasejiHHa h r. CyMijoBa, h OTRpu- 
saerb 3aTfeMT> ffopory RaRt kt> Bnojmi HayqnoMy ycTaHOBJEemio 
CBaAefiHaro SHaqema ^HrpHnyb Meacio cejnu a y flpeBHHx*b cjra- 
bhht>, TaKi> h kt> Soafce aeTaJiBHOMy h ^aKTeqecKOMy nsyqeHiio 
Bonpoca o npoHCxoacA^HiH cBafle6HHXT> o6pflAOBi» BOoSnje mh, 
no Kpaftnefi n*p*, rfexT> H3t> hhxt>, ROTopue oCHapyacHBarorb 
TaRoe Cpocaromeeca bt> rjiasa cxoactbo ct> bsb^cthwmh h3U- 

qeCRHMH B6C6HHHMK H JI'feTHHMH C0JIH6HHL1MH npR3AHHK&MH. 3a*CB 

Mbi He mo3K6mt>, pasyMfceTCH, OTAaTtcfl BTOMy Hsyqeaiio n ocTa- 
Bxaewb bto, RaR*b npeRuerb ogHofi H3i> Hamnxi cafcayiomHX'b 
paSoTb. 6. Bojkobv 



HHK& — cxapaxa, yii4»maro xopotno mm mojhtbh. (ib. crp. 202). To*bo xax%- 
xe, xax* h y 6oxrap%, y qepeiaci xpoBaBHJi xepxBH aaxiiutDTcx yse *acxo 
xj-b6omt,, HBorxa opexcTaBjJDnuixi no $opn* cBoefi noxoGie mepTBeaaaro xhbot- 
aaro (mwaawix jomaxxB (ib. CTp. 196.) b x. x. 0?ea& aaoro cxoxcxBa ci sthmb 
HepeMBCCRflMB b 6"oirapcKBMB otipjtiaiiB BpexcxajuwDTi, noio6HHe xe bojbbo- 
pyccxie otfpaxn, coBepinaeMHe, Mexxy npoqam, xoxe bi xeet cb. Hjhb, to?bo 
xaxixe aaxi bi HexpoBt xohb h xpyrie. Bi BoioroicKod ry6. em.e Be oco6eaflo 
xasao bi HeTpoBi xea* npBBoxajiB uepxBB 6aaa, koiojh ero, aapBJB Tyro xe 
vk xoxxaxi. b bcbm-b MHpoMi pasroBJ&racB ero mjicomt. Ha KxaxoBDVB. Bet cejeaiji 
npaxoia aa* roxa bi fox* CTporo co6j»iaiB nexxy co6ofl o^epeu xocxasxa b 
apBBOxa xi KepxBB o6peieimaro aa xepxBy xaBOTaaro, *acx* aoToparo oxxiiiuac* 
i Bi BOJbsy uepaoBHaro opaiTa, xaxi. i b* Bojrapia. (H a b a 1883, & 18 CTp. 410). 
HsBicTHuft ByTemecTBeuBBBi nponuaro cxoiixix JlenexBBi BBxixi bi HepMcxoft 
ry6. } hto nocejAae aa Mipcxyi) cuaxxy npBBOABJB ci co6od bi ieai> cb. Hiix 
6axa, xpyrie - Tejeaxa a ciiiaxa Bce» xepeBHex>. (Caxapoei: Caasaaix pyecxaro 
aapoxa, bbx. 1885 r. II, cxp. 101). B% Tyitcxofl ry6. bi cxapaay aocejaae nex- 
ib aa xipcxyi) cxiaxHaay xj46x as* bobob psa, npaaocaia xj« tiiarociOBeaix n 
KepiOBb b paaxaBBja ibbxbmi oti Bceft xepeBaa (ib. CTp. 101). Bi ApxaarejbcxoH 
ry6.,BixeaB cb. Hjiiapisyn doxo6bumi se o6pa30M*b tiapaaoxi (CyMuom 0 cxax. 
o6p., CTp. 107). Cxoictbo Mezxy onacaHBiiMB o6p«xaMB BiaxiTpexi aapoiOBi 00 
Bcea b4poxtboctb, xajexo ae cxy^afiHoe, a o^MCHeHu ero Haxo hckatl wb ax* 
BCTopaiecxHxi oTuomeHijixi. Bi Yxpaaai oieab OTiaJieaaiifi aaueai aa b-bito 
flojotiaoe npexcTaBJixen co6od o6H?afi 3axBraTb cBiia ua poraxi 6hkobi bo bdcmx 
i^epxoBBaro opa3XBixa n KpaaBi^i (3anacxa Dro3an. Oixiia U. Pyc 
Teorpa4>B«i. 06m. II, cxp. 130 a cj£x.)> ao sto opaBaxjeuTi., o*eBBXBO, e% co- 
Bctm xpyrofi Kaxeropia 00x0680x1 se XBieaiA. 




CAYPT> BAHMAOBMHV 



B. 0. Mmuiep'b HanenaTajTb bt> „JKypH. Mhh. Hap. IIpocB* 
cTaTBio: ^BujiHHao Cayp* h cpoABBia ct> hhmh". MaTepia-noM'B 
eiiy nocjiyacHJEH raecTb CujihhT), KOTopua, noBH^HMOMy, bc* 
pa3CKa3biBaioTT> o6*b oaboitb h tom*b «e Jiniifi. Bt> oaho! 6h- 
jihh* SoraTLipb, o noABHraxi> ROToparo noerca, HasuBaeTca 

KOHCTaHTHBOMT>, BT» Apyroft OHT> CTOHTB 6e3Tb HM6HH, BTb 

ocTajubHiaxi) hochtb HM6Ha CypoBeHi*, CypasfccTb, CypoBei^b. 
9th nocJi*AHiH B. 6. MHuep** ciHTaerb 3a HCRaseaifl npo- 
3BHma CypoBHHi>, t. e. CaypoBHqT>, cbiht> Caypa; bt> Toil 
GkumbI*, bt> KOTopoft 6oraTupi> Ha3Bam> KoHCTaHTHHOirB, OTeni'b 
ero BaaBaa-B CaypoarB. 

CBOflHoe H3i> raecra BapiaHTOBi> coAepsame Cbmhhbi 6yAerB 
TaKoe: Bo BpeMa oTcyTCTBia n,apa (Caypa) n;apHii;a poAHTb 
cwHa, KOTopufi, noApocmn, OTnpaBjtaeTca hcrbtb OTija, bctp*- 
qaerb Ha nyra Bopoaa, CHAamaro Ha Ay6y, xonerB CTpfejiaTB 
bt> Hero, ho bopoht> yRasbisaerB einy aa 6oji*e una aero c*afi- 
Hyio aaAaqy; qepesi) p-feny CitopoAHHy nepenpaB-iaeTca (huh 
hb-b TpeneTOBBixrb ropi> noAHHMaeTca) TaTapcRifi hjih copoiHH- 
CRifi n,apb. U,apeBMqi> AepeTca ct> TaTapaMH; copouHCRifi napB 

BeJIMTT, pHTB flMbl H BT> HMaX*B CTBBRT'B DOTOpHHBBI. KOHB 

Aapesma ocTynMca h ynajn> bt> asiy^ ijapeBiiqa cxBarajra, 

CBflSaJEH H BeAy^B Ha RaSHB, HO OHTb JOMaeTB OROBBI, xBaTaerB 

TaTapHHa, MamerB hmt>, a noToarB ocbk> TejrfexHoto no6HBaerB 
TaTap*B h Ao6npaeTC£ ao caaioro i^apa. HtKOTopue BapiaHTBi 

Ha 8T0MT> ROHiaiOTCa, HO 6feIJIHfla H6C0MH4HH0 HMftta HpOAOJHRe- 

Hie. Mbi AOCRaxeifB ero hocji*. 

r. Mnxiep'B npHHHCBiBaeTi> btoA Cujim/h BOCTOHHoe nponcxo- 
SA6Hie. „H 6oraTBipB h ero Bparn hochtb eme TiopRCRia 
HMBuai hm« SoraTBipa ao chxt> nopi> eme npnapfenjieHO h*b 

3THOrpA*raCXOB obo«p*hib. XXVII. / 




58 



9THOrPA4H<IBCKOE OB03P6HIK. 



K>SHO-pyccKHMi> CTeoHhJMi> KypraHam> MorHjairb. Be* sa- 
piaunj sanHcaHU bt> boctoihoA Poccm, bt> noBojan/b, h ae 
npoHHRJH bt> pafioHi> HtHBoft auHqecKoft TpagHiuH Ham ero c*- 
sepa, BTb OjiOHe^yK) ry6epniio tt . Bt» to spear*, nam* jpyrie 
6m*hhu npiypoieabi kt> gBopy KiescBaro BiaAHiripa, 3A*cb 
OTei^b-ijapb ABjaeTCfl uapeirb KaRoro-TO 6ycypnaHCRaro ua- 
AfcHia, acTpaxaBcxaro hjih ajiu6epcKaro. 

IIocxb TaKoro peayjbTaTa HSCJfeAOBBHifl pyccRofi 6buiHHi* 
6CTecTB6HH0 poHA^TCfl aejiame o6paTHTBCH rt> cTeoBony auocy 
h noHCRaTB, He HatiAeTca jih bt> Hem> cxoAHaro cioseTa cb 

CXOAHWMH HMCHaMH. 

y KajMUKOBT> cymecTByen> 6biJUHa doat> flassaBievb 
^saHrap'b, ROTopafl noeTCfl doat» aRROnnaHeiieHrb 6a*ajatiRH 
hjh ryejiefi. Ohe 6bLia nepeseAeHa Ha HfeMeiucifi aauirb Bepr- 
m a h o mt. h HanenaTaHa bt> ero Nomadische Streifereien unter d. 
Kalmuken, Riga, 1805, Th. IV; noTOMb aa pyeemft B o 6 p o b h h- 
kobumT) bt> 1854 r. (B*cthhri> Hmh. PyccR. Teorp. 06m. 1854, 
rh. 12); TBRcrb ea BaneiaTaH'b r. Fa jcTy hckhmt^ . Bo6poBHH- 
robt» bt» npeAHCJiOBiH ht> cBoeaty nepeBOAy roBopni-b, hto 9K3(?m- 
njcflpi), ct> ROToparo oht> nepeBOAHJH>, saimcaH'b bt> Baraijo- 
xypoBCROHi yjiyc*; ho wb ero pyKaxi 6ujn> u Apyrofi 9R3en- 
njflp'b, sanHcaBHbifl &&a 0. KoBajrescKaro bt» XomyTOBCROM*b 
yjiyc*. Ohh bo MHorovb. Be cxoahu; TpeTba aanncb, nepe- 
BeAeHHHfl BeprMaHOMi*, uwbeTb cobc*mt> Apyroe coAepjvame, 
q*MT> AB'b npeAHAymin, xoth HMCHa A*ftcTByiom;HX'b jraij-b 
Tb-se. 

BaraKoxypoBCRiit BKseMnjiRp'b /JacaHrapiaflu HaiH- 
HaeTca onucaaieifb CTaBKH xaHa /JaraHrapa h ero cbhth. Xaai- 
^saHrapi BHBerb y ropbi ApcoaHT> Ajrraft, y Mopa 9pA»H 
mapTaKT>; y Hero 6000 h 12 fioraTwpefi. IIo npaByio CTopoHy ero 
CHAHTb flaJiafi-ajiTaH'b npAKH, „Mope BOJiOTaa rpyA* u , nacTyxi> 
rposaaro Oora Maxarajiw; oht> 3Haen> Ha 99 jrfen> BnepeA'b h 
MoacftT-b 6e3oiDH6o4HO pascRaaaTb aa 70 Jifcrb HaaaA'b. Ho jtb- 
Byio pyny chahtt> 6oraTbipb SpryTyiifio', KpoM* Toro emfi 
ynoMHHaiOTCfl ooraTbipH Ca6ap*b, Y.saH'b-XoHrop'b n AP* Bt> 
bto onHcaaie BCTaBjeH'b pa3CRa3i> o tomt>, KaKi> YjiaH'b-XoH- 
rop'b njL*HHjn> CaSapa h npHBe3i> kt> flwaHrapy. fta-rbe oujiHHa 
pa3CKaabiBaeT*b, hto SoraTbipn RHAaioirb aKpeSifi, KOMy 4xaTb 




CAyFb BAHHAOBHTb. 



59 



Ha Kapayjrb ui Ha aacTasy Ha rop* 9pKejyKi>. 3Kpe6i8 
naaaerb Ha YjiaH'b-XoHropa, ootobtb sa AjTaHT>-IJ,9A»H, ho 
xam> He oxnycKaerb hxi>; nocj* Toro »pe6ifi BUDa^aerb 
Ca6apy. Ca6api> orapaBBJca Ha ropy 9pRejiyin> h noAHJiJica 
Ha en BepiuHHy. Cb ropw OHb yBHAlurb, hto ceuh Karax-b-TO 
Sorarapcii yrOHHiorb xaHCKifi Ta6yHi>; bto 6hjim ceMb 6ora- 
Tbipefi 3aM6aa'b-xaHa. Xoth rjiaBHbifi H3*b hhxt> 6wjn> y6HTT> 
Ca6apoMT>, oahrko oCTajcbHbie mecTb CoraTupeft Bornara 
Ta6yH*b B'b Hope h oht> nonjiburb qepeai> Mope. Ca6api> He 
cBrfeerb no*xaTb n cnycEy kt> nopio; t&mt> ero »flyrb mecTb 
3ajtf6aiOBbixb ooraTbipefi; ocTaatHoft ace 6epen> HeAOCTyneHi>: 
^cTpamHbitt KpacHbifi 6epen» bt> 7000 casein, ycaaceirb fio»e- 
bumh ocTpiflMH, KaKTb inHJibflMH tt . Koraa inecTb 6oraTupefl 
CTajiH HacTynaTb na Hero, oht» cTOJKHyjrb cboh) join a a* h caifb 
cnpbirayjrb ct> 6epera. JLomaA* aaBaajia bt> qepHofi rpaau, h 
Ca6api> He Morb ea BbiTanjHTb. BoraTbipH pySann fieperb mb» 
qaMH h cTBJiKHBajiH RpacHyio 3eMjno Ha Ca6apa. Ca6ap*b, itoOt* 
He 6biTb aasaJieHHbiM'b, uoojiburb no Mopio. Gnyx* o6t> yroH* 
Ta6yHa aoxoahtt* ao xaHa ftacaHrapa. AMaHT>-^8A»H raAaerb 
h roBopHTb, hto Ta6yHbi oToraaHbi SoraTupaMH 3aM6ajn>-xaHa. 
BoraTupb YjiaHb-XoHrop'b nojiyqaen> xoinaab ApaHsyjia h 
noaoJioqeHHbifl caHAaJbHuft MHniHJEb (khkob-to opyAie) h ot- 
npaBJiaeTca AoroHHTb Ta6yH*b. Ca6api> y cobra yare aaBoporaTb 
Ta6yHT> HaaaAt; Ta6yHi> Burnera Ha 6epen>., h, ae CMOTpa Ha 
CTapaHifl mecTH 6oraTupefl noMfeiuaTb, nycmica b«b ropu. 
KoHb Ca6apa, ysaainiit bt> rpaan, paaurajra rpaab h bucbo- 
6oAHJica. Ca6ap*b c4jh» hh Hero h noftxajrb bcju^a^ 3& Ta6y- 
homt>. Tyrb npHcoeAHHaeTCH rt> Heaiy YjiaH'b-XoHrop'b. Ohm 
y6MH 3aM6aj£OBuxT> SoraTupetf , 0Tpy6miH hmt> roaoBbi h npn- 
sasajiH hxt> B*b Topoxa hxt> JoiiiaAeft, aarbM'b 9thxti JiomaAeft 
aacTaBHJiH boSth bt> Mope h DWTb Ha Apyry 10 ciopony. 
roJEOB'b, npHBa3aHHbixT> bt> TopoRa HacqHTbiBaeTCfl He mecTb, 
a ceMb, cji^AOBaTeJibHo Tyrb npnciHTaHa Tanace rojiosa h Toro 
6oraTbipa, ROTopuft 6hurb paHbme ydHTb. Caoapnb h YjiaH'b- 
XoHrop'b B08Bpamai0TCH bt> cTaBKy /(acaHrapa 

XomyTOBCKifi cnncoR'b HaqHHaeTca rbwb, hto MyApeip* 
Ajituhi>-I^8A«h 3aAyMbiBaeTca h yaHaePb, hto rA*-TO Ha aa- 
na/vk ecTb Kuaab Xapa-/I l 7Riu8H f b, KOTopbift oSpamaeTca bt> 



Digitized by 




taaummjw tmstsj. wm> cv&> wanmjn npiim n mm u 

Wr*ym**nrz Mjagtm j6auoMD Jxaanpa; Ymvl ouy 
t/Atnw* ny****m Xap^Janupaa cuamm m cumeiu 

(Ap&pMAMie ^ManrapiajM n aepesox* fiepnoia rBfj—fw 

Kef arm A*. $*wA'i*tke 8traferei?a nvttr den Kaimikea fcx icm 
J*i»re» J>//2 ar*4 1 Ki», l*>5.IVThriLS. 183— 2Ujrramo:Eer- 
jo ntprnjen npa IIIapa-Axra*, toart rponpwo 

*//p* lIlapry-MiaJL lips Jacaarap* 6oran*pa: Anaivllsa. 
Caaap*, Xonrtfffh a MpJT- CToport, rj* anrnera 
rA>Mut&, mm noseta-ren 70000 sexen Ulapa-rypro- On 
ooei&ittTO ^aaarapy nocxa fiypca-Easd-qaraju. c* Tpc6o- 
MHHtnuH, moGu /fcaaHrapb ra^an xoaa Apaaaaia ■ 6ormi- 
pefi Xoaropa apaeaaro a AjTaa'b-I^ran. /(xanrapb oruau- 
aaerb ai» opocy&h. Xoaropt BCJrbjr* aa arm, Sen xaacaaro 
paapftweaitf, aa caott crpax* aea^ueaHo ornpaBxaerca bo 
nA&#hmn lllapa-Pypro, joteacaerb ao nxfemHBaro ossapa^ ao- 
TopMft aa xpoaofi necrpoft joioaga nacb 500 OBem>, npaaaj- 
Jtftfaausax'b AjTaay -U^nara; naeryxT* paacxaaHBaerb Xoaropy 
o Aoporft rb Ulapa^rypro: ayarao nepeBaxHTb xpe6en> Kobo- 
uiuxb, aarbat nepe*xan> eeyrpairayio CTenb, xairb 6u cossea- 
ayio nowapoat; aa nepe*3*i> noTpe6yeTCH ceiib *Hefi a cen 
aowJI; AflJite nonaiyTca BoxoAesb TamyriHH'b-IIIapa h p*xa 
DoTyra; otcioab 6yAerb bbaho Bepuiaay 6*xoft ropu, y boto- 
pott wnaerb Illapa-rypro. Xoaropb Aotearaerb go ctbbeb 
Illapa-rypro, bxoahtt> bt> aee no^bio nox3KOM'b sa box*- 
BflXTi, ryinarb xaAOHbD ropxmyio xaicny, Ceperb cnx- 
nyiro Ha aoxoToft noAyina* Hlapa-rypro npasoft pyxofi hoa* 
ro/ioay, 4*Bott noA^b Bory, BbiBOcarb ero a caAHTcx Ha cBoero 
mohh' no BOHb ho ^BMraeTCfl Cb M-bCTa. XoHropt ocTaBJiaerb 
lllapa-Typro he Mfecrfe h xoierb yAaxHTbcx, ho ero oapyaraioTb 
jk>ah; oh* cpaataeTCH c% hhmb, ho HaHOMoraerb bt> btoA 
6hth*. Y A»aHrapa 6wb noAapox'b orb BexHKaro xaMiJ, 
oOHTaiomaro 3y (t. e. Aaxatt-xaiibi, xrHBymaro bt> Mbkbo- 
uay hah bt» Jlaccfc), hmchho aoxo-roft opaxyjrb (Golde Wahrmit- 
tol); ohjioio BToro Bfcujaro cpeACTBa ( fl,«aHrapT> yaaajn., hto 
Xoiiropi> aaxoAHTca b^ onacHocTH. Ohi* aacTBBJiaerb raAaTb 



Digitized by 



CAYFb BAHHAOBHI'b. 



61 



SoraTijpH ryM6o Ha JionaTRfe; totb ra/iaerb h onncHBaerb, 
Bb KanoM-b 3aTpyAHHTeju»HOMi> nojoxemH oqyTHaca XoHropi>. 
f 3,H?aHrap r b OTupaBjineTCfl bt» hoxoat^ upon cxo ahtb 6htbr ct> 
jk>abmh Ulapa-rypro; bt> cepeAHH* obeTCfl AjrraHT>-Il 1 9qjKH, 
^naHrapi> Ha npaBoft pyR*, XoHrop** Ha j*Boft (ROHija no- 
B'beTH y BeprMaaa He 6bUio). 

BeprMaHOBCKifi Bumofh ecTb oieBHgHO BapiaHrb xomyroB- 
cKaro CTHia, 6uBiuaro wb pyKan> BoSpoBHHROsa; bm*cto 
Xapa-^SHji9Ha y EepraaHa Iflapa-rypro; mscto aojoToro opa- 
Kyja, Golde Wahrmittel, noBHffHMOBfy, saHHMaerb AjrraH'b- 

Be* 8TH TpH CQHCKa SailHCaHBI y aCTpaxaHCKHXT> KaJMM- 
KOBT>, HO MH* H3BfcCTHO, HTO /I | WaHrap T b eCTB H y RHTaftCRHXl> 

KajiMiaKOB r b, t. e. y ToproyTOBi>, KoqyK)mexi> Ha xpeSrfe Tap- 
6araTaft, h y ToproyTOBt, sHByn^Hx^ Ha p. dftdHH'b-rojrb, a 
TaKffie, BfepoRTHO, ero sHaiorb h o<yrajibHbie copoftHqu acTpa- 
xaHCRHxi* KajMMKOBT>, ojhoth AjiamaHH h Xy xyHopa (bt> cfeBepo- 
BocToqHOirb Th66t4). Ecjih HeSoJibinoft OTpbiBORT> RaJiMbizpcaro 
IU6M6HH aajrb Tpn paexoAamnxca caHCRa, to njeiffl bt> itftaoirb 
ero cocTaBfe, paacbflHHoe Ha npocTpaHCTBfe orb Bojirn ao n;eHT~ 
pajibHbixi> nacTett ThSctr, HyxHO AyMaTb, Aacrb enje h^crojbro 
BapiaHTOBi*. 

KajM uniKaH ffujiHHa Hufeerb cb pyccRofi fibiJHHoit o CypoBij* 

HtaOTOpUfl CXOAHblfl HepTiJ Bl> CiOaeT* H CXOflHbia HM6Ha. Bb 

pyccRofi 6biJiHH'B onHCbiaaeTCfl no6oHme ca> copo^HHaMH mm 
TaTapaMH, h bt> o about* sapiaHTfe bto no6oHme npiyponeHO kt> 
nepenpae* qepe3T> p*Ry CiiopoAHHy; b*b RaJMbiijRoii tiHTBa 
6oraTbipefl TaRne cBflsaHa ci> nepenpaBofi qepesi „qepHoe 
Mope". &b pyccKofi 6ujihh* yroHa TaSyHa h*tt., ho, Mosera 
6uTb, 9T0 onymeme- mojkho CA*xaTb npeAnojoaceHie, hto iiapb 
copoqHHCRift nepenpaBjfljcfl qepe3T> CMopoAHHy yae hocji* aa- 
6*ra, BOBBpan^aHCb a^moS ct> Harpa6jieHHofi Ao6uqeft. B*ctb 
o6*b BTovb cooSn^aerb Bb pyccRoft 6bMiurb BopoHi>; bt> Saraijo- 
xypoBCROirb cuhck* R&iiMbii^oft 6buiHHbi echo He cRaaaHO, 
rto npsHecb nepayio b^ctb o6i> yroH* Ta6yHa; Kor^a nepBoe 
H3B*CTie yse nojyqeHo, Ajtuhi>-IJ,9A3KH saAyMbiBaeTca h ot- 



AkVAWb-v*Hoicu noHiOHTOJbCKV — n 30JiOT&ji rpyib". 



Digitized by 




62 



dTHOfPAOHIKOHOB 0B03P*BIE. 



KphiBaeTt, kto yra&rb Ta6yHi»; xomyroBCKift me cnHcoirb Ha- 
qHHaercfl npaito ct> Toro, hto AxTBiH < b-I^9AacH saftyMaxcfl h 
yBHaj'b, hto Xapa-flffiHJi9HT> xonerb OBjaAfrn* Koaeirb /Jnran- 
rapa. BfcpoaTHo h bt> oarauoxypoBCKoarb nepsyfo b^ctb «a- 

B&Tb AXTIJH'b-I^dftKH. TyTb H6A3A He 06paTHTB BHHMame Ha 

to, hto AjiTHHT>-IJ,9Aacn, CTO«mift Ha m^ct* B-fem,aro Bopoaa 
pyccKofi Suxhhbi, HassaHi* nacTyxoMt 6ora Maxaraja h hto 
BopoHi> cqaTaeTCfl xaiiaHCTaMH cann^eHHOH) nTHD,eio 6ora Maxa- 
rajia. BoraTtipa CypoBiia (KoHCTaHTHHa) mojkho bha4tb b* 
Ca6ap£ RaxMumsofi 6mxhhm; no Rpafiaeft Mftp-b, bhesoa** o 
CypoBm-fe, ynafiiuesfh bm*ct* ct> roh6mi> bi> BUKonaHHyio xaTa- 

paMH HMy MOJKHO CpaBHHTB CT> CaSapOMT*, KOTOpBlft yBHSHX'b 

CBoero KOHfl bt> rpa3n. BurfeCTO HaRonaHHBix'b TaT&pami amis 
ct> b6htbimh bt> hhxt> „ nOTOpHHHaM b u — m> RaxMbii^Roii 6uxhh& 
„CTpaniHufi KpacHhifi: 6epen> bi> ceMt tbichh'b caneHi> cb ho- 

SeBBIHH OCTpiflMH a , O HOTOpOlTB HfcCHOJIBRO CTpOR'b BHffie enje 

pa3T> cRaaaHo: „6eperb bt> ccmb THcnq-b caweH-B yc*aHi> oct- 

piflMH, CXOBHO OIHXBflMH a . MyAP6I?b AxTBIH'b-I^BKXKH CBOHM'B 

B*mHM*B spiaieH'B BH^HTb bc* 8TH nogpo6HOCTH nepenpaBbi 
Ta6yHa h paacRaauBaeT-b xaHy ^saarapy; wb pyccRoft 6bixhh* 
BopoHi* TaK»e npoBftmiuicfl 6oraTupio bt> momchtb nepenpaBBi 
Hepe3i> p*Ky, ho TyTi> sairbHaeTCfl HecooTB*TCTBie bt> tomt>, 
hto AxTBiHT>-D,aff»H o6pam,aeTCfl cb p$hbk> rt> xaHy ftwaH- 
rapy, a He rt» Ca6apy, RaKi> 6bi cx*AOBaxo rjlb. napaxnexB- 
hocth, h noTOvy bt> ero pa3CRa3fe onncBiBaeTca h noaeAeaie 
caMoro Ca6apa Ha nepenpaB*. Taaoe HecoBnaAeme He aojurho 
npeACTaBXHTBca HeoaHAaHHMM'B npH Tofi xoMRfc cioateTa, ROTO- 
pofl obt> Mon> noABepraTBca npa nepeca#Rfe Ha Apyi^ofi kuku . 
H bt> BapiaHTax<b pyccRoft 6bixhbbi pojB OTija h CBina hobh- 
AHMOMy CM*iDHBaK)TCH, KaKi> Ha 8T0 yKasuBaeTb BT* CBoeft 
CTaTBB B. O.Mnuep'b. Bt> pyccxoft' 6bwhh* rohb caifb ocbo- 
6o7RAaeTca h3t> hmbi h HBxaeTCfl kt> CBoesiy xoaaHHy; TaRse 
h bt> RaxHui^aoii: oh'b paMflraxb rpasB, h npao^»axi> kt» 
CaCapy. Bt> pyccRofi CuxHH'b 6oraTwpB roBopHTi> cbohmt* 

npOTHBHHRaMV. „KTO XOD^BTB 2RHTB HOAOJBine, TOTT> 6*RH 

noAax*, a kto xon^eTb khtb nowfeHBrae, totb uoabrhbch 

n06xHSe tt ^ BTj RaXMBII^ROfi OAHHl» Hail C6MH 3aM6aX0BBIX<B 

6oraTBipeft roBopnirB cBoeMy npoTHBHHRy: ^ecjin th Apyri> 




CAYPb BAHHROBHTb. 



63 



7KH3HH CBoeit. cioil tt ! (/JwaHrap'b, cxp. 21). KajiMKin.KOMy Xoh- 
ropy B'h pyccRoft Clumh* H*rb cooTBtTCTByiomaro raaa, 
ho B. 6. MHJJiepi> cfijinsaerb 6ujHsy o CypoBn,* ct> 6ujih- 
Hofi o MaxaHJi* ceMHjrfeTR* KieBCKOMt, rohb ROTOparo TaHwe 
BBajHJica bt> poBi>, BUKonaRHwfl TaTapaMH; Ha BbipyqRy 
MMxaftj* *Aen> ero OTei*T> ftaHHJio HrHaTBeBH^b- cji*AOBa- 
T6JIBHO XoHropy, *AymeMy cnacaTB Ca6apa, oTBiqaerb OTeirb 
Mnxaitabi. KaJiHBii^afl 6buniHa He CTaBHTt Ca6apa bt> Raxifl 
jih6o pOACTBeeHMB OTHomeHia r*b XoHropy, ho bt> Heft ecTB 
saraAoqHbifi bdhsoa^ o Oa6ap*. 9toti> SoraTupL TpexT> jifcrb 
nmHJiCfl poffffrejiefl; Manrycw OBJtaA'feJiH ero hoaa^hhbimh. 
^ocTnrmn naTHJtTBflro BOspacTa, ohi> co6wpaeTCfl BoesaTb ct> 
MaHrycaMH. B*mift Ajitbih'b-I^bahh odpamaerb BHHMAHie 
/^ffiaerapa Ha Ca6apa h npeaynpeHfAaerb, ito, noSfcAHBt MaH- 
rycoBTi, Ca6apT> He «acrb noBOK> h noAAaHHbiMTb /JacaHrapa. 
/JataHrap-b, c*bt> Ha rohh, Bbi^asaerb ct> cbohmh SoraTupjiMH 
jiobhtb Ca6apa, ho Ca6ap*b cnraGaerb SoraTupeft ct> &bnejn> 
h He AttCTCfl hmt> bt> pyRy. JKeaa /JacaHrapa 6yAHrb cnnmaro 
6oraTbipA YjiaH'b-XoHropa, h Tony ygaeTc* AoraaTb Ca6apa, 
ycTORTB orb ero yAapos**, cxBaTHTb Ca6apa h npHBesTH ero 
bt> cTaBRy AsaHrapa. Bt> o6ohxt> 9nH30AaxT> o Ca6ap4 HBjrfleTOi 
oaho h TO-ae jhijo — yjaHT>-XoHropT>; bt> oahomt* oht> feAerb 
BbipyqaTb CaSapa h3t> 6*ah, bt> ApyroMi> oht> jiobhti> ero, 
noayqaa ot*b Hero yAapu^ Tyrb H6AoroBopeHHan^ MoaceTt 6utb, 
napajuiejib rt> ^aHMJit HraaTbeBHqy, ROTopuft *bp,eTb Bbipy- 
qaTb cbiHa Maxaftia h BCTynaerb bt> 6ofl ci> cbihomi> (no- 
cjrfeAHee npHDHCMBaeTCfl h Caypy BaeHAOBHqy). 

KajMbia^afl 6biJiQHa aurberb B'b ce6* He Majro HMeai*, cxoa- 
huxt> ct> HMeHauH pyccKofi Cbuibhu. Cayp* pyccKoft Gbluhhij 
HanoMHHaeTb SoraTbipa Ca6apa hjih CaBapa RajMui^Koft. Co- 
poHHHCRifi (TaTapcRifi) ijapb bt> pyccRoft SbUHH-h hochtt> HMeHa 
KyHrypi>, KypraHi* CMopogoBHYb, KysiGajrb CaMopoAOBHq'b, 
Kyp6aHT> Kyp6aH0BHVb. KypraHT> cxoaho ct> rypRo bt> cuhcr* 
Beprmaea, KyM6ajn> ci> 3aM6ajioM'b GaraijoxypoBCRaro cnncKa*, 
KyHryp-b cb YjiaHi>-XoHropoM , b Toro «e cnncRa, a Tanase h 
ct> ^«aHrapoMi». Kyp6aHi> HaaoMHHaeirb MOHroju»CRoe eypOan, 

^TpH tt . HaMT> H3B*CTeH'b TOAbRO OAHH'b CJ^qaft; B'b ROTOpOMli 

8to cjobo BCTpfeqaeTCfl B'b cocTaB* jiHiaaro HMenH, bto B'b 



Digitized by 



64 



9TH0rPA*H1BCK0B 0B03P*HIE. 



UM6HH 6osecTBa ryqHH r b-ryp(5a-XopMycTeH , B-xaH'B, KOTopoe 
TpyAHO npHBjeqb rt> aaHHMaiomefl HacB CKaaK*. Bt> ^pyrom> 
cjyiafc eyp6an bxoahtb bt> cocTaBT> HasBasifl npeflMeTa, ko- 
Topufl wh CKasamKTb moit> 6m CTaHOBHTBCH i^toio HCKaHia; 
HHorAa b«b cRasRaz'b 9to e 6biBaen>; mbi HM*eMi> bi> BH^y 6yA- 
ffiitcKiit TepMHHt eypeaH-opdenu, „TpH «paro^flHOCTH a ; TpyAno, 
KOHeqo, npHffyiiaTB nyTB, xoTopuMnb btotb TepMHira Mon> ne- 
peftTH bt> JHHHoe hmh, XOTH BTopoft HJieHi* h BCTp-fcqaeTca Mea^y 
HMeaaMH MOHroJBCRHx?> 6oraTupeS (9 pabb H-Mepre B*b , 9p«eHH- 
XapajLHR'b); pass* Morjio cjyqgTBCH bto TaRHirb poflOMi», mo 
bt> cioxeTb Gbmhhbi sauioqaeTCfl BnH80Ai> o ao6m Basin h npn- 
Boaft «paron,*HHocTH, 7) ryp6aHi>-BpAeBH tt , h qacTB hm£hh ao- 
6hiBaeMaro npeAMeTa 6ujia o6pameaa bt> hmh SoraTBipa. A 
qTO TaRafl TeMa BRjioqaAacB bt> RaxMm^yio fiujiHHy, bto 
npejinojiaraTb bosmokho. Bt> chhcr* BeprMaHa YjiaHT>-XoHrop , b 
xoierb yBeBTH noxun^eHHaro rypRO; ho kobb He ABBraeTCH, 
TaKT> qTO YjiaHTi-XoHropTb AOi»eHi> ocTaBHTb rypno na 
irfccrfe— TeMa, He p*«KO coeAHHaiomaHca <vb TeMofi o noxHme- 
eiH cbhtijIhh. Bt> BeprMaHOBCROBTb cnHCFb H h,*jb spawecRaro 
Hafifcra He Ta6yHT», a 6oraTupB Ajtbih'b-I^bash, h „3ojiOToft 
TopcB tt , hmh ROToparo TO»e BBi3BiBaeTT> cxoAHBia coofipawe- 
Hifl. Mia npHnoMEHaeifB no BTOMy oiyqaio MonroJEBCRyio je- 
reHAy 06% A6aTa*, KOTopBiS Bea'b bt> MoHrojiro cTaTyio 6ora 
TaH6orypy (hjih Maxarajia) h Ha Aoporfc CTaTya /taibme He 
saxoTtJia ABHraTBca: ASaTaft oTCfeRT* BepxHioio qacTB rfeja h 
tojbko ee yBe3i> bt> Monrojiio (cm. noTaHHH«b, OqepHH c*b. 
san. MoHrojin, IV, 333). 9Ta BepxHa* qacTB MO»eTi> 6htb 
h ecTB Ajptuhb — A8a»h, „3ojioTofl Topcb tt 1 ). Moserb 6bitb, 
Ha CBH3B cb jereHAoft o6t> ASaTa* ynaBUBaerb h to, qTo 
Ajetuh , b-I^ba»h bt> SaraniOxypoBCROMTb yjyofe HasBaHi* nacry- 
xomt> 6ora Maxarajia. QpHBeseHHaa A6aTaeMi> CTaTya noABep- 
raeTCH noTOM<b HanaAeniio xana rajiAaHa; xoth pascKasi* 06% 
btom*b co6utui Majio HanoMHHaeTT> KaJiMBin^yio 6bijiHHy, ho bt» 

1) Ajthhi-b^ami cp. ci AjTiiHi-ie^efi; ?m> Ha3HBaeTca <5iioa* bi ciaep- 
HOft MoHroaiH; bi nepeBoj* sto shshhti n 30JOTaa qama". Bi ciasKi MHHycia- 
cun TaTap* AjTHBi*TaTa aapayjHTi „30JOTy» i&my" c% xhbotbophoS boaoA y 
„30ioroft tiepeen" (no-coftoTCKH cumun naduu; bo-mobtoj. ajman xocyu; cp. 
ojeTCKoe A JTHBi-racyHi , UoiapHa* 3Biaxa). 




OAYn BAHEftOBHI'b. 



65 



Hett Tavare ynoMHHaeTCH nepenpasa lepet'B p*Ky OpxoHT>. boabi 
koto pott nonHHMamcH h TOMrb spaacecKoe boAcko. Ecjth p*Ka 
CMopoAHHa, croamaa m> 6wjchh* o Cay** JleBaHHAOBHH'fc He 
aaaoMHHaerb 8toti> cepAHTtift paaaHBiniflcH OpxoHt, to ero 
MOHieTB HanoMBHTB Apyraa CiiopoAHHa, BOTOpan paajHBaeTCfl 
h todhtb Corarapa flfl6pnnm HutHTHia. rajmairb — xaHT> 
ojiotob'b UH ojeTOBT>; oaeraiiH, ya&raMH HasiiiBaiorb ce6a aai- 
mmkh, HtHBymie wb npeA*Jiax'B KaTaficRoft HMnepia; bmb bto 
bt» MoerojbCBoft nHCBMeHHOCTH aBjaeTca b«b' oopirt yeejted. 
He OTcro^a jih MysnEH yraniiKie bi> Gbuhh* o Cayjrfe Jfasa- 
hhaobhi*? Ojhotbi cHHTaioTb ce6n noTOMxaMH HtKoero I^opoca; 
h TenepB orho KajMhin,Koe noKOjrfeeie HaBHBaerb ce6a n;opocaini, 
ho MorAH 6u ce6fl Tara HBBBiBaxB h bc* ojhoxu; bt> TaKoirB 
cjiy^a* uiii MorjiH 6bi HanageHie raigaHa aa cTaTyio, npHBe* 
aeBHyio AGaTaeifB, aasBaTB HamecTBiemb i^opocoBi>. A ecu 

OJUOTM HHBOrffa BO* H6 HaSBIBBJIBCB B,OpOCaMH HJDH lOpOCaMH, 

to, no KpaftHeft nip*, mohcho AonycxnxB, qTo b*b apgbhocxh 
6hwa 6oju>maa b£xbb aieTcaaro nxeiceHH, KOTopaa HaBBiBaxa 
ce6a 9THMTb HMeHearb, GojiBme, vbwb TenepB, h xoxopaa bho- 
cj'bffCTBiH ncqeajia^ ohh Morjia .npiitxH bt> lOscHyio Pocciio, 

GA^SVTBCfl 3#f»CB H3B&CXHOK) «a CBOH) CHiy H MHOrOHHCJeHHOCTB H 
nOTOKTB CJKHTBCB CB flpyrHMH HOapiMCKHMH DJieMeHaMH, HOTepflB-B 
CBOft fl3MKl>, yCBOHBT> lyatoft, HO COXpaHHB'b B*B H&MHTH CBOH 

qopoccaia npegaHia. Bt> oaho& pyccaofi Ouxhh* Ooraxupb Koh- 
CTaHTHHrb, cbihi> Cayaa JleBaHHAOBnqa, oiyTHJca bt» mrfeHy h bt> 
xiopBM* y MyatHH0BT> yrjiHURHX'B; bt> ffpyrofi n;apB CaypT> BaHH- 

AOBHYB Bl> DX*Hy H 6% XfOpBMfe y MySfflKOB'B COpOHHHCKRX'b; 

yrjffln,Kie MysHRS KaKb 6yATO oaho h xo-se ct copohhhckhmh, 
aaKT> h B'BKaaMBmaoft TepMHeoJorin yrejeffu TO-se, hxo nppocu. 

B> 6. MaiiJiep'B c6jmsaeTB GujiHHy o CypoBij* cb meB- 
cKoft ONJHHofl o Mnxaitttft ^aHBJioBHq*; BpasKAe6HBift n,apB Ha- 
SBiBaeTca YjiaHHn^e (ito HanoHHHaeTi> nepBBift qjieHT> bt> nap- 
homt» YaaHii-XoHropB) x ) naa BaxMerB TaBpyeBHqi>. CypoBixy 

COOTBftTCTByeTB MhXOHJ^ ^RHHdOBHTB^ TaKHBTb 06pa30M*b ffjia 

Gorawpa, KOToptift HaauBaeTca qacTO npocTO Cypos^M'B, mm 
HMfcearb abb xpHCTiaHCRHxrb HMeHH: Rohctbhthh'b b MHxaHJH>. 

i) Gp. raise Xapa ,HaHjeH* bi» XomyTOBCKom cbhck*. Yz&ui-Jbmewb mo- 
sen 6tm icaaxeHie Heaoaavaaro Hoaroiaas TDpaeaaro uaoh, jujmw, ,,8b&i". 

morPA«mcBov obabmru. XXYTT. 6 



Digitized by 




66 



9TH0rPAOHqBCK0K OBOBPfeHIB. 



B. 6. Meuepi* CTapaercfl otkpbitb, OTxyxa nonajui bt» 9Ty, 
emfi He yTpaTHamyio cjrkAOBT> CBoero BOCToqnaro npoHCxoarje- 
nifl, GhiJiHHy ^ea 9th xpncTiaHCRifl hmohh h oht> Haxoflirrb 
bt> j*TonHCHMXi> npejiaHiflx'b noflxoAflmia JiHija. Mm ceft- 
qaci> ynasesfb Ha 6miHHy, sanacaHHyio y A*op6iOTOB'b okoxo 
ob. y 6ca; ecjra OHa He bt> coctoahIh otkjiohhtl nocorbAHix co- 
oSpaaeHifl B. 6. Mxuepa, to, no RpaftHeft Brfep*, Moarerb nps- 
secTH kt> Bonpocy, He n o atotob u jia jeh OHa cbohbth opxhh- 
crhmh HMenaMH noqsy ajih npEBJieqeHia bt> pyccRyio 6ujHHy 
HCTopnqecRHX'b hmcht* Mnxanjia h KoHCTaHTHHa. 

fliopfiiOTCKaH 6iUHHa coffepsHTb b*b ce6* enHBO/rb o&b yroH* 
n;apcKaroTa6yHa. D,apcKifl cum* HpHHT>-CaftHf>-ryHhiH*b-HacTafi- 
MHReae, TpexAfeTOKi), co6npaeTca fexaTb bt> noroHio sa Ta6y- 
homt>. IIoao6ho Tony, Kara BjaffHMipT> OTroBapHBaerb ceMH- 
jrfwRa Mnxaoia, h roBopurb, qTO oh*b eme uoao^ am 6o- 

raTHpCKHXT> A*JTb, TaR*b H BT> ff»p6lOTCKOfi 6bUIHHt OTei^b-I^apb 

h MaTb-i^apHn.a He oTnycRaiorb HpHH<b-CafiHa. Ohh roBoparb 
eify, qTO oht> poci> bt> H*rb, hto oht> xioAett xopomo He BHaerb, 
hto OH*b He nirberb hh 6paTbeB«b, hh cecTept h oahhokt>, xan 
Btoep-b m> no **, h yrosapHBaiorb ero hohchtb jtoiia eme roffb. 

TaSyHbi oToraaHU 6oraTupeMi> Xap'b-XypxyRiHHOirb 1 ): bto- 
pott HJiewb BToro niieHH HanoxHHaerb hxh MOHrojbCRaro 6osecTBa 
XopMy cxeHTi- xaHa uh ryqHH«b-ryp6a-ryp6ycTeH , b-xaHa, roto- 
poe y coc*ahhxi> tk>pkobt> npoH3HOCHTca KypSycTeH'b-xaH'b *). 
B*b tomt> qHCjrb oToraaH'b h SoraTupcKifl kohl HpHHTb-Caft- 
Ha, TaR*b qTO btotb 6oraThipi> npecifcAyen* Ta6ym> nfemRoirb; 
bto nanowiHHaerb Cafiapa RanMbmRoft 6mjhhu, ho He b*b bhh- 
soa* 06* yroH* Ta6yHa. a bt> Bnadogb o jiobjc* CaCapa YjiaH'b- 
XoHropoirb; Ca6ap«b, y ROToparo /JacaiirapoBhi Coram pH ot- 
6hjth JOfflaAb, y6*raen> ott> YjraH'b-XoHropa, CHAflmaro Ha 
jiomap, nfemift. 8nx30ffa o noAKonaxi* h ynaBmearb bt> HHy 

1) HpHHi-Caftei noxHHMaeTca Ha licTHHny ■ c% Bea ocMaTpHBaert, tyxa oto- 
rH&HH Ta6yHH. 9toh doapo<5hocti n 6hjbb* 0 Mixanii AaHHjOBMTk h*ti, hoou 
ecn bi lajMHmoft: Ga6ap% Bsiix&ii Ha Bepnmoy bhcokoh ropn 1 c% hoji j*wjn>, 
hto tb6jb% HecercB no HaapauemD %% MopD h ero csmh roun eeu 6orarapeft. 
3ra hoxpo6hoctb ecn. taase h bt> rpeiecEoft 6&ihh < b 061 Apuypi. Hicjo 6oraTa- 
pet, OTroHiiDmHxi Ta6yHi, bt» BaiMHE(Koft 6iuiHi comb; tos6yhcio bi racapiax^ 
bi pyccKoft 6muHi 0 ceMH 6oraTnp«x% 9 OTrouDnuixi Ta6yHi m I^aperpaxa. 

a ) Ob BTHBPB ryp6a-ryp6ycT6H* cp. pyccaoe napHoe Kypfiaa* KypoaHOBHU. 




CAyPT> BAHHftOBHTfc. 



67 



ROH* B*B AH>p6H>TCKOft 6B1XHH* H*TT>; OHT> 3AM*&H6H < B TfcM7>, qTO 

HpHH'b-CattB'b HaxoAHTb CBoero kohh ct> o6py6xeHHHMH HoraMH; 
HpHHT>-CattHT> HcnJ JiaeTb kohh. Orobhbiiihcb^ oh«b BupuBaeTb 
Aepeso h cb HHMTb npoAOxaeaeTB npecjrbffOBame yraaHHaro Ta- 
6yHa. Bi» pyccRHX?> 6hiXHHan> bt> pyRaxi> 6oraTwpa CypoBiw 
hjeh Maxaiua TaTapumb, a noTOMi> ocb hxh ocxhab TexfescHax; 
bt> KajiMwuKofl Ca6api> hochtb Ha nxeq* atexTBift Tonop'b, 
yjiaHT>-XoHropT» KaKoft-TO nosoxoqeHHBifi caHAaxBHwfl mhhihxb. 
Ta6yHU, HaxoHeifB, BOSBpanjeHii, RaR*b h bt> RaxMhmRofi 6k* 
xhh*; Xap'b-XypicyKHHH'b ySmrb. HpsH'B-CaftH'B fyjerb Aaxfee; 
eMy Ha BCTpfcqy *agtb Apyroft 6oran>ipB; ohh CBfessaiOTCfl ppa 
noeAHHRa, ho Tyn> nponcxoAHTb cnosHame. EoraTBipB, BCTpi- 
qeHHufi HpHHt-CafiH omt> , ORasaxcx KoROxesfB, nxenHHHHROin> 
HpHH<B-CaitHa. Oecxpa HpHH'b-Ca&Ha 6uxa 3aMy»eMT> aa 60- 
raTBipeirB Khtbi h t>-3 e6 h ^ XopT>-XypMyRqHHT> yfiut Khtbihi>- 
3e6n h ero 6epeneHHyio «eny yBex*B bi> nxtai. 9totb bhh- 
30at> no lrbCTy csoero noxoseHix bt> 6bixhh1i OTBfcqaerB BCTpfcqfe 
Caypa BaHHAOBHqa cb cbihoitb hjh BBifeSAy Ha paraoe noxe 
^aHHxu HraaTBeBHia. TaRi> KaRr> HpHH'b-CaftH'B Tanofi se Ma- 

X0J4T0R1>, R8RT> MHXaHJT>, TO B*b BU^XaBmOlTB H*b HeMy Ha 

BCTpfcqy SoraThip* cjr&AOBaio 6u npHseaTB ^aHHxy HraaTBe- 

BHia, HO OHT> 0603Ha^eHT> B*B AK>pf>K>TCROfl 6l*XHH* HX6MRHHH- 
KOMT> H TaRHBfB 06pa30ITb flBXHGTCX MXaAIIIHMTb, a He 'CTapniHMTb 

SoraTBipeafb. TaRi» Kamb Koroxb BBrbsKaerB hb'b BpaatAeSHaro 
xarepa, rA* ohi> HaxoAHxex b*b nx*Hy, to oht> cooTB*TCTByeTT> 
Caypy BaHHAOBHqy, KOTopwfi HaxoAHxcfl bt> nxfcay y copoqn- 

HOBl>. T*MT> Se 06CT0flTeXBCTB0Ml>, qjTO OHT> pOAHXCfl Wb OT- 

cyTCTBin oma, oh«b HanoMHHaert KoHCTaHTHHa, cuHa Cayxa 
JleBaHHAOBHHa. IIoaoSho TOMy, KaRT> metb CHapasaerB Koh- 
craHTHHa OTucRHBaTB OTHja, TaRrb MaxB KoROXfi nocuxaerb CHHa 
OTbiCKHsaTL AflAK). Mm AyMaeBn>, qTo nepsoHaqaxLHO bt» A*op- 

SlOTCKOft SBIXHH'b A*XO DpOHCXOAHXO TaRTb-»e, K&RT> H BT> pyc- 

cRoft CKa3K* 0 EpycxaH*, hto OTein» BCTynaxi B<b 60ft cb cm- 
Hom>, h Moseirb 6mtb Aaace oahht> H3i> n oe ahhupirob'b HasBi- 

BaXCR ApCXBHOBTb. Bl> TOfi-XCe AK)p6K)TCH0ft fiHXHH* HHTKe eCTB 

Apyrofl 9hh3oat>: HpHH^-CaftHt BCTynae-rB b-b Soft cb box- 
komt>, KOTopBifl oxasBiBaeTcx qexoBtRoM-b bt> oSpan^eHHOMt bha*, 
6paTOMi> MpHHt-CafiHa, no HMeHH ApcxaHi>-3e6H. Mosho npeA- 



Digitized by 




68 



BTHOrPAQHIECKOS OB03P*HIE. 



nojoacHTL, <ito BHaiaff* HCTopia q6t> yroH* TaCjHa bt> fliop- 

6lOTCKOft 6&1J[HH^ HM*Jia TaROft BH^T>: HpHHTk-CaflHTb OT6HBaen> 

Ta6yaT>, y6nBaerb Xap'b-XypMyRqnHa h HafcssKaerb Ha HesHa- 
ROMaro SoraTwpa, KOTopuft ORasbisaeTca ero cwhoiit> Apcia- 
homti. Bnooi^ACTBin poffCTBeHHUH OTHomeHifl aaMtBeHbi &py- 
rami; B<b He3HaROMOMi> 6oraTwp* peRaRnja CTSJia bh^tb bib 
njeMiiHHHRa hjth 6paTa, upHqein> hmh ApoiaHi> npn nxejfsiH- 
hhr* He yaepacajtocb, ho coxpaeajiocb npn 6parfc. Ilpn cboar£ 
BapiaHTOB<b bt> OffHy 6ojn>myK) Sbunray 06a bth BapiaHTa bovjh 
bt> cBOffHMft cocTaBi* — h Soft mh, no Rpafaeft M^p*, BCTpfcTO Cb 

OJeMflHHHROirb H OOfi Cb 6paTOM1». HO TaKT> RaiTb HpHHT> GafiH*b 

MajojrfeTOBT>, to bt> raaaTexbHoarb ApcaaHfe cRopfce HywHO bh- 
a*tb OTn,a, a He ciua. Poahtcjhi HpHH<b-CaftBa 6buh yBe^eHw 
bt> nxbwb MaHThicaMH- bto cjny^HJiocb noci* yrcma Ta6yaa, 
Ror^a HpHH'b-CaSH'b yraejrb BOSBpamaT* ero. Ho yaos'b n 
njrbH p b Morb ctoatb panbine; cxeifa omjlhhh Morjsa 6mTb TaRa*: 
yB03T> poffHTejeft; HpHH'b-CaflB'b BbipocTaer* Sesi* hhxi>; iih 
yB03i> ovi^a, h HpnH<b-Caftin> po/qjTca Sea-b Hero orb ocTasjieH- 
Hoft 6epeH6HHOH> MaTepH-, Kor^a oht> aocthfb TpexafcTHaro Bospa- 
CTa, y ero MaTepn OToraaHH TaSyHu; ohi *flerb B03BpamaTr> 
TafiyHbi h mcthtb ManrHCajrb, hoaoGho CaSapy, Roxopwfi Tpext 
jt*tt> JHmHJicfl poffHTejeft, JiHmHJicfl noffftaHHWX'b, yBeAeHHbix'b 
MaHrbicaMH, h Ha naTHXiTHeM'b Bospacrb oTnpaBjmeTca mcthtb 
MaerMcaMi*- Aajrfre Hpaffb-CaftHt Aocrarajrb po MfecTa nafcHeHia 
ero oipa; Bpara buchjuh OTija Ha Soft ct> ciiHoarb. 

/JiopStoTCHaa fiwjiHHa HM&erb TaRoe ace npaBO Ha c6«rare- 
Hie c% SuxHHaMH o CypoBij*, KaHT> h RieBCRafl o MaxaHfffe. 
Bt> Heft ecTb bc* rb TeMbi, East h bt> nocjrfeAHefi: 1) 6ora- 
Twpb MaJOjrbTOK'b, 2) OTroBapHBame poAHTeaeft, 3) rohb *h- 
ineHHbitt ABHseaia, 4) pj6ma, bm*cto opysiii, 5) BCTpfcia ct» 
HeysHaHHbiM'b MJiaAiDHMb poffCTBeHHHKOM'b h cnoBHanie. He 
xBBTaerb tojibro cha*hbh no Harosopy bt> uorpefi*. 9xa no- 
cjribffHflfl Tenia B*b opamhcromtb ^ojibKxop* pa3CRa3UBaeTca ot- 
A*JibHO o Sorarbip* UlyHO. IIo HameHy MH'bmio, oto hocj*a- 
Hee CRaaaHie npeacffe ho ctohjio TaRi> oco6o orb Sbixhhbk o6t» 
HpHHi>-Ca&Hfe, KaR'b Tenepb. Bi> cTaTb* „Arhpb hob^cth h 
ARHpb xereHABi tt (9th. 06o3p., rh. XXV) a yRasuBaio Ha 
OTHomeHix HpHH^-CafiHa ri> HlyHo; Tairb h cTapaica ycra- 




CAyPT> BAHHftOBHI'B. 



69 



HOBHTb TOS6CTBO MeXffy TIOpKCKHBTb Illy HO, TH66TCRHBfb TapH 
H TIOpKCSnfb EpCHB-TOieHOMl) , npHBHaBafl BO BOfeXTi HXT> 

•arypy MyAparo cofifrrHHKa i^apa; kt> btomy ate cnHOBy HMeHt 

MM OTHeCJIH H HHfl HpHH'h-CaftH'B, ROTOpUBTB HOI*b Ha3MBa?bCfl 

MyApuft n;apB, 3aM*maBmift HHor^a Mygparo cob^thhrb. IIIyHO 
chahtl b-b hm4 no KJieBeTt, KaRi> MnxaHJit bt> KieBCKofi Jie- 
reHA*; ero noAHBMaiorb h3t> hmh; oht> ocBofioarAaeTb ijapcTBO 

OTB HJI*HeHiH HHOCTpaBHHMT> U.apBM'B, HO, pa306H»eBHBlft H6- 

cnpaBeA^HBooTLK) 0Tii,a, H6 xonevb 6oji*e ocTaBaTBcn bt> ero 
ijapcTB*, y^ajifleTCfl bt> HHOCTpaHHoe n;apcTBO (bi> PycB). Mu 
c6jmHsaeu'B ero ct> nepcoHasreirb ApyrnxT> jiereHAT*, KOToptifi 
yHocHTt y HuHrHCB-xaBa SHaMfl, MyTOBRy (hjh sojiotoA npn- 
ROJTb) h HHor/ia Taxxce bt> PycB. 9th noxumaeMhie npeAMeTM 
poAi> Hapo^Haro najuiaAiyMa; Cb hhmh coeAHHeHO c^acTbe 
Hapoga. 9to-to npegaHie o cha*hlh bt> am* IHyHO, AonoiHeH- 
Hoe TeMoft o noxHmeHHOMt npeAMerb h BxoAHBmee, MoxcerB 
6htb, bt> cocTaBi. Shjihbm o 6oraTHp*, B03Bpam,aBmearb yr- 
HaHHBifi Ta6yHT» h nporoBBBmeifb Ha6fc«aBmHX'b HenpiHTejiett, 
Borneo no KieBa h npespaTHJiocB BAfeCB bt> npe^anie o6t> yHec- 
mearb ^sojiotmh BopoTa tt MHxajHrt, CTOflnjee pflAOM«B cb 6m- 

JDfHHOfi O MHXaHJ* flaHHJIOBHq*, BT> COCTaBT> ROTOpoft OHO, B*- 

poHTHO, bxoaeuo. yroHi> Ta6yHa h nepeapaBa nepevb Mope bt> 
pyccKHxt 6ujiHHax'B HcqeajH-, bth hhi^haghtli 6mjh bt> Heft, 
ho Tenept, tojibro RaKi> 6jrBAHMfi cjrfeAi> npeaceeft peAaHujH, 
ocraJiacB Biv o ah oft, Haii 6hxhhi> nepenpaBa qepe3i> CifopoAHBy. 
Mm npegcTaBJifleM'B ce6* npewHift bhat> btoB 6mjlhhh tekhmtj! 
mapB KyHryp-B Haaajn> Ha u,apcTBo AjBi6epcRoe *) h yraarb 
Ta6yHi>; ho ooraTBipB KoHCTaHTHHi> HaraajTB ero bt> to BpeMfl, 
KairB owh nepenpaBJiucfl qepe3T> CMopojHHy. 

Bt> pyccRoft 6MJHH'b 6oraTBipB CypoBei^b hochtb xpHcriaH- 
CRoe HMfl KoHCTaHTHHt* bt> RieBCRoft 6 bi jiKHt oTB'feqaioinia nep- 
coHaarB HasuBaeTCfl MaxaHJioMT>* bt* AiopfiiOTCRoft HpHHT>-CaftH r b- 
ryHbiHi-HacTaft-MeKejie. Bi> bhay cxoxcxBa cioateTOB'B h bi» 

J ) Hmh AjH6epc*oe Hyateo hck&tl bi spyry cKa30Ki o Hatext aapj. Ecn 
m OHrojBctda CKA3KH o Aapt, Hana^acmeMt ci BoftcKom Ha HejOBita, MBymaro y 

pdBKH. OAVHl H31 BapiaHTOBl 8TOH T6MH CTaBHTt 66 Bt CBASb Cb XepeBOMl tttJl- 

6**pcen, npHHOcamHMi b6jokh, xocTaBiADmia ciacTBe (cm. mod neHry „TaHr. — tr6. 
osp. KflTaa a , II, ctp. 258). He ocmhcjuoci jh dro uu xepeBa, bakimmji j^apctBa? 




70 



9THOrPA<DH4ECKOB OB03PUHIE. 



BHAy npe«nojio»eHia, rto cioaerb btotb saseceirb ct> BOCTORa, 
H3T> op ah, mosho yraAraaTb, hto xpncTiaBCKoe hmh KoHcraH- 
thht> flBiuocb Ha m4ct* ryHHH'b-HacTait, a Mnxawb, Mnxa- 
mvb Ha m*ct* Mexejie. 

Hmh KoHCTaHTHHii BCTpfciaeTca bt> pyccRoin> 6hjihhhokt> 
anoc4 enje bt> SbutHHfe o BacHjn>* BycJiaesfe. Bt> 6jujhh* 
oht> HaauBaeTCfl o6likhob6hho Kocth HoBOTopseBHHi>. H. H. 
2K A & h o b *b wb CBoeft CTaTt*: „Baciuiifi Bycjaesaqt h Bojtxt> 
BcecJiaBfceBHH r b a (PyccR. 6uje6B. bhocb, cTp. 208) hphboahti 

OTpMBOKl) H3*b HOBTOpOACROft 6bIJIHHH, BT> KOTOpOMT) He By- 

cJiaeBi xBajiHTCH htth Ha B6CB HoBropoA'b, a Kocth HoBOTop- 

«eHHHl>. He 3HaHETB-IH 9TD, TOO KoCTfl HHOrffa SaM&njaj'b 

Bycjaesa? Kor/ja 6i> TaKaa saufeHa HBjrajiacb h bt> annsoAfe o 
IlHJiHrpHMHn^*, nojynajiocB 6w HiROTopoe coBnaAeme cb 6h- 
jHHofi o KoHCTaHTHHt CayjioBHi*; BycjiaeBt AepeTca ct> cbo- 
hbtb KpecTHBiirb oti^omi> h ySHBaerb ero; 6e3bHMeHHbifi cuht> 
Caypa bt> ROTopoirb mu uomewb bh^tb RoHCTaHTHHa Cayjio- 
Buia, BCTyuaert B*b 6oft ct> poAHBiirb OTn,OMT> *). 

^Atctbo RoHCTaHTHHa CayjiOBHia noxoate Ha a*tctbo Ba- 
CHXLfl BycjiaeBa. CeMH sbvb KoHCTaHTHBT> OTflaH-b Maxepbio 
yHHTtca: bt> HoBropoACRoft Sbuhh*: w ByAerb BaceHbRa comb 
roAOBi>, oTAaBajia MaTymxa poAHMaa, siaTepB BAOBa Aiuejwa 
THMo«eeBHa yqHTb ero bo rpaMOT* tt . (JKAaHOBi*, „PyccRift 
dHJieBoft enocb", CTp. 199). flecHTH ji4tb KoHCTaHTHHymRa 
yae boojih* Gor&rbipb, h orb ero myro^eR* CTpaAaiorb a*th 
RHHaeHen^in, CoapcRia, ABopaHCRia h RynenecRia. Co Bcfexfe 
CTopoH'b sajyiOTCfl Ha Hero M&Tepn (B. 6. MnjutepT*, Bujeehu 
o Cayp4, CTp. 375). Bt> HOBropoACRoft 6mjlhh*: „bt> nflTHaA- 
n^aTb jifcrb cTajrb oht* (BacHJiitf) Ha jjluj^u noxaacHBafb, co 
poSflTMM myTRH nomyiHBaTb: Roro 3a Hory— Hora-Ta npo%, 
Roro 3a pysy — pyna-Ta npo*ib tt (Fhib*., 153). 

PoacAeme Cbraa Caypa HeoSbiKHoseHHoe- MaTb ero xoAHJca no 
caAy, ct> RaifeHH CTynHJia Ha juoTaro 3Mfca, oSbhach 3M*ft orojio 
HorH h ottoto KHflrHHH noHOCb noHecJia. HeoSbiRHOBeHsoe po»- 
AeHie 6biJ[0 h y Bacnjiba BycxaeBa no AoraARaicb H. H. SfraHOBa 
(-PyccKift CbuieBoft 9nocb tt , CTp. 198). 



J ) Koaeuo, saaiHa BacaiMi KocTeft leraoaoseTi 6urb o6tacaeaa oma6Bofi nium. 



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Google 



POAMHfal H HPECTMHbl, 



yXOAT> 3a pOAN/lbMNUeil N HOBOpomAeHHUMIi. 

(Do MaTepiaiam, co6paHBHm bi TyjiCKom, BeHescKOMi h KamipcKom yisjax*, 

Tyifcctofi ry6.) 

Karb b% cpeafc ffpyrnxi uaccoB'b, Tarn* bt» RpecTBflHCROMi* 

6UT7 BT» OCO66HBOCTH , pO«M o6blKHOB6HHO npeACTaBAAIOT'b CO- 
60X> OftHHT> H3T> CaMUXT* TflKfelBIX'B, CaMMX/b HaiipJHReHHBlX'b 

mom6htobi> bt> SCH3HU KasAOft c6mbh. Em,e AO HacTymeHiji po- 
robt> onaceHifl sa hxt> OJiaronojiyqtfijft hcxoat* h seJiaaie 3a- 
paafee ysHaTB nojn> h xoth OTqacra cyAB6y MJiafleHna sacTaB- 

JUHOTl* BOXHOBaTBCA H 6e3H0K0HTBCJI B6 TOJBKO 6epeneHHyK) 

sefln^HHy, ho h 6jh3khxt> efl poactb6hhhkob , b. ^obojibho iioji- 
Hoe H8o6paneme nepesHsaeM&ix'b hmh 3a bto BpeMfl AymeB- 

HUXl BOJHeHift Mbl HaXO*HMT> BT> rfcXt 06pflAaXT>, BOpO«6* H 

pasHaro poAa cyeBfcpiflxt. HaRHMH en npoBoac AaiOTca poahhh h 

KpeCTHHM. 

Ilojrb pe5eHKa HMtert 6ojibmoe SHaqeme bt> 6yAynjeMi> am 
MaTepiauHaro 6*arococTOflHifl ccmbh: o6likhob6hho ? Manura 
o6fcmaeTT> KpecTbHHCKofl cent* noMonjHHRa, a A^Boqisa paso- 
pHTejEBHHi^y. *Ito(5bi ysHaTb, RaRoro noora ahth nomjerb Toe* 
DOAb bt> h3b*cthomi> cjiyna*, HaxoAHTb hb bto yRasanifl bt> 
Ha6jfK>A6Hiflxi> hsa'b caMoio poAHJbHHijeio bo BpeMfl efl 6epeM6H- 

HOCTH, HaAT> HOCJI*AHHMT> H31» efl A*Tefl H HaA*B COSblTiHMH, 

cjyqarom,HMHCfl bt> to BpeMfl. Tam>, roBoparb, ecu 6epeM6H- 
Hafl aceHiE(HHa nojH*en>, to poahtb AtBoqKy; TO-ae aojjkho 
6bitb, ecjra oaa npn Bonpocfc: „Roro poAHmB? tt CROHoysHTCfl, 
hjih ecjun efl jrhbotb bo BpeMfl SepeMeHHOCTH He MMfcHHerb 
CBoeft ORpyuoft oopMbi. Haofioporb, ecjiH OHa He roh $y shtca 9 
Kor/^a ee cnpamHBaiorb 0 tomt*, Roro ona poahtb, h ecra sh- 



Digitized by 



72 



8TH0rPA<X>HHECK0E 0B03P*HIE. 



Borb y HeB npHHHM&6TT> oSocTpaiomyiocfl (^THqKOM-b") oopiny, 
to orb Hen poAHTCfl Majib^Hjrb. MajrbiHKa are cjrfeAyerb af^an>, 
Kor«a y nocjrfeflHflro peSeHRa Ha met boiocm He saaaHqHBaiOT- 
Cfl RocnqRoft, Kor^a OTei^b oatHAaeMaro ahthth bo speMfl ny- 
th HaftAerb KHyn>, Borga kto-hh6yab nvb ceifeftHbix'b, bh- 
6fc«aBi> ct> TKau,KHMT, npyTRoirb, yBH«HTT> npe«fle Bc&x'b 
KaKoro-HH6yAb My«HHHy, Kor^a nocaaeHHhift aa ctojtb pe6e- 
hokt> H3T> pasjioffleHHMX'b npeAi> HHirb Bennett Bugepen, KaKyio 
HHfiyAB npHHaAJresHocTb MyatqHHbi, a He aceHmHHH, HanpH- 
M*pi>, KoieTBirb, ho He HaaepcTORi*, Tpyfay, a He njaTOKt, 

H T. H T. A- 

IIpH HacTynjreHiH poaobi>, RorAa Cojrfee Bcero coseaeTCfl 
onacHOCTB, ROTopoft noABepraeTCfl hhbhb po ah jbhhii.bi , bc& Ha- 
xoAHmiecfl TorAa bt> aom* npomaiOTca cb nocjr&AReft h yxo- 
Ahtb bt> Apyryio Hs6y hjih hhoo if*CTo, f ocTeperaacb npn qtou% 
paacRasuBaTB o npoHCxoAHmeM*b nocTopoHHHM*b, bt» Toft yB*- 
peHHOCTH, ito poAH 6hiBaioT f L t*mt> TpyAHie, qfeirb 6ojfce 
jihh> o Burnt 3HaeTT>. Ct> poAHjrbHHijeft oct& botch ea iiyarb h 
npHseaHHafl 6a6aa — aoBHryxa; ohh CTapaiOTca, HacROJbRO bob* 
mokho, o6jierqHTb, no Hx*b aoHaTiaftrb, CTpaaaHia pOAHJbHKH£l. 
R&h BToro yKjaAWBaioT-b ee orojio pyaoMoftHHRa. o6boa*to 
Tpn paaa orojio CTOJia, aacTaBJuiorb AepacaTBCR aa npHsaaaH- 
HBifi rt> 6pycy nojtaTeft RymaR'b, Kor^a coqTyrb uywauwh, 
qTo6u OHa poxajia ctoh; Myarb TpnatAbi nepejrfeaaerb MesAy 

Horb. Ecjih poAHJbHHi^a He Moacerb Jierno pacnpocTaTbca 

Cb A*TCKHMO» M*CT0M-b, TO eft RHIQTb CHOpUHbH HJIH COJOAy, 

hah rymn RBacHoft, hjlh ate, saRaTaB'b bt> xjcb6 f b Tpexi> Bmeft 

CT> TpeXT> rOJOBT> H BaCTaBHBTb pOAHJIbHHI^y CbfeCTb fflapHKTi, 

roBOpaTT> eft, it6 OHa cbfcjia 1 ). BfepHTb, qTO 6ojbinoe ofijier- 
qeme poahjibbhii^ 6uBaerb Tanate orb pacnpocTpaHeHHaro bt> 
HapoA* npoH3BeAeHia: ^Cohi* IIpecBaTbia EoropoAHD,bi% ecjui 

OHa HOCTOHHHO HOCHTb erO Cb COfioft, HJIH BO BpeMfl pOAOBT, 

nojioxHTb fb rojiOBaxT*, hjih npoqTerb jero cama, uh xacrb 
npoqHTaTb R0My-HH6yAB ApyroMy, nxnace, HaROHeivb, apoasHecerb 



1 ) Rocikwee cpexcTBO yuoTpeo'.iJiDT'B iamb bt» RanrapcKOMi. ytaAi; bi Tyib- 
czou% h BeHeBCKOMi y*8xaxi, u£6i c*s 3 Bmami xacrb 4ctb aopoBairi *% do- 
Ao6ho«i xe noioseHU. 




POflHHN H BPECTimU BTb TYJbCKOfi ITE. 



73 



ca^Ayiomyio MOMTBy, noM*m^eiiyio bt> HfcKOTopwx'b caucRaxT» 
OTorocHa: „rocaoAbcoMHOK>,rocnoAb ooeperaen>MeHii,pa6y tbok) 

HUB peKTb, BO flHH, H BTb HOHUI, H Ha BCflKlfi iaCT»! IlpOmy H MOJK) 

Ta, ToonoAH, sepe3i> nyny Tboio cBHTy», ROTopyio npeTeprrfca'b 
Haci> p*AH rpkmHhin>, h icpoBb cBATyio npaBBAHyH), ware h»- 
aiaxb! CBflTMft Ilpopoie IlpeATeie TocaoAeHb Ioanffb u bch 
gbatih! mojht6 o mh* rp-fenmoft MHJiocTHBaro Bora AftTH MH 
AHTa nopoAHTb! a KorAH ateHnmHfc poAaMH npHxoAwrctf MyqHTb- 
ch ABoe-rpoe cyTOKi*, to npoearb CBan^eHHinsa otbophtb bt» 
xpairb uapcffifl ABepH, a HHorja cjyararb MOJieSeH'b cb. bm^. 
EKaTepHH* (24 hoh6.), hjui DpecB. EoropoAmfc GefloposcKoft 
(16 aBi\), ejh TpoepyHHA* (28 iioHa h 12 iioia), uh YcneHiio 
IIpecB. BoropoAHAu (15 asr.), hjih see, HaKOBeEfb, sanpecTon- 
Hoft Bo»iei MaTepn, t. e. Toft ea hkoh*, xoTopaa hbxoahtch 
aa npecTojioMT> bt> m*cthomt> xpawb. Bo Bee BpeMfl poAOB* 
npe*b HKoaaMH 6*iBaerb saacseHa BfeHqaJbHaa hjih KpenjeHCKaa 
CBfria. 

Ilocxfc 6iaronojyqHaro oKOHHama poAOBi nosHBaiBHaa 6a6- 
Ka saKaa^LBaerb AfrrcKoe m$cto bt> KaK0Mi>-HH6yAb yroiy hb6u; 
2wrbMi>, o6MhiBaeTb HOBoposAeHHaro, oSpfesaerb h sasasbiBaerb 
y Hero aynosHHy h, ecjin efi noKaaceTca HyacHUM'b, ncnpafi- 
xaerb ero rojioay. floiaraiOTb, <ito TaKi» saRii rojiona y pe6eH- 
sa oepBoe BpeMfl 6uBaen> Marsa, Kam> bockt^ to Bnojufe 3a- 

BHCHTb OTb QOBHTyXH, CA**aTb JH erO KpyrjOJlHKHMt HJIH ftJLBH- 
HOnmUJTb, HJIH Aa«6 RaRHMl»- HHfiyAB ypOAOMT>. MoiOTb MJiaAeH- 

ua, H3T> 6oa3HH o&acesb ero, eflBa Harp*TOio boaoA h Bib Hee, 
KorAa HOBoposAeHHaro oSMbiBaiorb bt> nepBHft past, oSjukho- 
b6hho uaayrb cepetipaHua A^BiirH, Biapasaa t*mt> acejame 
aaiy wb SyAymem* Sorarcwa. 

VnpaBHBmHCb TaKHMi* ofipasoM'b cb pe6eHK0MT>, 6a6na x*o- 
noqeTb okojio poAHJbHHma: n apart ee bt> 6aH& hjeh bt> neiH, 
npaBHTb arHBorb h CAaHBaerb 6H rpyAH, hto6u yAauTb nep- 
Boe njioxoe mojloro. Ho HHoraa Cusaiorb cjiyqan, Korffa okojio 
poAHJbHHma He npnxoAHTCH xjnonoTaTb hh 6a6K*, hh Myacy: 
HiKOTopua acemi^HHbi poAaTb oneHb jenco. KorAa npHAerb 
BpeMfl poAHTb THKofl 6a6*, OHa BbifiAe'Tb Ha ABop*b, pasprbmHT- 
cb oti> CepeiieBHOCTH 6e3i> BcaKott nocropoBHefi homoh^h, no- 
tomt> caica ace npHHecerb HOBopoatAeHHaro bi> ns6y 9 CA^xaepb 



Digitized by 




9TH0rPA*HqBCK0B 0B03PBBIB. 



Axa nero h km cefia Bce^HysHoe, h toxbko nocjrfe, 6oscb 
„crxa3y tf , nprouBaerb Ha neHB hii Ha Asa 6a6sy. 

^toSm pe6eHorb 6bixi» noRoeH'b, a** woro, no poar^eHUi, 
ero o6epTbiBaiOTb otijobmmh nopTEMH hxh, xorja nexeHaiorb, 

TO BMfcCTO CBHBCUTbHHKa ynOTpe6xHK)Tb npHrOTOBX6HH£lfl H3T> 
XJfODROBl> ffJfl HOXOBHROBl) HXH ffepiOfb TOXCTBlfl HHTH, H3B4CT- 

huh noAi» HMeHeMt „Bep*H a ; a am Toro, hto6h oht> 6hxt> 
KpacHBi* h npHBJexaTejieH'b^ ero noKpwBaiorb MaTepieft aexe- 
Haro up'bTH. 

Bt> KyiiOBbfl npHTJiamaiOTB Roro-HH6y*B H3i> 6xh3rhxi> poA- 
Hfiix'b hjih xopomnx'b SHaKOMMxt; ho Korja npeacAe poxAaBmiflca 
A*th yainpaxH, h Rorga sKexaiorb, hto6bi HOBopoacAeHHuft 6&un> 
xhbi>, to npnrxaraaiOTca nepBwe BCTp*qHbie i ). 

— „noS«H, BBe^H MxaAeaija bt> npaBoexaBHyio B*py% — 
oSuRHoaeHHo cb tbkhmh cjoBaMfl ofipamaeTc* OTem> pe6eHKa 
rt> MysqHH^ hxh seHH^HH^, KOTopbixi* oHt arexaerb npnrxa- 
chtb kt> ce6* RyMoin> hxh RyMoft. H npHrxamaeifbie, bt» be&j 
Toro pacnoxoseHia, KOTopoe BucRaawBaeTca R'b hhitb co 
CTopoHbi poAHTexett HOBoposAeHHaro bt» btomt* npHrxameniH, 
oTRadbiBaiOTCfl p^ako, xoth ssame RyMa h Ryma coeAHHeHo 
cb Koe-KaRHMH TpaTaMH. Kyarb, HanpHM*pi>, noRynaerb hi* 
MxaAeHn;a RpecTHRT>, npHHoenrb Ha RpecTHHH cBofi xxifrb h 
HHor^a caM'B pacnxaiHBaeTca cb ffyxoseHCTBoirb; RyMa are ct> 
CBoeft CTopoHu o6fl3aHa npeACTBBHTB r na pu3RH w apmHHa TpH- 
neTbipe CHTi^y, pytfanray au pe6eHRa h uxaTORt hxh noxoreH- 
ue cBfln^eHHHRy yTeperb pyRH no ex* norpyseaifl KpemaeMaro 

BT> BOAy. 

Othocht6Xbho TaHHCTBa Rpemema noxaraiorb, «ito oho ne 
BcerAa SusaerB A**tcTBeHH0. flxa ero A*ftcTBeHHOCTH, no 
MH-bHiio HapoAa, orb xhivb, n p h hh m aion^H xt> yiaarie bt> coBep- 
memH Rpentema, t. e. He ToxbRo orb cBxnjeHHHRa, ho h orb 
ABfliRa, TpeSyeTca noxHoe cosHame cbhtocth h sasHOCTH co- 



i) 3uHie tpecrraxi orufi, m m&toph jaeTi nociijiHEin» npaio oa yaaseBie co 

CTOpOHH KpeCTHHKa Ul BpeCTHHUH, BOTOp06 OCOtiOHHO J1CHO BHpaUBTCJI Ha CB&Ab- 

tfaxi, Korxa seHsxa h HeiicTy En specTHHe 6iarociOBjuiDn nepBUMH nocj* 
poxHisn oma ci MaTep&D, a na cBa*e6Hiirfc yromeHiaxi* saiiaiiaDn sa ctoxom 




P0AHHB1 H RPBCTHRhl B'b TVJIbCKOfl VYB. 



75 



sepmaiomaroca tahhctba. Bon> paacxaro, BBipasaion^ifi bto 
HapoAHoe Boaap&aie. 

B*b oAHoft flepeBH* sHJia semiWHa 6eai> Mysa. Kt> neft 
hbamcr bt> o6paa4 qeJOBtaa agmoht*, h ona orb aero aa6e- 
peMea^Jia. BepeMOHHofl OHa xoahm Tpn ro^a, nocjifc Hero on* 
Heft poAHJicfl peSeHorb, yAHURBinifi bc*xt> cbobmt> 6ojbmHM r b 

pOCTOMt H T*MT>, HTO Repeat HOCJI* Kp6CTHHT> OHT> 

CTaJi'b yse roBopHTt. Coc*ah CTau BbinbiTbiBaTb poahjbhh- 
ijy: OTb Koro Taxoft peGeHOR'b? JIio6oni4TCTBO cnpamHBasniBX'b 
6buio yAOBJBTBopeHO caMHMT>-are pe6eHKOMT>; oht> cRaaajn>: „Bu 
uoiHTaeTe MeH£ aa xpHcriaHHHa, a a caarb qeprb! a — „A Kain> 
se Te6a RpecTHra-TO? a enparnHBaiOTb ero. — „MeHn Rpecrajra He 
no qepefty: uowb 6burb nbflHuft h noraahifi, a nhmeK'h, xotb 
6ujit> TpeaB'b, a» AywajTb bt> bto BpeMfl o Apyrous, TaRT> <n?o 
a Tenepb He aaRpemeHT* h Mory Bcer^a orb sacb yfcrH tt . 
CRasafb oht> bto, noxfeai* noAi> aaBRy — h cKpujicfl- oojbme ero 

He MOrJIH H BaflTH. 

Ilocjrb RpecTHHi> HaiHHaioTCfl noBApaBJieHiH OTn,a h MBTepu — 

Cb CWHKOMT> HJIH AOHROK), RyMOBbeBt — Cb RpeCTHHROMT* HJIH 
KpeCTHHII,efl, 6a6RH«nOBHTyXH — Cb HOBbllTb BHyKOMT> HJIH BHy4- 

Roft h t. a* KyMa cb Hymofl casaiorb aa ctojtb h yromaiorb 
npHroTOBJieaaofi yace &je hhxt» aaRycKofi h Haeirb, a caMoro 
BHHOBHHRa npoHcxoAflmaro TOparecTBa cBBBaiorb h HJiaAyrb 
kt> poAUbHHi^b na paacTeJieHHyio mepcrbio BBepx'b my6y, <i*Mb 
BhipaacaeTca eity nosejame SoraTCTBa. 

MeatAy rbwh xo8ahht> AOMa ham* npnrjEamaTb, Roro coqTerb 

Hy»HUirb ? H3T> CBOHX*b pO/JHMXTi H 3HaKOMbIXt „KT> MJiaAeHIjy 

hh xjrt6i> Ha cojib, Karay 4cTt a , h, RorAa npurjameHHbie co- 
6epyTCR, ycTpaHBaeTca KpecTHJbHufl o6*a^ KymaHtn, h3t> ko- 

T0pblXT> COCTOHTb nOCJrfeftHiti, OTJ[H<iaK)TCH CpaBHHTeJEbHblM'b 

H3o6HJuen'b h pa8Hoo6paaieM<b, rbri CuBaerb tojibro no caMum* 
6ojttmHMT> npaaAHHRairb. TaRi>, CHaiaJia noAaeTca xojioahoc: 

B'b nOCTHBlfl A^Hb— 06bIRH0B6HH0 CeJbAH H KB ft Cb Cb RHCJEOft 

RanycTofi, a bt> cRopoMHbift — cryAeab h Rsacb cb flnijaMH h 
MHCOWTb-, aaT*MT> cjrbAyiorb 6jnoaa; bt> nocTHbift a^hl — npnnpaB- 

JieHHblfl KOHOnJIflHblM'b MaCJIOMli mH Cb CHfeARaMH, KapTO*eJIb- 

hmII cyn'b cb rpn6aMH h jianma; bi> cRopoMHuft 3Re — do;h cb 

RaRHJfb -H H 6y Ab MflCOBTb, yfflHHRT,, t. e. cyn^ Hai» nOTpOXOBTi) 




76' 



8TflOrPA*H1BOKOE OBOSPtHlE. 



aanina ct> nypRTHHoS hjih cbhhhhoA, Janma MOJOHHafl, h, Ha- 
KOHen,T>, KaROBi>-6u cocTRB'b Ryinamfi hh 6burb, na RpecTHJb- 
hom-b 06* a* Heo6xoffHMOK> cqirraeTCfl rpeHHeBafl Rama, npe/^b 
KoxopoK) bt> 6ojtLmHHCTB* cay^aeB'b no^aeTCH Rama nineHHan. 
Bt> aaKJioqeeie ofrfetfa, Ror^a no*AHTb nocjrfc/jHee 6juoao, tia&ta 
RM&nerb Ha ctojn» nnporb, cTaBHTb bt> manR* ropmoR* c* 
Rameft h Ha TapeaK* mro*T> cb boaroU; npn btoitb OHa ro- 
BopHn>: 

mania naiazafi, 
A tb, poiHnHvoa, 
B% ro&% eme aaTpjixafi! 

Hjih: 

Kamay noxHOcm 
Ha KopucTB} Ha paxocn, 

Ha Bomd MHIOCTB, 
Ha TOICTHJ OJOHLtf, 

Ha BiMoiie cupxH. 
Kamay Ha iosbh, 
Maamy aa ho&kh! 

6a6Ra HaiBHaerb yronjaTb npHcyrcTByioiipirb, ho rfr, no 
o6Mqaio, nepByio piOMRy npeAJaraxyrb yronjaiomefi: 

— w IIonpo6yfi-Ra caiia, 6a6ymnal a myTATb bt» OTB*T*b Ha 
ea yromeHin xobhhh'b ct» rocTAMH. „Bon> SHaerb, RaRyx) tml 
BOARy-TO HaMi» no^aemb: Moserb OHa HaroBopHaal" 

ELepBuifb nocirb 6a6RH nberb OTei^b HOBopoacgeBHaro. 
sasycRH eaty ona noAaerb bt> xosr£ nepecoxeHyio Ramy, 
npHqeirb roBoparb: 

— ^hib, OTenrb-poAHTejub, *mb, fla OyA* nosajraHHftft n 
CBoeMy cbiHRy (hie CBoefi aohb* 1 )!* 

— cKajrb Te6t cojt(o)ho, TaR*b h kbh* tbobS 6hjio cox(o)ho 
poaaTbl" 

Ha TaKLfl cjtosa yromaemafi poahtoab HHorAa (bt> KamHpcx. y .) 
OTB*qaerb: 

— w Cojr(o)Ha Ranraa, h coji(o)ho 6iuo mem& poAHTb, a eme 
coji(o)h4S OTH,y ct> MaTepbK> AOCTanyTCH a*trh nocji* tt ... 

1) 9tot* o6pflxi h AaBaeMoe emy sxict ofoacHeHie hm*»t* cxoxctbo c* cy- 
mecTByDmHMt b% onncHBaeicoft m'bcthocth o6H*aem> — cojht* oKOTHBmaroca jiraeHKa 
h xaB&TB oocunaHHyD coil BtuiHSBBaTi ero MatepH, w>6h oh* 6oi4e jtrfaia CBoe 
aim. 



Hjth: Tocth hoe ixrfamie, 
rocTH moh xoporie! 
Ki iam oatiyma xxm, 
Bam aanay Heoer*. 
Batiymaa MoioxeHtaa, 
Hecen, Kamay cjaxeHiay. 
Ham He oapHDiH nojyiaTi, 
A tojko Hapox* npiynaxB, 
Itooh tialynuty snajH , 
Hane bi rocTH &BajHl 



Digitized by 



POAHHM H KPHCTHHH BT> TFJBCBOft ITTB. 77 



3aTfein>, 6pocajtt RBepxy ocTanniyiocfl bt» jokr£ Ramy, npo- 

H3HOCJHTT>: 

— nflpA TOJibKo Eon>, htoCm ^trsmti HamHM'b Becejro 
KHsocb m ohh TftjRT> se npwrajm 6u tt ... 

3a ora,OM«b iwaAeHua yromaiOTca KyuioBba: 

— „Bi*KyaiaftTe, RyMaabRH Aoporie!" roBoparb hmt> 6a6sa. 
„Ob KpecTHHn;efi (hjh RpecTHHROirb) sacbl Karb bm bea^jih ee 
(hah ero) noAT> KpecTom*, TaBi> 6bi bha&tb Basra ee (hjh ero) 

H OOA'B B'6HAOirbI a 

Ilocjrfe KyMOBbeBii m»K>rb noAHOCHityio BOARy h ocTajrbHbie, 
CHAHmie aa ctojiom*. Ilpa 9x011% RasAuft, He HCRjuoiaa h ca- 
Moro poAHTejcfl, Kjaaert CROJBRO-HH6yAb Aenenb Ha Tapejuty — 
bi» nojibdy 6a6sH^ h aa HHporr>— bi» noJibay poAH jBHHma . 

HaKOHeij'b, rocra fijiaroAaparb xosfles'b h, noatejiaB-b hmt> Bcero 
xopomaro, a HOBoposAeHHOii y goSparo BAopoBba h MHoraxT> jrferb, 
apomaiOTca. OcTaiOTca tojbko KyMT> cb gyMoft; hmt> Benepourb 
Toro-we aha 01H yTpoifb cjrfeAyiomaro, hto6u „oaoxM&jHTbCfl a 
no&ife oS^Aa, apeAJiaraeTcn sasycBa 3a btoB saRycRoft RyM*b 
nojiyqaerb qtt> xyHU „Ha naifHTb" uiaTOR'b, sa hto oht>, npaA- 
BapETejibHo yTepinH noJiyqeHHUirb noAapnoirb ce6* ry6bi, ufc- 
jiyeTb nyicy h oTAapHsaerb AeHbraMH otb 10 ao 15 bob. Ilpn 
npomaHbH KyMOBbfl orb pOAHJbHHm* nojiyqaiOTb no nnpory, 
sa KOTopwM bt> cbok) oqepeAB a^iotb eft rod. do 15 — 20 hah 
Ha TftRyk) se cyMMy RaRHXT>-M6yAi> Bemeft, HanpHMfep'b: 
njaTORi>, iaio, caxapy, MbiJia h t. n. 

Thrt> BaRaHHHBaeTca npaBAHOBaHie no noBOAy posA^BiB h 
KpemeHia MjaAeBn,a. 

Ooith bc* coSwrifl, cJiynaiomiflCfl npn poAaxi* h Rpecra- 
Haxi»^ a TaRse paajHinbia o6cTOflTeju> cTBa^ HMfciontffi RaRoe- 
HHfiyAb OTHomeHie vb HOBopojKAGHHOMy, cjiywaT"b t*mt> bih 
ApyruMi* yRasaHieirb aa ero 6yAymyro cyAb6y. Ciaci.iHB'b, hh- 
npHM&pi», pe6eHOR f b 1 ecjia poahjich bt> ^copoqR* a , mh ecjin 
oht>, SyAy^H seHcnaro noaa, noxoart na OTU,a, a MysecRaro 
noxoarb Ha Mara; paaao xoponiHarb npeABHaMeHOBaHieifb n&a 
Hero cqHTaeTca, RorAa bi> a^hb ero poahh* bi> aom* HaRaa- 
HH6yAb npHSuJKL. HeaHBymk totb NjaAeHeivb, ROTopuft po- 
AHJca HOA*b hcxoa2> Micai^a, y Roro roJOBa pasABoeHHaa, y 
Roro poTb ne iiBfeTeri*, t. e. y Roro He fiwBaerb Soji^shh 



Digitized by 



78 



9TBOITA*] 




■OAMunmij wh xoropof ha Bonn* nun, ryfian h we6k 
uoMBMiercn ftfcxoe TBopowicToe BemecTBo. bto cb nepBaroxe 
Bpexeaa yxnuen oxpyma»mB«> cBoea> emmeiociuD; 
caopaa are eiiepn npegBftataerea BoaopoxxeBBoay, soma » 
gen ero poxaa* ciywTca Baaaa-mrfyxB noTepa, yfiuron, 
Borga /tfnyn> » ipyrott jom. BAsya>-BH6y](B aemb cobc*» 

Ul BSatMH BJB HA nOjepKAHie, BOrjIA BM*CT* CB CTO BpC- 
CTHHAHH Wh OepRBfl 6hBAK>TB BOXOpOBU. I HOT^A CTO BOXOCH, 

cptoaBHue CBanteaaaxoirB h saaaraaHbie bb bocbi> Bynora, 
ne uabaiotb no box* b% aynen, a Toayn. 

Docjrt Bpeennrb 6a6xa-noBBryxa ocrae-rca bb n/omh pojouB- 
hhku cb Bejfftxio mm jb* 06bsahboctb en bt> bto Bpeiu co- 
ctohtb B*b tomb, ito6h 3a6othtbcb o pe6emrfe, eacexaeBao 
o6hubatb h nejieHATb ero, a Tame xopn ba po^uBBmel 
a, ecxa nocxftftaaa ojaaoRa, uonoTan bm*cto ne* no xo- 
arfcTBy, PojuuBBBity OHa napaTB bb 6aa* bxh nen^nom 

paSJOTHlUHH ABapCTBeflBBlHH TpBBAMH I npABHTB OnyCTHBmil- 

cb nocjfe pogOBB ea htbbotb, pacTapaa ero npa btomb xepe- 
mbhuhb aacxoab. Hsb jrfeKapcTBb, ynorpe6xaenix'B poxan- 

BBltflMB, B3B*CTBH: BBCTOM BOftBH Ba BOXTaaft, AHHCB, 6oiX>- 

POacbab xpasa, posamxa b xynnum. Hacroi bo*bh ha Komrt 
ynoTpeSjAOTb aaaB cpegCTBO, cdoco6cTBya>njee nogBeiry an- 
botb; aaacB b CoropoACKyio Tpasy miorb ku Toro, <wo6bi 
b3t> rpyxeft CBo6oflH*e nuo moxobo; poM amay are h gynnmy — 
hto6u BH3Ban> „KpacKH tt , axa on* npocTyju. Haqero BBCJiaro 
h coxeaaro poxaxbaai;* ae gaiOTB. CqacTxasa pojaxbHBija, 
KOTopafl Bu6epcrb ce6t 6a6xy onuTayio h pacToponayio. Ta- 
aaa 6a6aa MO»en> co bc*mb ynpaBBTBca h sa BcfeMB ycMO- 
xp*TB. Ho ae to 6uBaen> npa 6a6afe aaiaaaioiijei axa ae- 
pacToponHofi. Orb ea BecooCpasaTexbaocTa Hep*/uso npoacxo- 
Abtb a aecqacTaue cxyiaa: xa6o poxaxbaaiia npocTy/urrca hxm 
oCKbicTCH qero-BH6yAB RHcxaro axa coxeaaro, «6o MxageaeiFB 
yma6eTCfl hjih BCTenerb apoBbio, Rorga pasBaserca uynoBiHa, 
a t. «. a t. a. 

Korga poABXBHai^a aoctbtohho onpaBHTCH, a Ror^a 6a6sa 
coHTen> BOSMosHbiM'b yxoffHTb, nponcxoftarB oqan^eaie BC*x*b 
npacyTCTBOBaBmax'b a npaaBMABniBX'b aaRoe-Ba6yAB yqacrie 
npa poAaxb. Sanaraiorb npe^i> BRoaaaa cB*qy, moxbtcb m 




PORHHbl H RPBCTHHU B* TYJbCROft ITB. 79 



noTOirb boaoh>, bo> Koxopyio Ma^yn xifftib, Hflijo h OBecb, 
yMusaiOTCfl cftMH h MOiorb MJUueHna. Bo speMfl yHbiBaHBfl po- 
Ahjbhhuu, 6a6xa HHorga roaopurb eft: ^Kaki* xm&jb jeroin> 
Aa Kp*noKT>, TaK* h th 6y«B Tana* are; Ran rhhro no«oe, 
Tam» h tu noraftft; xarb osecb 6*jli>, Tavb h tu 6yAb 6*Jia! tt 
A Rorffa mok>tt> pe6eHKa, to npHroBapHBaiorb: „Pocth c*b 
6pyci> BuuiHHhi, a& neib mu^HHu a ! Stott* o6pfijp» H3B*cTeHT> 

BT> ODHCUBaeiCOft M&CTHOCTH HOffb HM6H6M , b v pa3MUBaHifl 



Ba6Ka aa cboh xjohotu, npoirt fleaerb, cofipaHHuxt en 
Ha KpecTHJbHOMi> o6*a*, nojiy^aerb enje oahh* xrh6i>, Muja 
Cb *yHTb, uaTOK'b h ACHbraHH ott> rpBB6HHHKa no py6*R. 

IIo yxoj* 6a6RH, bc* xiodotw h aa6oTu o peCeHRfc jeo- 
saTCfl rjiaBHHirb o6pa3om» Ha ero nan. Qpexjie Bcero, wo 
oha ftojiaea 6uBaerb gfcjaTb, eciH He ajm 6<iara peCenxa, to 
A** CBoero co6cTBeHHaro cnoKoftcTBifl,— bto BunounTb no ot- 
HomeHiio Kb pe6eucy bc* TpeSoBam*, npeAMBueMu* ell mho* 
roB*KOBofl HapoAHoft npaRTHRoft. Taxi, htoSu miaAeHeivb no- 
Roftflo cnajn>, He aoisbo Hanaro AKMibRy nycToft; qro6u oh* 
6eanpenflTCTBeHHo poc*b, He HysHO euj o6pfcaaTb Horrel h 
ctphhb BOJiocb paHfce roAa; hto6u oh* ho aanoaAajrb paaro- 
BopHoft pfeibio, ho HysHO A&BaTB eiiy cnoTp*TbCfl bt> aepxaio; 
htoSu He cAfeiajcn chahkoM, t. e., ito6h oht> Hayiuc* xo- 
AHTb ho noBAHte caoaxt cfiepcTHuoarb, He aojhcho mocth orojo 
Hero, RorAa oht> chahtb Ha nojiy; itoCu ee yMep* cRopo, He 
cJcfeAyerb ero uoRaausaTb cnamHirb Tony, rto ao Toro Bpe- 
HeHH ero He bhau*, h, hto6u pacTyntf ft pe6eH0Ri» 6ujn> onpfl- 
T€Hi>, MaTepn ero h6o6xoahmo nepeA* aaTonoM* ne?H ciieTaTb 
crb aarfl^TRH aoay. MaTb bt> nopy MjaAeHqecTBa CBoero ahtath 
AOJiSHa ocoSohho BHHMaraibHo cjrbAHTb aa co6oft, qTo6u He 
pyraTb, a rtm 6ojrbe He npoRJiHHaTb ero h bt> aocbaI* He ro- 
BopHTb eMy: „nponaAH tu nponaAoirbl" Orb 6paHH h npoRjiH- 
Tia a*th AtxaiOTCH rxynuMH, uh He pacxyrb, hxh nponaAaiorb, 
mh vpyrb He CBoeio CMepriio m tbrhmi* o6paaoMi> Hx*b ^aH- 



') B* Bisoropiizi nicTaxi omiciiBaeMBXi yisxosi oiBmeaie coBepmaerca h 
■W lOBain, aorxa oh* obothtoi; Boasy-Man ■ ex toim ejoadti n ptrt 



Digitized by 




80 



d*HOTPA*H«*BCROB 0B08PftHtE. 



renccifl «ymKH rt6&y*b tt . Brt npexynpewaeHie Moryn^HXt cay- 
ihtbcii ct> peSeHROM'b HeciacTift, ero nepea* ohox* rojbrho 
orpawaaTb RpecTHbiirb 3HaMeHiean> h, Ror/ja oht* HHxae-rb, ro- 
BopHTb cafcayiomee, npeAoxpafl*K)mee KJra^eHi^a orb naryfoaro 
A^ftcTBifl 6*coB , b, npHB*TCTBie:^3SpaBCTByft,aHrejBCKafl Hymnal" 
KaKi. BpeftHbt b-w ffbT^t tfpanb h npoKJirrie, h, Hao6opon>, 
itant cnacHteJbHhi a** hexi* npuBe^eHHUH npeAOxpaHHTexbHbw 

CJEOBa, MOWHO BHA*Tb H3T> MBOSeCTBH HapOAHHXl» pa3«fta80B%. 

HanpH&rfep'b, pa3CKa3MBaiOT r L, 6iui> Tanoft cxyqaft. O^na 6a6a 
ci> Beiepa aofipanua ob eiceueftHbiMH, paacepAHJiaeb * Bbi6pa- 
Hiua hh sa hto, hh npo wo cBoero rpy^Horo pe6enRa. 3acHy- 

Jia OHa H BHAHTT* BO CH* — rOBOpBTb eft KTO-TO: „B08bMH H3*b 

jnojibBH pe6eHRa tt . npocHyxacb 6a6a, noTRHyxacb 6hxo sa pe- 
deHKOM'b, a bt> xioxbRfe-TO ero fitrbl OHa BCKO^nwa , Bsxya 
otohe, mhahtt*: pe6eH0B*i» Meprrsufl, jTom m> qyryH*, *rro 

OKOJIO XfOXbRH CTOflJFb.*. „A KaKT> OlTb MOT* OOimCTb*, AOtiaBJTfl- 

Km paacKa^HKH, „ecxH He 6*c*b ero cboxoh*: wbRh ob*b cbhte 
6iui>? a Hjih BOTb eme Raxafl HCTOpi* npoHBOmxa b% oahoitb 
ceMeftcTB*, KOTopoe cocvomo im» CTapHKa— xosflHHa, ero c?a- 
pyxH a hxi> HeKfeCTKH ci» rpyAHbiirb pe6efiK0in>. ^Pa3i> xarb- 
w pe6eH0Ki> btott> pacnxaRmcfl. Man* ctsm ero yrtmaTb, 
ho vro hh A*xaxa, ohi» see RpHwrb. OHa pascepAMac* h c?wa 
ero pyraTt. y&y, thP roBopHTb ona: „ieprn, tb6s Boebnu! 
on* io6ott HHiero He no«tJ[aerab! tt Ycxbixajrb bth cxosaieprb 

H CT> TOTO BpeM6HH BCe XOTfejTb B3HTb p&teflRa, HO TOJftKO HH- 

Rarb HejubSfl 6uxo, noTOMy mo CTapnirb 6bin oieHb OoroMO- 
ierb h HacTo roBopHXb: B FocnoflH iHcyce XpHCTe! tt ftyafaxt, 
^yuarb qeprb, Rani* SbiTb? HaROHei^b h yffyaca jtb. CoCpaxctt y 
BToro CTapHKa oahht> HysHR*b 6&iRa RpacTb. Enje ctb seiepa 
owh no/utpaxcfl ro ffBopy x crajn> AOAHAaracfl, xorga nee yrHx- 
Herb. TojibRO cjibimHrb Bop*b, hto rto-to B^pyrb saroBopHjrb 
ct> BHBfb: w 3aopobo TOBapHm , bl ^— Kio th? cDpauiHBaepb ity- 
khrt>. Heprb nasBajTb ce6n, a hotomt* h roBopirr* Bopy: „h 
B*ftb 3Haio, sa^M'b Tbi npnmejrb: 6uxa xo^iemb yaectf b y BToro 
xosflHHa. SL Te6* noMory, ecxn 3a bto h tbi mh* noMO«emB a . 
B*cb paBCRasaxii, saq'bH'b oht> caM7> npHmexfe: sa MxaxeHoceirb. 
MyacHKT> ^ojiaeH-b 6burb npoBecxn nepTa bt» aomt*, aaroeopHTb 
CTapHKa h, Ror^a MxaAeHem> GyAerb qnxaxb, He roBopHTb: 




/ 



POflHHBl H KPBOT0HH Vb TYJBCKOfi TYB. 



^3ffpaBCTByfi, HHrejbCKaa ffymKa! a Bop-B corjiacHJca. KorAa 
OH*b nocTyqaicn, to ero BtiycTJMn bt> nowb h nonpocHJH cIjctb. 
Ohahtb oht> h pasroBapHBaerfc cb xosrhhoicb^ BApyn> Bwa^e- 

BeH r b CTBJTB qHXaTL. CTapHKl»-X03flHB r b He CA&imHTb. *lHXHyJTB 

pe6eHOBi> pasi>, gpyroft... H vajoto craao sopy MjafteHija, 4to 
MJia^eHen.'b Hs^-sa aero A0JHB6H'b nponaaaTB, h Ha TpeTBein> 
pas* Bopi> CKa3ajn>: „3ApaBCTByft, aareucKafl AyniRa! a Tyrb 
6*ct> BauonajTb bt> jhaoidh h saRpniajTb: n axT> tbi, 6u<iaT- 
HKKt!* . CeiieftHue bc* yAHBHJHCB h ctajeh cnpanuiBaTB ny sen- 
na, hto bto 3BaqHTi>. Torb npH3Hajrcn bo Bceirb h CTaji'b npo- 
chtb ce6* npom;eHBfl. 

TIoHflTHo, ycjrhjHTB a a BbinoJiHeHieM'b onHCBiBaeMux'B Tpe- 
6oBaHift AJifl poAHJKBHHii.il oh6hb TpyAHO. Ho Be aeraH TaRwe H 
oCm^hwa oSaaaHHOcTH, HajiaraeMBiH Ha Hee npocTBiifb MaTe- 

pHHCRHMfb HyBCTBOMl* H COCTOHUPH BTb QpHrOTOBJieHiH pe6eHRy 

nocTeoiH, bt> 3a6orB o ero- hhctot^ h dh^, jtbhchih orb pas- 
jehhhbixi 6ojrfe3Hefl, H3ucRamH paaBJieqeHifl, KorAa oht» RanpHs- 
HHHaerb h njaierB, bt> y6ai0RHBaHim ero Ha coh-b rpflay- 
ma h t. a- 

KorAa aa pe6eHR0Ki» cMorpHr* caiia m&tb, to OHa, rohohho, 
nocrapaeTCfl^ htoSbi oht> Shut* cmtl, hhctb, noRoeHi>. Uo He 
to SBisaeTb, RorAa MaTepiiirb, 3a HeAOcxaTBOM-B BpeaieHH,— 
tto ocoSeHHo aojhkho cRasaTB o paSoqeft nop*, — npaxoAHTCH 
nopynaTB cbohxt> peCan* naASopy CTapyxT>, oraHBaiomHX'b y»e 

CBOft B*KT», HJEH H6 MaiOCMBICJieHHlIX'B IlOApOCTROB'B, HiTBIOIU.HX'b 

otb poAy nacTO He Sojifce n&TH-ceMH xbTb. JQpH TaROMi> naA- 
3op* nep^A^o cjryqaeTca, hto csmb are hbhbkh, chhtra Hy»- 

HBlftTB yAOBJieTBOpHTB IipeJKfle BCerO CBOH H0Tpe6H0CTH, no- 

£a&h>t* nnn^y, npHrorosjieHHyio pn ahthth, h hocjtb sarjiy- 
maiOTb ero roxoA?* qfevb nonajo, hjhh ace, coBepmeHHO 3a- 
6tAB r b o pe6eHR*fe, ocraBJAiorb ero Ha npon3B0Jn> QyA*6M. Bt> 
nocjrfeAHeMTb c&ywb HHorAa aoSpobojibhbimh noMon^HkRaHH He- 

HCnpaBHBIX'B HflH6KT> flBMIOTCfl TeJflTa, ROTOpbie BiJJLH3BlBaK)T r b 

BOJiocbi Ha roJioB* SesnoMomHaro HJiaAeHi^a, co6aRH h AOMamHBB 
nTHitfL, KOTopwfl choroAho JiajKOMflTCfl ocTaBineficR na ry6axi> 
pe6eHRa nnmeft, MyxH h t. n. 

^TCKafl HOCTejIB 06BIKH0BeHB0 COCTOHrb H31> jyOoHHofl 

hih Ha AepeBHHHoft paMK'B xojm^eBoti jeidxbrh, HaSwTott nepBRMH 

yTROPPA^HIKCKOE OB03P*niR. XXVII. 6 




82 



&raorPA*HHBOROB OB08PSHIB. 



hjih qame c*homt> nepHHM, treoPl me noAyniKB, xo*w l eBhix r b 

npOCTMHb, CIPrateBWXT* HJIH COOpaHHWX^b H3T> ptt3HOIlB , feTHHXT> 

MajreHbKHxi> jrocRyTROBi> 0A*Hjn> h HajfcBaeMMX'b Ha iwjb«y, gjui 
aamHTH cnamaro pe6eHRa on uyxi> h CBixa, ub^thwx'l cht- 
n;eBMXT> hjih 6*jlixT) ro JieHRopoB u xt> nojoroBi>. 

Hto 3R6 KacaeTCfl «o TyajieTa pefieHRa, to b% cocTaB* ero, 
KpoM* xojmjeBwx'b naieHOKT>, mepcTHHHX'b hjh CHTiieBMX'b cbh- 

BaJTBHefi H CHTKfeBUX'L HJIH ROJieHROpOBblX'b pHBOKl> $ BXOflflT'b: CO- 

po^KH, noflCKH, Harja3HHKH,HarpyffHmKH h qenwKH. CopoiKH xb- 
jraK)TCH no Sojibmeft qacra hjtb maTepift hjui (feiaro i^a^Ta, nairb, 

HanpHM'fep'b,H3'b RHCeH^ ROJeHKOpa H MHTKaJTS i HJIH 2K6 — HStRaROrO- 

HHfiyAB cHTn;a, npeHMymecxBeHHO posoBbixi* UBfcTOB-b. Kncefifnafl, 
ROjreHKopoBwa h MHTRajieBUH pyfiauiRH oSiuhbiliotch jieHxo^Ra 

MH— rOJiytfHMH AJfl MaJtBHHKOB'b U pOSOBBIMH fl,Jfl, A*B04eK1»— H 

ynoTpeSjraioTCfl bo epeaffl Rpentenifl MjaAeBflta h bs> ffpyria Top- 
mecTBeBHUR MHayTw, Rorga, HanpHMfep'b, ero aecyrb bt> u,ep- 
robb npHiamtaTb, Rorja cb hhmt> tayrb Ryaa-HH6yAb bt> rooTH hjih 
npHHHHaH>T r b rocTeft; cHTD^eBHs me ynoTpeOjiflioTCH no 6yAHHMi>. 
IIoflcaMH hjlk wbreft cjryacaTb oSbiKBOBeBHbia, noKynHua 8a 
2—5 RoufeeR'b, TeceHRH hjch caMOA*JBHMe, cnjiexeHbie H8i> Kpac- 
hmx'b raepcTRHHX'b hhtoicb, raHypw:; hohcb ynoTj>e6jiaeTca 
tojibro nocjrft HonojiHenia ahthth mecxH nexbih. HarpyftHHiRH, 

HJIH CJHOHHBKH, flfcJiaiOTCH H3T> ROJieHROpa HJIH CHTJ^a h HaA*- 

BaiOTCH Ha rfbTeft RJia Toro, hto6w nepeAHaa hsctb hx^ py- 
6amKH ne CMaiHBajiacb npHHraaeiioft huh nnmeft h cjiohhmh. 
HarjiaBHHRH^ ROTopwe HMtuorb oopaiy npocToro, npoftojrosa- 
Taro (innpHBOD qeTBepTH ab* h a*hhoio bt> aprnHHt) JtocnyTa, 
a Tairare qeniHRH— cocTaBJUHorb co6oh> He ito HHoe, r&rt> cpe*- 
ctbo ynpuBaTB peCenRa on Myxo> h cojrae<raaro sapa. Hart* 
HarjrasHHRH^ Tarn* h Hem^u A&jiaiOTca m% RHcen, multbmh h t. n. 

*Ito6m coffepsraTB rhtb 6oj*e hjh Menfte bt> qncTOTt, 3a- 
6oTjrHBaa MaTB qacTO drbfiflerb Ha seM r b 6'fejiBe, npocymHeaerb 
nocTejTB h ecjrH He eaceAHeBHo, to eaeaeA^JiBHO h p*A«o exe- 
m*ch«iho ero o6afHBaeTT». 

flifmeio AJfl MjaAeHna cjiywHTh rjaBHbiMi> oGpasoMi mojoko 
MaTepn, a ecjin ero H'brb, RopoBbe mojioro hjih npocTO ace- 
BanwH 6apaHRH ct> caxapoMi». Ho npn otomt* He ciHTaeTca 
jnmrHHMT* h Bp«ffHUM«b Ala pe6eHRa noRopMHTb ero RapTOoe- 




POflHHM H RPBOTHHH B*b TyjlbGJKOfl ITS. 



83 



jreirb, Kumefi, maMH mm nouoHTb HBacKOMT*. GpoBi> nopM-nema 
pe6eHKa rpy^Bio npocTjapaerca o6wkhob6hho oi"b oahoio ffo 
noayTQpa roAa, a nsceHHO TpH nocTa: A&a BeJiHHHX'b 0 oahht> 
ycneHCKift, hah ^Ba ycneHCKHXT> h oahht> BejiHKifi. Ct> btovo 
BpeiieHH owb HanHHaerb yqacTBonaTb 3a o6h^hmt> ctojeom'b, 
a mojioko h 6apaHKH npn3HaiOTCfl 3a Sbjiobctbo. AOSBoaaeMoe 
He no BcsHoe Bpeitfl, h 3a pocRQinb, ffocTynHyio Be Ka»AOMy 
ceveficTBy. 

HZI* MHOrOHHCJieHHMX'b A*TCKHXT> 60Jt$3Heft, H3B*CTHHX f b 

Wb onnchiBaeMofi m*cthocth, yKaateirb — bt> ajr*aBHTHOMT> nopflA* 
fffe~cjr&Ay*>nua- aarjuftcRafl 6oj*3hb, 6e3C0HHHH,a, rjncTW, rpu- 
sa, AOJuroe HeyBfBBbe roBopuTb h xoahtb, 3oaoTyxa, KOKJHom'b, 

ROEOTBe B^ GoRaX 1 *, KpHKT>, HeAyFb, HeHOpMMBBafl BeJHHHHa 

jkhbots, eenpoHSBOJiBHoe MoqencnycRame bo speMA CHa, oroe- 
hhk'b, onp*JiocTH, npocTyAa, crjia8T>, cyxan ctbhl h co6aqbH 
CTapocTB. JI ft q e h i e oohth bc*xt> nepeqnMeHHHX'b 6ojrB3Hett 

QCHOBhlBaeTCfl raaBHbJMT> OOpaSOflfB Ha A&ftCTBin JI^KapCTBeH- 

hhxt> TpaB7> u Ha B*p* b'b MaraqecKyio CHay 3aroBopoBi>, Ha- 
roBopoBi* h paamaro pofla A*ftcTBift, coBepuiaeMBtx-B npn bs- 
b6cthuxi> ycjiOBinx'b. , . 

Bt> anejii&cKQi* 6qm*3hu ahth sacTaBJiaiorb cha£tb bt> necK* 
h yjiyqmaicm> ero HHTaHie. 

II pn 6e3coHHuw> h BOoSnje npn nJEOxoan* SAOpoBB* pe6eHRy 

AAH>TT> Wh JMO JQK* HAH B'b MO£04HO& Hani* MaK'B, KMAJ^TTb J 

aero B'b roAOBaxit qepTonoJiox r b h npaGsraiorb Kb saroBopy: 
„3apa — 3apHHn;a, KpacHaa a*bhw! Bosbmh 6e3COHHuny, a Aaft 
iwaAeHi^y (xaROity-To) coht* h Ao6poe 3ApaBie a . 

ToBopHTb btot'b aaroBopt Tpn 3apH: ab* ae i iepHHX < b H 0A»y 

yTpeHHIOH), HJIH AB* yTpCHHHX'b H OAHy Be^epHIOH). 

Oti ejiucmoet 6oju>HOMy aukktb uwTBapHoe chaw hxh roho- 
MAHaro Macjia no *obk£ bt> achl. 

HtoSh peQeeoK'b He 6ojtbjtc> epwofcm^ ero nocjrfe poacAGHifl 

ROpMflTb CBCKJIOfO, HJIH KOHO II JIfl B bIMT> C'BMeHeM'b, HJIH ctpHUMt 
n,B'BTOM r b. A HtaOTOpUfl pOAHJCbHHI^BI HJIH JIHI^a, pOAHBHliflCfl 

nepBWMH hih nocji*AHHMH, „^pH^pM3aK) , rt> 4<, B-ry 6ojt*3hb y po- 
AHBniarocfl CRB03B BeTOinKy; ajih BToro y A*BoqeKT> SepyTTb B r b 
3y6w nynoBHHy, a y HaJibqnROB'b A*TopoAHuft qjieH-b. Bo BpeMfl 
npHrpbisaHia y JiHaa, coBepmaiomaro 8Ty onepai^iio, 6a6Ba 

6' 



Digitized by 




84 



eTHOrPAttlTCKCKOB OBOSPfeHIB. 



cnpainHBaeTT>: ^Hto th xftjaemb?* — ^TpusB npnrpHsaro*.— 
„rpu3H, rpw3H 6oJiBH*e, qTo6H rpu3B He 3aBOguacb. tt — „Y 
Haraeft rpuacKH Be CuBaerb otphhcrh." BecB btotb pasroBopi 
noBTopneTCfl «o Tpexi* pas*. 

OudfiKb MOIOTb OTBapOMTb H3T> COJOMbl, HaCpaHHOfl H OUTBID 

H3t> Tpexi* nejieHi* qyanxTb aomob^b, a Tanse BecHOio, RorAa 
bt> nepBwft pa8T> BbifcRyrh c*htb, Biraocarb Ha nojie h, noca- 
Ahbt> nocpeAH naniHH, oScfeBaforb RpyroHi> h roBopsrb: ,Tia, 
OBecb, pocth, a tu, hmh perb, xoah!" TaKnxi>-we caaaiorb 

B*b M*mOKT> H B*b H6H1> 6%TOWh oOflOCflTb OKOJIO CBOerO ABOpa 

TpH pasa. KajKRhift pa3i> 6*rymaro ct» MrfemROM'b BCTp-feqaerb 
KTo-HH6y/ib H3i> AOMamHHxt h cnpamHBaerb: ^Ito Hecemb?* — 
„CiiflHKy tt , OTB*qaerb Torb. — „HaAO eiiy xoAHTb*. Tairb o6ho- 

CHTb CHflflK'b MOJKHO BO BCHK06 BpeMH. 

KorAa pe6eHOKi> ffojiro we eoeopumt h *6 aawfcima, to, RaR*b 
neKyrb xjrfrfbi, ero cassaiorb noAT> fffeacy, Ror^a Bbmyrb orb 
Hea rbcro, h hotomi*, BbiMbiBan Ha^T> btoio A*5Koti ce6* pyra 
boaok), KOTopofi CMa3UBajiH CBepxy noff*JiaHHbie x**6bi, tobo- 

pflTb: n KaRl> MOH XAfeCbl RHCJH, TaKT> H TM, MOe AHTHTKO, RHC- 
HH (nOJIHifi)' RaJTb MOH XJ$6bI BCXOgHAH, TaKt H TBI XOftH; 
RaKT> fl, HOe ffHTHTRO, rOBOpK), TaK*b H TH rOBOpH*. 

KorAa pe6eHOKi> bt» nepBwfi pasi* CTaHert Ha Horn h nai- 
Herb hxt> nepecTaBJiHTB, to npocTpaHCTBO nojta Me»Ay ero 
HoraMH nepepyOaiorb Hpecirb-Ha-Rpecrb Tonopoan> hjelh hojkomt>: 
9to 3HaMHTb nepepfcsaTb t* HeBHAHMHH nyTa, ROTopbiH ao 

CHXl* HOpi> CBH3MBSUIH HOPH peSeBRa. 

BojitHoro 30Aomyxou noan> jihctomt* ksuthhw, coGpaHnnr* 
bo BpeMH efl D;B*Ta, a TaK«e jihctomt> cMopoAHHOBHMt, 0TBa~ 
peHHMM'b bt> MOJORfe: mh 30JioTymHHfl Cojmhkh Maaryrb 
R03bHMi>, a 3a HeHM*HieM'b ero, KopoBbHMTb MacjoMTb-, hjh are 
9Ty 6ojrt3Hb jrhHaT-b TpH 3opn cjrfeAyion^HM'b aaroBopoMi*: 

Ha nop* OaeaHfc, Cwm xtrana, 

Ha octpob* ByjiBt Upixyiaen eoiorpty: 

Crown Boim ^6plOBb; 3ojOTyxa-*pacoTyxal 

A y aloft nepm Te6t tjt% He 6an f 

JLemHT% KaiiCHB Te64 tjtl ho *htb, 



Goposa caxen; 

A Ha 9TOM% K&MBTB 



Koctefl He xoxan, 
CycraBt ne thortl! 




POffHHW M KPBCTMHbl Bl> TVttCKOft TYB. 85 



Ilocjrfe npoHSHeceaifl bthxt> cjobt> aojihbo njiiOHyTb h AyayTb. 

Orb KOKJimua pe6eHKy aaam* cocaTb jegeaeifb, npuaa- 
m&tb paaa Aaa bt> &eab no qaSHoft jiokr* npoBaHCRaro Hacjia 
ci> caxapoMi> h poaoabncb nacJioMT> ejkh ace bt» Taaoirb ace 
KOJfflqecTB'b gepeBaaaaro Macja ct> caxapauirb necaoirb. 

Ott> noxoMbji eb 6vmxb npasajiBiBaiDTB rpoMOBUMH CTpfcjiaMH 
ct> npoH3aeceaieMT> CJrfeAyK)maxT> cjiobt>: 

TocnoxH Incyce Xpacxe! lIoiyAeHHHxi h noiyHOiBHx* 

CnacH h noMHjyfi Aereitctyi) xymiy 

On bcbbbx* aexyroB* MjaxeHaa (nua pen). 

A6BHHX* H HOIBHIl, (3-B«h). 

Ecjth pe6eaoKT> oqeHb Hacro Kpunuim, to ct> aawcb Buxoaarb 
Ha yjraiiy Tpa sapa a, o6pamaacb no Benepairb Ha 3anaAi> a 
no yxpairb Ha boctokt>, roBoparb: 



B*b BTowb c*y4afc SoJibHoro Taa»e Bbiaocarb bt> hoaoji* Tpa 
paaa no 3apjun> hoat* aypaayio aamecTb a nparoBapueaiorb: 



(Aajie Moawo nepe*BCJBTb sauxi yroiao lypx, ae nonHHaa tojiko sepaaxi). 

Hto6h. HdSasBTb peSeHaa ott> nedyea hjih, HHaqe, ou> 
MjaAeHnecKofi 6oj*3hh, h3b*ctho& bt> mcahuhh^ hoat> HMeHearb 
poduMHum (eclampsia), npa nepsoirb npanaffK*, aorga saSojrbB- 
mitt nepecTaaerb 6aTbca, y aero pByT»b cnepega pyGamay 
orb pasptaa %o aaay, hjlh HaapuBaiorb ero nojOTeai^eirb, 
KOTopuMT> 6biJia noaptiTa HeBfccTa bo Bpeiia BfeHiaHia, jih6o 
CKATepTbio, aoTopyio CMajra aa cBaAeSaoirb 06^* hjih npa 
MOAeSafe B*b aaaoft-aaCyAb npa3flUHK*b. flja Toft ace h$jh 
SojbHoro iioiorb BORoft, KOTopyio ct» roch, ynoTpeSaaeMofl rjih 
KomeHbfl TpaBbi a pasaaro xjrfe6a, cnycaaiorb bt> 6jhoao aa 
nojtoaseHBbifl bt> Hero jojkkh. 

PeSeaaa ct> HeHopHajibBO CoAbtuuMb oicusomoM KopMarb aq- 
MeHHofi aameft hjlh noarb, Aaaaa no ctojioboA johk* bt> A^ab, 
aoHOnjuabHfb Macao Mt. 



3*pB-8ApHBKa, 

RpacHAB A*BBna! 
Bobbmh orb wajeima 



(Taaoro-ro) ipw, 
A xaft eMy Heipm. 

(3-aun). 



KypH 6&JHB, 
Kypn cipuB, 
KypH aecTpHB, 



B03bBHT6 OTfc MJIM6HI^a 

(TAsoro-To) spro, 

A xaftie euy yroMOflil (S^ama). 




86 



9THOrPA«H<lBCROH 0B03P-&H1B. 



Kto MOHumcji eo epeMH cna hoat> ce6a, Toro cbBjTb Ha 
aacjioHK* canoaKHbiMi) roxeHHmeMB Tpn yTpa 1 ). 

QpoTHBi> oeonnuKa hjih Mmynaeo omn (MORHynjaro jrainaa 
jum,a — eczema faciei), no MHfcmio napoAa, noMoraKm>Sj paa- 
* jUHqHWfl cpeflcraa. Mojkho jt^hhtb axy fioJritaHB, TpnsA** bbi- 
6hbhh orHHBO npeA'B snuowb SojBHoro TaRi>, 4to6u HCKpujie 
TfejiH Ha nocji^AHflro; hjih npn saTonfc neqa, ao TpexB pa3T>, 
aaacHraa nyqoRi> h3t> jiyqHHOK'B, SpusraTB Ha aero H30 pTa 
BOAoft, <ito6m npn 9tomt> ammt> ott> TyxHymaro nyqna JieT*jn> 
bt> jran,o cHflamaro Ha ctoji* hjih Ha JiaBRfe peSeHKa; hjih »e 

npHRJDtaAHBaTB KT> 60JIBH0My MtCTy o6blKH0BeHHOe, TpannHHoe 

hjih MonajibBoe, noineJio, KOTopnarB saMeTaiorB bb neqn nocjrfc 
TonKM. OroHHHKT) jrhqarB Tanae saroBopoMB: „OroHB, otohb! 
r& Te6* MOKpw&, tfaft mh* cyxoft!". CjiOBa 9th npoHSHOcarB 
TpH»Au, Ror^a ^npnnajiHBaiOT'B oroHB% Maxaa Ha CHganjaro 
peSeHRa HoqeBKaMH hjih jiotromt>, bt> ROTopufi afeKVTB Myny, 
MHRorAa ^OTMHRaiorb oroHB 44 no TpeM*B 3apflMT> qepe3T> p*Ky 
hjih npy/n>, ecjH tojibro bt> tott> mom6htt> CBfcTHTCfl OrOHB BB 
AByxi> hjih Cojrfce H36ax*B o6b*x r b CTopoHTb AepeBHH. 

IIpH nOHOOtb flOflTB RpaCHBWB BHHOMB HJIH ROpMflTB CHBO 
pOTRoft. 

Ecjih y peSeHKa nptberm ho/tb MtimRaMH, bt> naxaxB hjih 
bt> cKJiaARaxi> rojkh Ha mei, to onpfejocTH 3acBinaiOTT> Rpax- 
MajiOMT>, qeqeBHHHoft MyRoS, ApeBecnofi qepBOToqHHOft, no- 
poniROWB, nojiyqeHHBiMT> ott> CRo6jieHifl ho»omt> „iepi0Ba 
najiBn,a a hjih npocToro ay6oBaro oSfcAGHHaro CTOjia, neqHBiMi» 
necROMi> h t. n. 

Ilpocmydueiuaeoc* RJiaAyrB pas/rfcTUMB Ha pacnapeenoe c*ho, 
paajioaeHHoe Ha acapRoft neqn, h hoatb MaTB-Maqexoft, sjiese- 

pOBfB, qepHOSBlJIOMT), a TaR«e COCTaBOBTB H3Tb KaRHXB-JLHfiO ab*- 

HaAUaTH pa3JiHqHBixT> jrfeKapcTBeHHBix'B pacTemfi, co6HpaeMBixT> 
Ha HBaHa Kynajiy (24 iiOHa) ne»Ay yTpeHefi h o6*AHeft. 

Otb csAc&y ouiaA&Hi^a yMBisaiOTB npeanymecTBeHHO Ha 
Tpex-B noporaxii csfcHceft boaoS, cnyo^eHHoft cb HaxoffHaro 
jihSo npHHeceHHaro H3B cbatbixt> Micro Rpecxa, bih cb sa* 



t) Cps. II o t 6 6 h h. 06xjtcueHie Majop. b cpoA*. nap. aio. I, c»p.9. P<d, 




POAHHLi H KPECTHHU BT> TYJbCKOft TYB. 



87 



MemKOBi> m*b <yraparo lepycajHica, bjih ctb hkohi», KOTopua 
y DOTpe6jifl JtHCb RorAa-HH6yA* Ha CBaAtfi* ajla (uiarocjiOBeHifl me- 
HHxa ct> H6B*CToft, hjih c*b yraoB-b o6*AeHHaro CTOJia, HJEH CT> 

rpOMOBBIX'B CTp-BUl*, HJIH 2R6, HaKOH6I^'B, CT> TpeX*b yrOJlBKOB'b. 

H3T> cpeACTBi> npoTHBT> oyano^ cw»m>mw (atrophia infantium) 
HSB^CTHta cjt^Ayion^ifl: a) Bepyr* sgmjih ct> Tpexi> nojeft u 
ABBflTb KpyweKi> boaw, noiepmiyToft Ha nrfectrfe ciiflHia ^Byxt 

pftKl*, H npHTOM'b TpH KpySKH DO T€MeHilO OAHOft p*KH, TpH 

npoTHBi> TeieHifl Apyroft h TpH npoTHBT* cefin, bt> tomt> m*ct*, 

TA* CXOAHTCfl CTpyH B0AT> 06%*%* pfcRTb. Cl> BTOft BOMJiefi, 

BOAofi h 6ojibBbiMT> pefteHKOM'E ho«ibk), wo6m hhkto as'b no- 
cropoHHHx^b He BHAaarb, HAyt"b Ha py6earb AByx«b 'CMe»HHXi» 
Me»Ay co6ok) senejiL paaHbix'b Bjra/rfcjibijeB'b h npHHec6HHMitn 

BOAOH) H 36MJiett, H pe ABapBTeXBHO CM*maBT> HXT> BIltCTfe, MOM)TT> 

CoJibHoro. BuMMTaro nepeKaTUBaio , rb cb 8emiH oahoto BJia- 
A*iM& Ha BeMjrio Apyroro. PySamRy aae, 6biBmyio ao BTOro 
Ha peSeHK*, ocTaBjufliorb Ha pySeac*. 6) Hotbid co6HpaKm> 
Tptt ropcTH 36MJH HB'b-noA'b Bepeft Tpexi> capaeBi) h «iepnaK>TT> 
boam H3i> Tpexi> ROJiOAueB'b. BoAy Harp*BaiOTb Ha sarHtTK-fe, 
ho He bt> cans oft neqn, h MfcinaiOTb ct> aeiHJiefi, a noTom> bw- 
jH3aK>Ti> crbosb pfcmeTo Ha roJiOBy ahthth, nocaaceHHaro bt> 
m&b no At MaTHijeio. b) PacRaabiBaforb orb Kopna *eTBepTH 
Ha Tpe MOJOAofl pacrymift Ay6oR*b h bt> o6pa30BaBmeecfl ot- 
Bepcrie npoTacKHBaiorb pefieHKa TpH»Aw bt» OAHy h tphhcah 
bt> Apyryio CTopoHy h BbiTacRHBaiorb ero OTTyAa roxitm, a 
HaA*Tyio Ha Heirb pyfiaiuRy ocTaBitaiOT'b bt> OTBepcriH Ay6a. 
r) Mjia#eHija KJiaAyrb Ha nocTeaeHHyio raepcTbio BBepx'b uiy6y 
h, OTpfedaBiHH MLVh Hen no MOHKy mepcTH y oojbHoro Bi>rojio- 
saxT>, Horax-b h noAi> cnHHoft, wfepaiOT'b cypoBoft bhtkoS 06* 
ero pyKH, ORpyatHocTb roJiOBw, Tojin^HBy h ct> 06'feHX'b cto^ 
poHi> A^HHy TyjoBHina. 3aTlwb, peSenKa moioti* toctoio boaoS;^ 
cb nOtSosReHHbiMH Ha Hee TpeMa yrojibBaHH. HHray KJiaAyTb B*b 
neqypKy, a nocjrb hxt» cpaBHUBaiorb Me»Ay co6ofl: ecjrH cm*- 
poKi> OAHoft pyKH ORaBUBaeTCH paBHHMT) cM'bpRy Apyroft H 
CM*poRT> npaBOft cTopoHbi TyjioBHma CM*pRy Ji*BOft, to pe6e- 
hokt> 6yAeTb «HB*b; ecM »e cm*prh ORaacyTca HepaBHUMH, TO 
oht> yjfpeTbt. PySaniKa, SbiBmaa ao BpeMeaH Ji^qeHia na 
MJiaAeHi;*, CHOBa H0«eTb roAHTbca kt> ynoTpeSjoceHiio junmb 



Digitized by 




88 



8TflOrPA*H<I£CKOE OB03P&HIB. 



Tor^a, Koraa ee BbinoiocRaioTb bt> pix* tphsau apoTiwb Te- 
Hema h TpH«Abi no TeqeHiio. a) CiaBHi-b peSeaxa Ha xaaxy 
oroxo crtHbi, pacTflrHBaicrb eicy pyra ropHsoHTaxbHO h Mfc- 
pfliorb ero cypoBoS hhtkoA. 3arbm>, otm*thbt> hokomt> Ha 
crfeH* BejHHHHy ero pocTa h A*HHy pym>, osypHBaiorb 6oju>- 
hoto, csnraa a*h BToro ct> xaAOHOifb hhthhmb ciifcpRH. 

/Jjifl cbneHifl AftTflTH bt> co6anbeU cmapocmu (tor* KpecTb- 
hh6 HasbiBaiorb to -me aTpoftHiecxoe cocToame Atoeft bt» 
nocjrfcRHeirb nepioA* ero pasBHTia) xh6o naparb ero bm*ct* 
ct> n^eHKOHi* bt> nena h, yaapafl BfeaHROirb to ORHoro, to Apy- 
roro, roBopHTb: „meHOKT>! bosbmh cbok> CTapocTb! tt (3-sau); 
m6o BaTaiorb no tbxy 6o*bHoro Ryconeirb xjrfe6Haro MflBHma 
a oTAaion> cb*CTb oAHoraepcTHot co6ax*fe. 

Be* H3J0«eHHBie cnoco6bi xfcqema cyxoi ctAhh h coCanbett 

CTapOCTH npHM^HHIOTCfl JIHfflb HO CpeAaiTB H nflTHHD.aM'b. 

KorAa peCeHKy bt> RaRofi-HHtiyA* 6ox*3hh He noMoraerb hh- 
RaRoe rtRapcTBO, to ero HHorAa „nepepa*HBaK)Tb u . MaTb 

CtaHOBHTCfl Ha M*CTO HpOHCXOffHBHIHX'b pOAOBT>, 6epeTb 

peSeHKa h vt noMombio npH3BaHHoft 6a6RH ao Tpexi> paa% 
nporacRHBaerb ero iepe3*b Boporb CBoefi copo^RH csepxy 

BHHSli. 

3a6aBaMH axh jxfbrelk cxyxarb to npocToe osHaxoiueHie 
ch HaaGoxfee HHTepecyionptMH hxt> npeAMeTaMH hxh xerao ao- 
CTynHUMH hxt» noHHMaaiio HBxeBiaMH, to pasxHiaue, cneijiaxbHO 
, HaaHaieHHue axh hhxt> arpu h cthxh. HanpHM*pT>, CTapa- 
lorcfl paaBxeHb peSeraa apxHicb ipftTOirb orHa, paay6paHH0it 
bt> pa3HoaB*THbie xocRyTRH Ryaxoft, nocTyRHBaHbeirb acexfea- 
Hoft norpeMyniKoft, Maccoft 3ByROBT>, spuBaion^Hxca BApyn>B*b 
yma opu saxpuBaHiH a oTKpuBamH nocxfeABHX'b xaAOHHMH, 
h t. n. /Jajrfce, MxaAeHija noA^pacuBatorb BBepxi>, meaoqyrb, 
3a6aBXHiOTb ero ,,copoRofl u , M xaAynncaMH u h ApyniMH o6n*e- 

H3BfeCTHbIMH H OHHCaHHblMH l ) HrpaMH. HtO Se KBCaeTCfl 

ynoMOHyTbix'b cthxobt>, to ohh, xotr HHorAa npeACTaBxaion» 

C060K> 6e3CMbICJIHU,y, HO 3a TO pHOMOBaHM H HpHBHTCfl a*- 

THirb HCHBOCTbio h CbiCTpoTOH) CBoero npoHsaomeHix, a TaK»e 



I) Cm. ,9th. 06. u ib. VI: ,Po*xeni6 i Bocnmude rti«t n nonezoecKon 
yiaxi, flpocj ry6.* 9 A. Bajoba. 




POJHHbl U KPBGTHHU Wb TYAbCRofi I7B. 89 



T4M1>, TOO BT> H&BOTOpUXl> HS'b HHXT> yM&JO SftTpOTil B&6TCA 

jkhiboctb peSeuKa: to euy nsejuca yposua bi» porb Me^ny, 
to KaKaa-TO 6a(fca, OflfcJMa pefiarb rpH6ann, eMy nana, 6oai»me 
rtpyrHXT> h t. n. Bott>, HanpHMfep'b, RaxoBu bth cthxh: 



Kor#a He HHRanifl noffo6HHH pasBje^eeia He A^ScTByiorb 
Ha naaqymee ahth, to MaTepa h hhhbkh npH6feraKm> rt> 3a- 
nyrHBaHiio ero paanbiMH pascRasaHH npo cTapHROBi>, nonoBt, 
ROTopue 6y^TO 6u xoffarb ci> cyMott h co6HpaK)Tb bt> Hee 
pe6an>, npo boxrobt> cb orHeHHHMH rjasasni h t. n., hjih »e 
ycnoKOHBaiorb peOeHRa ROJibifieJibHUMH h^chahh. H nocjrfcABia 
ABjiaiOTCfl qanje Bcero gpyroro jrbftcTBHTejiBBbiM'B cpeACTBom> 
He TOJibKO ycaoROHTb, ho h ycHHHTb pe6eHRa. 9to BDOJIH* 
ycirbfflHo AocTHraerc*, Sjiaro^apa rjaBHbiifb o6pa8om> THxoaiy 
h OAHoo6pa3HOMy Han*By RoxbiSejibHbix'b n*cem>, Roropuft 
ycnoROHTejibHo rt^ScTByerb Ha yTOMJieHHiae hobumh sneTOT- 
jritaiflMH hjih pascTpoeHHue t&mt* HH6yAb uepBhi ahthth h 
napaxnayerb ero Mosroayio flfcaTe jibho ctb . Ho, o6pamaa Ha 
ce6a BHHMHHie esonirb Han&BOirb, bth nfcCHH npeACxaBJUiOTb 



1. 

Hieaaa jerkja, 

ypOVBJa 

IIpJiMO AHTflTXi Bt pOTOXl. 

Mex* box* roxosaiiH, 
Caxapt box* Horaiul 

2. 



HyniBH-6ymu 
He najeHH, 

He cbo6j6hh. 



Ryxa KaTHn&ca? 
On Mopi XQ aopa. 
Taxi cbxbt* cosa, 
Ce6t CHHft poijua: 
Hbabey— CreBaauy, 
noBa-aoporamay, 
AypHyD aoxasay. 
C*ja 6a6a aa oapaaa, 
nocKaaaaa bo ropaa*. 



Ilopa naiHTb, 
Hopa cbooibt*! 

By6ea*, tiyoea*! 
Cnxb Ha 6ouy, 
Ilpoxafi cbod xowy 
3a aoero chh&. 
y aoero chba cbhb bock*, 
Cotiaaa tfopsm. 
Bioxa Boxcxovua, 
Obhh aaaamal 
4. 

KysbBa-RysDTKa! 



rajKB-xoxiymaH, 
ToiKan-npopoBB 
ma bo xopoxai, 
HaBfn aaaatay. 

B* woft Biunwi Bopooei cbxbt*, 
HaoH roaopan. 



mia 6a6aa c* saxopui, 

Hecja aysoBoa*. 

B* tom* ayaoBOvai 

Jeman rpaCoua: 

Koay — rpati*, *ony — x*a t 

A ?e6ft, xbtjtbo, Becb aysosoail 



6. 



Digitized by 




90 



8THOrPA*U<!BCKOK OB03PUHIE. 



ropasAo 6ojn»mift HHTepecb co cropoHM neAarorireecKHX'b h 
noBTHqecKux-h aoctohhctb , l . Bt> noATBepacffeHie cnpaBe/yiHBOCTH 

BUCRaSaHHUXli CJOBT* npHBOAHM1> HtCKOJIBKO C06paHHHXT> HRMH 

9tuxt> n*ceHT>. 



KOTHKt — KOTOKl, 
CtpHfl XB0CT0XI, 

HJefisa TBOfl 
BijoropjHCT&Ji! 

II|)HJkH, KOTBK7>, HOMeBatb, 

Moe ahtatro KanaTb, 
HpaoavKflBaTb, 

HpUJDIDKBIiaTft! 

Ba»iuM-6aD, 
Ba» xbionKj mod! 

A Te64 KOTy 

3a pa6o?y aania^y: 

Aam KOH6HT, napora, 

J[SL KyBBIBB'b MOJlORa, 

Ha BejiHaii nocrb. 

Bananta — 6a» h npoi. 
QomeAi kothsi bo jtbcok*, 

HpHHeCl EOTHKS BOBCOKt, 

IIpHBJisaji 8a jDjeiay 
noaavaji (huh pe<5eBKa) 

BaDmsK — 6ax> a npo*. 
Moi AHT^T&a! chh, 
A KOTa AOHofi nycM. 



Cipoay lOTy 
Eny AOMa Hexocyri: 
KoTy cHHa ateHBTb, 
Eay iihbo BapHTt. 
Hac% ao DMHa nanoHTt! 

Ba»mM— 6a» a np. 
2. 

y ELOTH&a, y KOTa (UAU BOpKOTa) 

KoiHoejbxa xopoma, 
A y (bna pe6e0aa) 
Eme lysine ero. 

Ban, 6a», 6a», 6al! 

Eme lyvme ero. 
y BOTHaa, y «ora 
noAymevxa Biicoaa, 
A y MMiaro aoero 
Eme jynme ero. 

Ba», 6*a», 6a», 6a8! 

Eme jy*me ero. 
y xoTaxa, y KOTa 
OAfajsa xopoma, 
A y Mwaro xoero 
Eme jy^me ero. 

Ea», 6a», 6a», <5aa! 

Eme jyime ero. 



TaKHMi> o6paaoMT> nepe^HCjunorb h Apyrin npjOHaAJieaHOCTH 

A'feTCKOft QOCTeJIH. 



8. 

Kothki 6*jeBLKifi, 
Xbocthri c-BpeHbKifi! 

XOAHT-B KOTH&l HO CD D DDI KAMI, 

A Ape Ma ero cnpamBBaert: 

— n rA* (ax* pe6euaa) cabti, 
TAi AiToua je*HTi? a 

Ea»iDRH-6a», 
Ban a'btkj modI 

— Obi h cbbti h lexHTt 
Ha bucokomt, CTOj6y; 

Iia bscokob* ctoj6y, 



Ha Toieiiomb opycy, 
Ha cepi6pjtBom xpi>xy, 
Ha ineiKOBHxi. hoboabxi,; 
UIhth 6paHH noxora, 
HoAymeiita bbcorb. 

Ba»iBJtH-6ai) a np. 
Maaymu, babdbirb, 
Cxoahtoc* aoieBaTb, 
Moe abtjitko xa^aTo, 
A bh, cbbbhb xiBymBB, 

IIpB6ai)KBBaTb. 

Eauatx*-<5aio a up. 



Digitized by 



Google 



POffHHM H KPKCTHHbl BTb TTJIBORO& TVB. 91 



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OupOCTeOlb DOJbnOH 


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ByX6HB C?aCTABBH&, TajaHIlBllft 


II OA* KpaCBIBMli OKHOMl, 




3a mHTHMi, 6paHEmi> bojojkkobi, 


DjACuIb B1» oOMQTd XOAHTb, 


O Q WIY7S***BB Ct Bit BtffT AVAB) r»S>M«l • 

ua XpyCTUDHUlll CTeKJOJtt>j 


OOJOTH SOJbl^a HOCHTb, ^ZJ 


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A oGhocoikh 6yiemb jutpvTb 


nojmtnovH mejiOBBB, 


MaMymaajfi, HaBDiasaMil 


0*4*1 wie MHBiypeBbBoet 


BaDi0KH-6ftD h np. 


Gra 1 yens, yrovoBi t66b BoabMn! 


HilBDOIKaMl Ha leflTOIICB, 


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OIJB Blurb JUByBJK&Ml nil fp&pTj 4&H j 


POOTH BO ULCBJIS), 


IYL040A**>1> MOJOJK*M» Ha RUSUIU- 


£>HpOCTBBlb BfiUBl , 


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Bt> OBpetip'B BOBHBaTbt 


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" 0* 


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Ba»niui-6aJD a np. 


Biua Mama iHxa; 


4. 


Oaa 6flja BOTa, 


Com £a Jipeaa, 


IIpHroBapBfiajia: 


IIpBAB Jit (md>i pe6eH&a) bt» rojoaa! 


He xoab, aorb, bo *Bopaii», 


Coh* xo^bti no ctuajii, 


He aaiaft ^ya^ax'b pe6aTi. 


ApeiUl-TQ BO HOBUM-b. 


6. 


Cohb ijpeMy cflpamHBaiTO, 


y»b th, Apenymaa-Apeiia, 


A Apexa caasHBaeTi: 


UpaxH ki (ana peoeBaa) bi> roioBat 


— Tjii (bxa peoeaaa) cnnrb, 


ApeMymaa-ApeMA 


KoJMi^eiwia r*i bhcbti? 


Ho apoyj.oi*y tfpeia... 



/Jajiie y6aK)KHBaioiuafl ahth, HasuBan no EM6Haifi> aomo- 
xo3fleBi> CBoefi aepeBHH, ■ HaA*JifleTT> otb juma hxi> flpeniy 
ujaTqaine^KOM'b, aoBoflHH^KOMb, K)6qeH0^iKofi^ nyjioqKaMH h 
t. n., hjih «e 0TKa3HBaeTi> eft bt> btomt> 

— Ha 3xopoBbe retf*, ABAOTbDmaa! 
Illja aama Apeaa, 
Bxoib bo yjHut nponua, 
3anua Hama jcpeira 
fii Aje&ciD Ha abou*. 

AieKcAeaa seaa, 
Obb DoraT&B 6 ma: 
Ona Bjanme i&m. 

— Hy, cnacaoo Te6i, ABBymaa! 

— Ha sxopoBie Tetift ipeMymaa! 
7. 

Kvm, bbv, aava! 
npHieTftu K&.BBjim tpara. 



y» th, xpeirymBa xpena, 
3aftj|B rt. CeMeay aa A0op%. 
GeseHOBa aeaa 
niatiBBiew) xaja. 

— Hy cnacH6o Te6i, MapbDoiaa! 

— Ha siopoBie fete, ipeMyioKal 
lilia sama ipeiia, 

Bxoxb bo yjfltii nponua; 
3anua aama jrpena 
Ki HsaHy Ha wop*. 

Kaai Ebbhobb ateHa 

Hntro ae aa**. 

— Hy, cnaci6o re&h, xpeMynKa! 



Digitized by 



BTflOrPAWWCKOK OB03PfcHlK. 



Howuumcb bb neiB. 
Th, xuuama, ae uau: 
Hco6H6mi Te04 uuan, 
HaTepTBt apyToft, 
C* Bocepetipeaoft xyrofi! 

8. 

Ba»m*i-6a»! 

Sabot* Oexopi ua span. 
0e% bb 6ixeB%, bb 60 ran, 
Boxaa xaTa pe6m. 
Be* bo xaaoixajia cum, 
Kamxy ci Haciaaen iwr*. 

Be* b& oepesai bbcjto. 
Bepeaxa-To cxpaoi, cxpani! 
A th (bbj petfeaaa) cob, cbbI 
0. 

Ea»miB><5a»! 
He joxbci aa Kpar: 
Tetfa Miuua ctkn, 
A EopoBaa non 6o?xa, 
He xacT* Hoiovaa. 
10. 

Hy, 6a»-6aD! 
Ba© xBmxy hod! 
Ilpaxen CTaprf cTapatea*, 
XBopocTBBXol Bocfaen; 
Oh* 8a to nocfaera, 

ItO TH HMO BOYbX) CBBDIB, 

Ho floian Bcerja apraaal , 

11. 

BaDmKB-6ai)! 
KoiOTjineKt Baxax>. 
Baft 1a jdjbI 

XOTb BHBB yapa. 

y aaci rpeuxa aa Toay, 

H 6jBHOB«b Haneay, 

A Te6a, XBTJTsy, 

Ha aorocn noi(o)ioay. 

BaaTpa Moposa, 

A Tefa aa norocri. 

A cojobh Baoixy, 

fl 6ibbob* Banesy. 

Iloflxy XBTBTBy DOHMflaTb, 

nosy UpDxo BatiBiaTB. 



BaiDBUH-OBDl 

He xoataca aa xpax), 
3ayTpo aopoaa, 
A Te6a aa hopocti! 
Aixynaa npHierw, 
rpotioa* flpaaecen; 
Ba6yaua npaxera, 
Xojctbbbb Bpaaecen; 
Marymxa npaxen, 
rojocoiex* upoaexera; 
BaTDBoa npaierb, 
Ha norocrt oTaecen. 
Baa>BULB-6aa>t 
KojOTyawRi bmbdI 
IS. 

Uomei* aosexa aa xaxavB, 
Ilomia aoaa aa opixaxa. 

npBmeii aoeeA ex ihx&mb, 

Kobh ioaa aln. 

H*t* aoBH c% oprBxaaa, 

H*t* kobh c% xaxeaHBB! 

— IIoroxB xce th, aosa: 
Haoymy aa to6x boxbobx! 

Hefixyro B0JKB kobh Bcaan>. 
Rbti ko8h ca opftxaxB, 
H-bti B03H ca xajeaHHB. 

— IIoroiB ate bm, boxxb: 
Hanymy aa Baca iDxefl! 

Jbub BeftxynBOxxoBiroBBTb, 
Bojxb Beftxyn bobh Bcaara, 
H4t* K03H c* opaxavB, 
H*t% bobh ca xaxeaHMB. 

— IIoroxB se bh 9 jk>xb: 
HaauD aa aac* aexaixa! 

Metaax* Betxer* xi>xeft jo- 

HBTa. 

Jdxb aeftxyn bojkobi ro- 

BBTfc B Bpoi. 

— HoroxB se th, Hexaixa: 
HaauD bb to6x oroatl 

Oroaa aeftxen xexaaxx aa- 

XBTBf 

Meiaix* Beftxen x»xeft xo- 
hbtb b apoi. 



Digitized by 



POftHHU H KPECTHHM BT> TyjBCKOft ITB. 93 



— Iloroxa ate. th, oroflb: 
Hanux> he Tefa a aoxy! 

Boxa aeaxen oroab im, 
Oroab aefixen aexBixa aa- 
JBTk i apo*i. 

— Aotipo ate th, Boxa: 
Hamix) Ha re6a 6moni\ 

Bhbb Beftxyn Boxy mm, 
Boxa aelxerb oroab im, 

■ B|)OH. 

— flotfpo se bh, 6heb: 
Haaujo Ha aaci xyfoa! 

Xytiba Befixyn Ghkobi 6htb 9 
Bhbb aefixyti Boxy nan., 
b apoi. 

— Xetfpo me ra t xytfu: 
Rami» Ha b*ci Toaop*! 

Toaopi aefixen xyfoa py- 
6htb, 

£ j6h* Beixyn 6hkobi 6ht& 
b npoi. 

— IIoroxH ae th, roaopv 
Hanux> aa tb6j aaaem.! 

Kaaeiib Heflxerb Tonopi sy- 

6pBTb, 

Toaop* aefixm xyGba py- 

6btl B VpOY. 

— Iloroxa me aajieBb: 
Haaix) aa ts<Sji ropy! 

r©pa Heixen- aaa eab xbbbtb, 
KaM6H& neflxen Toaopi sy- 

6pRTb H HpOI. 

— Boroxa ate th, ropa: 
Ham© be Tetia lepaeft! 

Hepaa BeaxyT* ropyTOWb, 
Topa Beftxerb Kajfenb xa- 

BBTb H npOH. 

— flotfpo ate bh, iepBa: 
Hanoi) be sac* ryceft! 

Tyca BOfixyrb lepiefl ue* 



HepaH HefixyTi ropy Tomb, 
■ spot. 

— Ao6po me bh, ryca: 
HaauD aa sac* opial 



Opei-s aeftxera ryceft Bep- 
TaTb, 

ryca Beftiyr* lepBeft axe- 
Ban a npoi. 

— IIoroxH so th, opeji: 
HanuD Ha re6a coioia! 

Goaoji noierfcji opxa mn- 
naTb, 

Open craas ryceft BepTarb, 
ryca crajH qepaeft uesaTb, 
Hepaa ctbjh ropy tototb, 
Topa CTaxa aaaeab xaaarb, 
KaaeHb CTaii> Tonopi sy- 

tipBTb, 

Toaop* crai* Kj6hn pyfaTb, 

Ajfoa CTMB 6HBOBI <$BTb, 

Bataa craja aoxy Barb, 
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aaTb, 

JfoftB CTaJM BOJBOBl rOBBTb, 

Boxaa CTaxa aoay aexaTb. 
Haaua icoy c% opiaaaa, 
Haaua aoey ci BaieaHaa. 

— Bon* Te64, hoboji, aoaa ci 

opfccaaa, 
Bot* Te6i soda ct» aajeBHaa! 
M. 

— Ba6ynaa BapBapymsa! 
rx* th 6hjb? 

— Roaefi trreperja. 

— H rxfc m% bohh? _ 

— 3a BopoTa ynua 

— Txi me Bopora? 

— Boxofi caecjo. 

— Tx* *e Boxa? 

— Bhsb bobhib. 

— Txi ate 6aaa? 

— 8a 6yrpH yaua. 

— Tx* *e 6yrpH? 

— HepBa BHTOWB. 

— rx* xe lepaa? 

— ryca BHuesajiH. 

— Txb me ryca? 



Digitized by 



Google 



94 



9TH0rPA*HHPQS0B OB03P&HIB. 



— Bi TpocTHBKi yjajiH. — T^i xe uyxuL? 

— Fa* xe TpocTHBKi? — Ha Bofiay ynua. 

A-BB&H BHJOMaJH. — Xe BOHHa? 

— Ta* xe a*bkh? — UocepeA* r,..a, 

— 3a Myxwi yawn. 

Pa3CMRTpHBafl BOJTBlCeJIBHBIH nfcCHH, HIiI BHAHBTb, HTO OHt 

npeACTaBjaiOT'b codoft HefiojiBniie, ho 6oju>ineio qacTiio npe- 
KpacHue pascsaabi^ bdojih* npacaocoSJieHBue kt> A*TCBo*iy 
noHHMaHiio m aobojebho apBO BBipaasaiomie nyBCTBa seHn^HHid 
KTb CBoeaiy peSemcy 1 ). 

IIpeAMeTH, npeAJaraeniwe bt> btuxt> n*fecnflXT> BHHMaHiio 

AHTHTH, B3HTBI H3T> O&HaCTH ThXJ> HBJieHifl, CT> KOTOpblMH pe6e 
HOBl> 3HUKOMHTCA paHfce npOHarO. TaK1>, 3A*CB MM BCTp*THlTb 
H Ct SfcaBlflTB XBOCTliKOMT> Cfepai'O KOT», KOTOpBlfi DOITH BCerfta 
HpaBHTCfl AtTflflTb, R CTapHKa CT> BOJEKOBTb, KOTOpWMH HXT> TRKT> 

nyraiOT-b hhhbkh, h AP^My bt> o6paa* nonpomaftKH, HanoMH- 
Haioiijefi co6oio hhh^hxi^ BOTopux'B npHxoAHxca hmb bmla^tb 
nyTL He KawAuft ashb, h t. a* TOMy »e, bc* bth apeAHeTU 
HapoAHaii *aHxa3ifl sacTaBJiflerB hchtb. jiamB toio «m«hbh), koto- 
pafl ftunraa pe6eHKy h Moserb ero sariHTepecoBaTB. Kotb, Ha- 
npHMtp'B, xoamtt> h KaHaera pe6aTi>: ApeMa 6poAHrB no abo- 
paMT>, coSnpaerB ce6fc HapaA'B a& paacnpaniHBaerB, r^b kto 
H3i> A^Teft cdhtb; CTapHKi> HaKaauBaerB GajOBaHHBixi* h aa- 

npflSHfalX'b peSHTB, H T. H. Ub BTOfl CTOpOHBl B0£Bl6e£bHBIfl 
OtCHH npeACTaBUIOT'B C06oft MOAT* MHOrOB'fcfiOBOft HapoAHOft 

A*flTejiBHOCTH no BocnHTaHiio A*Tett, h, bt> OTHomemH BBi6opa 
coAepacaHia h ywr&Hbfl hsjiojkhtb ero b*b cthxotbophoS *opif* 
BecBMa npocTO, HarjiHAHO h aapTHHHo, owh aBuiOTCfl npe- 
KpacHbiMi) co3AaHi6M r B neAarorHHecBaro HapoAHaro renin. 

ftajorfee, pe6eHOBT>, Baa* h3b*ctho, Bo»6ywAAerB bt> Aym* 
ateHm,nHbi paajraqHBifl lyBCTBa: to oht> cocTaB-iaerb am nen 
OTpaAy bt> HacTonmeMB h HaReatffy bt> 6yAymem>, to npej- 
CTaBjraeT'B cofiofi ne wo HHoe, BaicB ooyay. CooGpaaHO ct> 

9THBTB BT> BOJBlSeJlBHMX'B nfeCHJIX'B Mbl BHAHfifb TO 06pa3T> 

H*»Hoft h jnoSnmei CBoe ahth MBTepn, to rpySoft HeHaBRAfl- 
meft CBoero peSeHBa aceHmHHH. OrpaCTHafl j«o6obb nepaofi 



Cm. o(Ji prom* ct&tbk) i!. Bemyxoea „3THorp. Q6o3p. tt XIII— XV. Fed. 



Digitized by 



Google 



POflHHH H RPECTHHBI B1> TYJBCRO& ITB. 



95 



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o6HAHyio ApeMy, npo jracROBaro jcothrb h t. n., pncosaTB 
npeAi> HHwrb b b npHBJieRaTejii>HBixi» qepTarb HeH3B*cTHoe 6yAy- 
mee h ffaace npHRpamnBaTh nacTo HenpnriiHAHoe Hacroamee. 
HejiioSoBB se BTopoft sacTasJuaerB ee TaroraTBCH cbohhtb 
pe6eHKOMT» h bt> ero CMepra bha^tb ajih ce6a oahht* tojibko 
bhxoa'b H3i> CBoero HenpiaTiraro nojosemfl, eAHHCTBeBayio 

B03MOHCHOCTB OCBOSojIHTBCfl OT0> MHOrOIHCJieHHBIX'b 06peMeHH- 
TejrBHMXT> XJOnOTB. BOTB n09TOHy-TO MM BT> H'feKOTOpMX'b H3T> 

npHBe AeHBBi xt> naMH nfcceH* bhahmt>, wo cMepxB peCeHKa 
npeACTaBJHfleTT> co6oio hA^to jKeaaeMoe, botb nonejiy OHa 
onncMBaeTCfl sa^cb ct> TaKHMi> yAHBHTeJBHBiBTB eescepAeqieMi^ 
co Bceio peajib hoctbio h cBTaKOio BosMyraTejiBHOio rpyriocxBio!.. 

06cT&HOBKa ct> BuuieonncaHHBiMH cyeB^piflMH^ 3a6aBaMH, 
KOjnafiejBHbiMH d*chhmh oKpyataerb peGeHKa jthhib bt> nopy 
ero MJiaAeHqecTBa, ho OHa H3M*HHexcfi, KorAa ahth buxoabtb 
HS'b-noA'B HaA3opa hrhbrh h HaqHHaerB jkhtb Sojrfee hjh Meirfee 
caHOCTOflTeJBHO. OoacaHie 9Toro nepioAa pfrTCxoft jkhshh Mo- 
wer* cocTaaHTb ocoShift 8THorpa*Hqec«ifl oiepRi>. 



A. Mb. ycneHCNiR. 



Digitized by 




M3T> 3AnAAH0-EBP0nEfiCK0R 3TH0rPA<t>HHECK0fl ilHTE- 

PATyPU. 



Hob wit nr/MAi Ha NCTopin npoHcxowAeHia centbit. 

(Dr. Ioh. Richard Mucke: Horde tmd FamUie in ihrer wrgachiektU- 
chen Mntwickehmg . Eine neue Theorie aaf statistischer Grundlage. (Stuttgart. 
1895, 8«, CTp. XIX+308). 

Ha CTpaHHn,axT> „9THorpa*HiecEaro OSospfcHta" mm npn- 
xoffiuocb He pa3i> KacaTBCfl fiOBbixi> bbimhiaob'b sa Bonpocu o 
npoHexoHCAemH ccmlh, pa3BHTifi 6paxa h poACTBa. DoflBjieHie 
bt> jiHTepaTyp* aa nocjr*AHee BpeBia cpaBHHT&iBHO onenb 3Ha- 
iHTeABHaro KoanqecTBa TpyAOBT>, nocBflmeHBuxt paapaGoTK* 
ynoMHHyTMXT> BonpocOBi*, He voserb ue CTHTaTBc* xapanep- 

HBUfb BT> HCTOpiH dTHOrpattiH! effBa-JIH MOXeTB 6UTB COMH*Hie 
BT> TOMT>, HTO npHHHHOft BTOrO flBJiemfl CJ&fry QTb CHHTaTB flpe«- 

Ae Bcero H&KOTopyio ney AOB«ieTBopeH h o ctb coBpeMeHBBixi> yne- 
HLixt noJOHcemaMH, BBiCTaBjeHHBiMH rocD OACTByiomefi Teopiefl; 
HecoMHtHHO, hto 3a nepioAi>, HCTeKmift orb Haiajta nocTaHOB- 
hh bthxt>, HaH6oAe HHTepecHbixi> h noatajyti h HanSojrbe 
cjEosHBix'b BonpocoBi> Hameii HayxH, Ha cepbe«Hyio, HayHHyio 
nonsy — ao HacTOHmaro BpeiieHH sanacb 8TBorpa»HHecKHXi> 

CB'BA'feHifi 3HRMHT6JIbBO B03pOCT>, HTO BM*CT* CT> pOCTOMT> erO, 

pfcmeHie Bonpoca o npoHCxo»AeHiH ceHLH He toibko He 
ynpocTHJtocB, ho CKopte, HaoSoporb, boihjio bt> Gojrbe cjojk- 
Hyio CTaAiio. BeecTH HcnpasJieHifl bt> rocnoACTByiomyio Teopiio 
Ha ocHOBaBUH HM*K>marocH naynHaro MaTepiaaa, ocb^thtb ee 

EIH Aa»e BHAOH3M*HHTb Ha OCHOBamH nOCJltAHflrO — HBJfleTCfl 

CTpeMJteHieM'b pasHBix'b aBTopoBi>, nocBflmaiomHXT> hobuh moho- 
rpaoiH HCTopin pasBHiifl ceiteftHaro h o6m,ecTBeHHaro 6wTa y He- 
Kyjn>TypHMXT> HapoAHOCTeft. HacTb aBTopoBT> npHHHja, he Ham-b 
Bsr^flA'b cosepmeHHO npaBMbHwS MeroA*: npHBHaBa* HeyAO- 
b j[6tb op HTe jebh octb MaTepiaaa axh pfememfl nocTaueHHUX'b 
BonpocoBT*, bth aBTopu cTapaiOTCH npe»A6 acero RpHTHqecn 
ocbibthtb HMfoonjiftcfl y»e BiaTepiajn>, aar&irb aodojhhtb ero 
H3yqeHieMT> 6brra HeKyjbTypHHXT> HapoAHOCTeft, CB*A*HiH o6t> 




H3T> 3 A n AflHO-EBPOIIEflCK . BTHQrPAfc. JIHTEP ATY PH . 97 



o6mecTBeHHOMT> h ceMeflHOM'b CTpo* KOTopwxT> cjiy WHJH npeHMy- 
mecTBeHHO ocHOBarnHMH fljra noATBepacffeHifl hjih onpoBepweHia 
•roil hjih HHoft HayqHoft TeopiH. dTvuvb nyxeMi) mejn> Mewffy npo- 
5hmi» h KyHOBT>, h HacKOJiBKO HHTepecHbie h BawHue pesyjibTaTu 

MOTKHO flOSblTb, DOJIBSyflCb 8THMT> MeTOflOlTb, flJia HCTOpiH paSBHTifl 

ceMtH BOo6me,Mbi cTapaoracb noKa3aTb bt> aaM*TK*, nocBameH- 
Hofi i^*HHoft pa6oi"b KyHOBa o6t> aBCTpajriftijax'b (cm. „9THorpa- 
*nqecKoe 06o3p*Hie a , kh. XXVII). frpyrie &BTopbi npeffnow- 
TaiOTi ,H36npaTb HecoMHfcHHO Sojrfee jierRitt nyTb TOJtROBaiiiH h 
ocB*meHifl cymecTByiomaro MaTepiaaa, npHqearb bt> s&bhch- 

HOCTH OTb OCHOBHOft TO^KH 3p*nifl, Ha KOTOpyK) CTaHOBHTCfl 

aaHHbift aBTopT>, TOTb-ae MaTepiajra cjysanb mh ocBtmeHia 
6biTa HeKyjibTypHHxil tureMeH-b to co cTopoHM BKOHOMHqecKoft, 
to ct» o6ii^ecTBeHHo npaBOBofi. Mm He xothmt> cicasaTb, qTO 

9THMT> HyTeifb ffOCTHraiOTCfl flJlfl HayKH HCK«IK)qHTeJIbHO JIHIDb 

OTpHn;aTejibHbie pe3yjn>TaTN, qTO KOMOHHHpyeMbitt to t*mi> to 
HHbiBfb nyTeM r b MaTepiajrb He shocks'* qacTHbix^ AonojiHemft bt> 
rocnoACTByiomie bsimihaiiI, He orapuBajTb jua HayKH no^qacb 
HOBbixT> nepcpeKTHB b; ho cOBpeMeHHbie yqeHbie, HieAraie BTHM'b 
nyreMT>, KaKT> mh cTapajiHCb ynasaTb Bb npeAmecTByiomHx'b 
oqepKaxii, He 6bijH bt> cocTOHHin, ao nacToamaro speMeHH no 
KpaftHeft M*p*, nomaTHyTB BbipaGoTaHHhix-b npeamecTByiomiiMH 
Tpy^aMH ochobhmxt> no-aoweHifl HayKH no yKa3aBHUMi> Bonpo- 
cumt,, BCJi*ffCTBie qero h caMO noaujieHie ijoao6hlixt> paGort 
bt» HCTopin nayRH 3HaMeHyerb CKopte CTpemieHie oracKaTb 

HCTHHy, q*M'b OaKTB OTKpblTifl en. 

Ki> qncjy aBToposi nocirfeflHeft KaTeropin cjrfeflyerb npw- 
qncjHTb h npooeccopa CTaraciMKH npn lOpbeBCKoarb yHHBep- 
CHTeT* r. Myne, HecoMHtHHO He Maoio noTpyflHBmaroca Ha«b 
BHpa6oTKofi CBoeft HOBott TeopiH. 

Bi npe^HCJiOBiHr. MyKesaaBjaerb, qTO oht> 03ai\iiaBHjrb cBofe 
Tpy^t Teopieft, nocTpoeHHofi Ha ocHOBaniH cththcthkh oTToro, 
qTO pesyjibTaTw ero Tpy«a ocHOBaHH He ur anpiopBMxi> bsmh- 
Aaxi>, ho B03BefleHbi bt> cncTesiy Ha ocHOBamH aHarasa h chh- 
Te3a, qTO Boo6m,e jran;a, saHHMaiomiHca BTHorpa&aqecKHMH H3H- 
cKaHiflMH, nocTynHJiH 6bi xoporao, eciH-6hi Combine osHaKOMH- 
jiHCb ci> MeTOAOJiornqecKofi HayKofi o6t> HBaeHiaxT.. Ynpeirb, 
qTo 9TH0rpaa>M Bt nocTpoeHin cbohxt* nojioweHiti noJibayiOTCJi 

*aKTRMH, BUXBaqeHHblMH T CK. H3T> 6bITa BapOAHOCTefl 6e3T> 

oOpameHia BHHMamfl Ha oSmyio KyjibTypy 3thxt> nocJifcflHHX'b, — 
cjbiinHTCH 3a nocjrbAHee Bpemi He bi> nepBbift pa3T>, h Hejibsa 
He co3HaTBCfl^ qTo ohii ABJiaeTca ^0 H3BliCTHofi cTeneHH o6ocho- 

BaHHWM'b, XOTH CT> OAHOfi CTOpOHbl 0H1> ffaJieKO He MOKeTb 6blTB 

CA^JiaHb SojibniHHCTBy yqeHHXTj, HanpaBjnaion^HX'b cboh chjibi 
Ha HSucKaHia ochobhlixt> 3aR0H0Bi> pa3BHTia qejOBLqecTBa, a 

morpA^nscKOi ono3P*nni. XXYTI. 7 




98 



BTHOrPAOHHKCKOE 0E03PUHUS. 



ct> ffpyroft — btottj ynpeirb, ffawe bt> rhx'b cjyqaax'b, Kor^a oht> 
cnpaBeAJiHB*, yKa3UBaerb cKopiie na HenpaunjibHocib yBae<ie- 

Hifi npHHflTMHT> BT> 9TH0rp*L$iH MeTOftOM-b, H*M'b Ha HenpHBHJLb- 

Hocxb caMaro MeTOffa no cymecTBy. KaKHMT>-ace mctoaom b non»- 
syeTca r. Myne a-m nocTpoeHia cBoeft Teopin o iipoHcxoHfAemii 

CeMbH? „ECJBH Mbl XOTHMT> DpHCTyDHTb KT> H3CJL^OBaHilO 6e2 f b 

npeAB3flTbix f b BsrjiHAOBTb, nHiuerb r. MyKe, mm aojukhw npn- 
HflTb, ito noHHTia o rpynnt, ceMbfc, 6paKfe h t. n. humi* ae- 

H3BfcCTHM" 6CTCCTB6HH0 flBHTCH BODpOCb, npOAOJHKaeT'b OHT>, 

*ito ace bt> cymuocTH Ha»n> hsb^ctho, TaKi> KaKb HaM-b Heo6xo- 

ffHMO HMfcTb HCXOffHyiO TOHKy. Bl> BHffy TOrO, HTO HSCJK^AOBBHie 

KacaeTCH hchshh nepBoSbiTHaro HejroB^MecTBa, to hcxoahoB 
TOHKofi MoryTT* cJiywHTb npoBBJieHia btoA «h3hh; bth noc^t/i- 

Hifl CKa3WBaK)TCfl BO BSaHMOA'feftCTBiH <DH3HHecKaro opraHHSHH 
h snfenraaro Jiipa, h nocKOJbKy sto ssauMOAfeftcTBie mm HMe- 
HyeMi> AynioK),— Hame nscj^AOBame BodbMerb sa ncxoAHyio 
TOHKy HejioB*MecKyio Aymy a . IlpoaBjieBia nejiOB-feqecKofi 
AymH AOJi»HM AaTb aBxopy bosmohchoctb BoacTaaoBBTb KapTHHy 
nepBoSMTaaro cocToama HejioBfcHecTBa, Tbm> SoJifee, mo wbvb 
ocHOBaHia npeAnojraraTb, saM-kqaeTTb r. MyKe, hto ncnxuHecKifi 
nip* Bcero qejOBtnecTBa AOJUKeHTi 6mjh> npoxoAHTb Apyria <yra- 
Ain pa3BHTia, q^Mb ncHXHiecKift Mipi> OTAfcJibHaro JHija. Ilcn- 
xojorflqecKifi aHaiiHSTb flBjiemit hchshh AHKapeft h cocTaBJiaeirb 
coAep/KaHie rhhih aBTopa. Mm He MoaceM-b He yKaaaTb, ito 
aBTopT> H36paji> KpafiBe pncKOBaHHMfi, xoth h Aajeieo He hobmS, 
MeTOAi> ofi'bacHeHia aBJiemfi hchshh, BCTpfcnaeMMXb y Mtfuo Kyjb- 
TypHMXb HapoAHOCTett: B*b caMOM'b A^afe, ta* rapaHTia, hto 
HscJitAOBaTejib, nojn>3yroin,iftca hmt>, npeAnojiaraa OTMCKaxb mo- 

THBM, BM3BaBHlie KT> 2CH3HH TOT'b HJIH HHOfr HHCTHTyTb y AH- 

Kapeii, He HaBaaceT'b hmt> co6cTBeHHMXT> B3rjraAOBi> KyjibTypHaro 
qejroB'feKa. Ecjih ncnxH^ecKifi Mipi> peSeHKa ct> SojibniHMb Tpy- 
AOmt> noAA^eTca aHa*iH3y, to 0TH0CHTejii»H0 ^Ayum" AHKapa 
mohcho ct> oco6eHHMMT> ocnoBaHienfb CKasaTbj ^to n ^yacaa Ayiua 
noTeMKH**-, saKJuo^aTb-rae no npoaBJieHiaM'b ncnxH^ecKaro Mipa 
peSeHKa kt> AHaapio, KaKb 3to cKJioHeH'b A*JiaTb r. Myne, Gojiie 
H'hM'b ona.CHo, noTOMy mto, He CMOTpa Ha cxoactbo bt> hIskoto- 
pMxi> npoaBJieHiax'b pefieHKa h A H ^apa, pa3HHii;a Mea»Ay hhmh 
HacTOJibKo SHa^HTejibHa, hto o towa^ctbIj eABa-jin Moaterb 

6MTb p'feHb. 

Bo BcaKOMT> cjiynal) r. MyKe npaBT>, CHHTaa, ^ito nepBo- 
SuTHMft neJiOBliK'b HtHJ-b rpynuaMH, ii hto 9th rpynnM oSijeAH- 
HajHCb He noHHTieMTj o poactb*, a oonj,HOCTbio TeppHTopiw. — 
cnpaBeAJiHB'be, ^to caaio noHaTie o poactb*, o B3aiiMuo& Ojiii- 
3octh 3H»AHJiocb nepBOHaH«Jibno He Ha np c ACTa b ji e h i h o KpoB- 
n Mxi) y3axi>, coeAHHaiomHX'b rpyuny hhahbhaobii, a aa o6n^- 




H3T> 3AnAflB0-EBP0IIEftCK. 9TH0rPAfl>. JHTEPATyPH . 99 



hocth noJiB30BaHia TeppHTopieft. Bnpoqeii'b, bt> 9tom'b OTHOine- 
Hia r. Myne He bhochtt> eiue HHnero HOBaro, Tam> KaKT> 9to 
6hjio yaee h3b*ctho Ha ocHOBaHia HOBtftinaro myneuia. 6biTa 
HapoffHOCTeft, Hanoojrhe hhsko CTOamnxT> bt> KyjbTypHoarb ot- 
HOUJ6H1H. Tpynn* hhahbmaobt^ o6 f beflHHeHHUx r b TeppHTopieft 
aBTopij Aaerb HfecKOjbKO HenpaBHJbHoe HaHMeHOBaHie op«a, 
KOTopaH T&KHM r b oopasoarb npeACTaujiHeT'b co6oft rpynny paB- 

H W X T> JHITb, IJpeCJFfeflyiOIUHX'b HOA'b pyKOBOACTBOMT* OAHOrO HJIH 
H'feCKOJIbKHX'h BO»aKOBb O^HHRKOBblfl I^JIH. 

Hjienbi BTHx-b rpynm* hm^iottj jolhiub KpaftHe orpaHHHeHHHH 
npeRCTaBJiemH", eAHHCTBeHHoe AOCTynaoe mxt> noHHMaHiio — bto 
npe^CTaBJieHie o npocTpaHCTBte, TaKi* KaKT> nnqero OTBjieqeHHaro 
hmt> enje HeAOCTynHo: HHiero He Morjro 6bitl AocTynHbiarb 
Aynrfe qejtoB'bMecKoft, qero He cymecTBOBajio-6bi bo BH'feinHeM'h 
Mip*. Jl,aae npe^CTaBJieHifl o B03pacT* janfb h BMTeKaiomia h3t> 
hhxt> HaHMeHOsaHifl qjieHOBT* rpynnbi no BoapacTy hbjuhotca 

60JT&e H03AHHMH. IlepBOHaHBJDLbHO BTH HaHMeflOBftHin HMfeJIH 3Ha- 

qenie yaasama nrfeCTa,* pa*. HaxoAHTca ARHHoe jimi^o no otho- 
memio kt> roBopanjeMy: ecra npe^cTaBHTb ce6fc »HJiHme, cjy- 
wamee ySfeacHmeiirb ajw noAoSHoft rpynnu, to BcafcACTBie cTpeM- 
jenia map OAHHaKOBbix-b no BospacTy h nojiy rpynnnpoBaTbca 

BM*CTli, Hanp. CTapHKOBT> KT> CTapHKHMTb, A* T fcft CT> A*TbMH H 

np., to Bee Hacejieme noAo6Haro KHJiHma pacnaAeTca Ha cji*- 
Ayionjia rpynnbi: oah& nojiOBHHa GyAerb saHATa aceHmnHaMH, 
Apyraa MyjKHHHaMH. IlpeAnojiaraa, <ito uenrpaJibHoe m*cto 
saHHMaeTb jihi^o roBopanjee, HaxoAameeca bt> rpynn* jihii,t>, ko- 
Toptifl no oTHomemK) kt> HeMy SyAyrb cnHTarbca fipaTbaMH, 
(hjih cecTpaMH, ecjra roBopanjee jhu,o aeHn^HHa) He bt> sea- 
qeHin KpoBHbixT> poactb6hhhkobt> <) a junmb bt> cmwcxB SraHcaft- 
niHX'b coc*Aefi, coqjieHO^'b, — to no OAHy CTopoHy ott> roBopa- 
njaro pacnojioacHTca rpynna, bt> KOTopofi HaxoAHTCa ero OTei^b, 
MaTb, AHJi*e rpynna otuobt> qjieHOB'b btoS nocjrfcAHeft (a^AM, 
6a6KH), no Apyryio CTopoHy pacnojioatHTca rpynna, ta* Haxo- 
AaTca ero a*th, h HaKOHei^T> Ta, ia* HaxoAaTca ero BHy kh . 
TanoBa HAeaJibnaa KapTHHa pa3M*meHia HjeHOBi> opAu: OTciOAa 
npoHCTeKaiorb HaHMeHOBaHia MjieHOBi* OTA*JibHbix r b noArpynu'b, 

CO06pa3HO C*b T^MT*, TA* OHH HaXOIHTCH HO OTHOUieHilO K*b TO- 

BopaiueMy. TbkwmT) o6pa30MT> r, Myne npHXOAHTb kt> BWBOAy 
MopraHa h KyHOBa, hto nepBOHa^ajbHUM'b AfcaemeBirb rpynnu 
CJ[*Ay^TT> ciHTaTb to A^Ji^Hie, KorAa pasJiaqaeTca jianib rpynnn- 
poBRa BoexoAamnxb h HHCxoAamnx'b, a He OTAtJbHbia JiHn,a, t. e. 
cHCTeaiy ^raBaftcKyio^; ho oht* 0TJH4aeTca ott> oCohxt* aBTo- 
pOBT> T*M'b, 4to bt> to BpeMa, KaKb MopraBTb ouihSohho bmbo- 
AHTb 9to A&neme rpynnu h3t> B03HHKaiora,HX'b npeACTaBjreeiit 

O KpOBHOMT* pOAOTB*, a KyHOBt COBepmeHHO OCHOBaTeJTbHO H3T> 




100 



9THOrPA0>nqKCKOE OB03P£HIB. 



noHHTifl o B03pacT* jram>.— r. Myne 6e3«b bchrhxt> <d&kth*j ecRHxi> 
«OKa3aTejibCTB'b, TOXbHO Ha ocfloBaHin npeAnojiOHeiiia, hto nep- 
BoSwTHOMy qejoB^Ky dohathm xHm£ npeACTaBxeHia o npo- 
CTpaHCTB*, oS'bflCHHerb Hx r b oSbi^HUifb pacnoxoacemeirb qxe- 
hout> TeppHTopiaJiBHoft rpynnti nojrb offHoft RpoBxeft; npnBH- 
Mafl, hto nepBo6MiHwfl aomt> HMfejrb beat* male no CBoeiiy 
KOHTypy. aBTop-b urne CHaOaraerb cboh AORasaTencTBa cxe- 

MaTHMeCKHMT> pHCyHKOMT>, O^eBHAHO, ynyCKHH npH 9TOMT> H3T» 
BHAy, HTO Ha TOft CTaAiH pa3BHTifl, BOTOpyK) OH7> 06pHC0BH- 

Baerb, eABajin uomevb 6htb pfeib o iipoHHMxnb araxHmax'b, se 
roBopa yate o cpasHHTexbHO 6oxbmHX'b, bt> rotopmxt> naxo- 

AflT'b Ce6* MfeCTO H*CROXbKO AeCflTKOBt qeXOBtob — KOJHqeCTBO 

hhahbhaobt>, cocraBjiflK)iD,Hx r b TeppHTopiaxbiiyio rpynny. Bnpo- 
qeirb BTOMy nocjr*AHeMy Bonpocy nocBameHa OTAluibHaa rxaBa. 

Bospaacaa npoTHB'b cymecTBOBama KorAa-xn6o CTaAin 6e3no- 
pflAOHHaro coacHTejibCTBa, r. Myne CTapaeTCH AOKasaTb^qTO nep- 
BoCuTHbifi nejEOB'bK'b a o x ac e h t> Obion, yace HM'bTb npeACTaaxe- 
nifl o 6paK*, ^to Spa^Hbifl OTHomeHia aoxjkhm 6mxh Harferb 
Sojibmyio npoAOJiacHTeJibHOCTb. Mm He SyAem* ocTaHaaxHBaTb- 
Cfl Ha BTott nacTH Tpy*a aBTopa, Tairb RaRi> bmboam ero Ha- 

XOAHTCfl B*b npflMOMT> HpOTHBOp*<riH Cb <MiKTaMH, Ha6XK)AaeMMMH 

cpeAH HeKyxb^ypubixTb HapoAHOCTeft, y KOTopuxb, no Rpaitaeft 

M*pfc CpeAH HHSHIHX'b Wb KyjTbTypHOMT> OTHOmeHiH y COK)3hI, RaR*b 

8T0 6mjio yace yRasaHo Aasno pasHUMW Hscxb AOBaTe juimh , HMijioTb 

H3B*CTByK) npOAOXHHTeJTbHOCTb, HO, BO BCflKOMT> CJy HaCTO 

h JierRo HapyiuaiOTCfl, h He HMinorb xapaRTepa nocroaHHaro, 
BCXtACTfiie nero BToft CTaAin pa3BHTifl h npHAaHO xapaKTepHoe 
Ha3saHie „6e3nopaAOHHaro coatHTexbCTBa a . 3aBi*Hame aiiTopa, 
hto bo> HacTOHmee Bpeiifl mm yace He HwfeeM-b nepeA r b coooft 
buoxh* nepBoSMTHMX'b xiOAeft, h hto Aa»e Haa6ox4e nepBo6biT- 
HMA HapoAHOCTH, BCX-feACTnie cCxHseHifl cb eBponeflmaMH, no- 
Tepn*jm HapymeHie bl ecTecTBeHHoarb xoj^h cBoero pa3BHTia, 
HeAocTaTOHHO, htoSm yCTpaHHTb Bospawemfl, ROTOpMH MOSHO 
cA'bxaTb na ocHOBaniH oaRTHHecRHXTj ahhhmx'l npoTHB'b B3rxa- 
Aobt» r. MyRe, h 9to t*mt> 6ox*e, hto oht> bt* CTpeMxem« 06- 
pHcoBaTb nepBo6MTHoe cocTO^Hie qexostRa He HaxoAHTb nyac- 

HMMTb CHHTaTbCfl CO B3rXflA«MH AHKRpeft Ha HBXeHifl HXTj C06- 

cTBeHHaro 6MTa: tott> Chjx-Sm moxhmi» ncExoxoroMi^saH^qaeTb 
r. Myne, rto nun ofrbflCHeHia cooxHomeHifl aBxemfi noacexax^ 
6m HaftTH yRa3aHifl y iiepBo6r»iTHaro nexoB'bRa; dTora nocxtA- 
Hift cRop*e 3anyTaeT^, HfcMb ocb*teti> ero MMCJib; cpeAH nep- 
boSmthmxi xioAeft aoxkho xwuib coOapaTb MaTepiaxb, a rpyn- 
nnpoBaTb ero cxfeAyeTb 6e3T» hxt> noMon^n. Ho aBTopT>, bcx*a- 
CTBie h eAOCTaTOH h aro BHHMama rt> *aHTaMi> A^ficTBHiexbHocTH, 
HeBoxbHO BnaAaerb wb npoTHBonoxoaciiyio KpaftHOCTb k, npeA- 




HBTb 3AIIAAH0-EBP0llBflCK. BTHOrPAO. JIHTEPATYPH. 101 

noaaraa, hto oht> 0TKpwBaeTT> nepeAi> iHTaTejeirb xapTHHy 
ncHxuqecEaro Hipa AHRapa, to JHmaerb nocji'bffHflro caMbix'b 
9jieM6HTapHbixi> noHATift, to, Hao6oporb, npHnHCMBaerb eMy 
npoTHBi> coScTBeHHaro weJiaHia BsrjiaAbi, CBoftcTaeHHtie jihiob 
3Ha4HTejbHO SojrBe BucoROMy RyabTypHOMy ypoBHio. 

BnpoqeMT>, bt» nepio^ rocnoACTBa yKaaaHHofl CTaaiH pasBH- 
Tifl, rA* bc* qjieHM paBHW MeatAy co6oB, r^* aceHin.HBa He 
OKa3MBaeTCH enje nopaoonjeHHoft MyraqHHOK), — ceMbH, no mh^bIeo 
aBTopa, enje ne cymecTByerb, tbki> khki. a*th hbjehiotch npn- 
Ha«Jie»HOCTbio rpynnw. CeMba B03HHKaerb BnocjrhACTBin, u 

UpHHHHaMH, BM3BaBIDHMH ee KT> 7KH3HH, CJr*AyeTT> CHHTaTb 

dROHOMH^ecRifl coo6paaceHifl nepBoGbiTHaro qeJOBliKa. BcjrfcA- 
CTBie pasA^Jema Tpy^a, cymecTByiomaro bt> nepBoSwTHoft rpyn- 
nfc, Tflfb fftflTejibHOCTb MyatHHH'b HanpaBJieHa bo bh*, a A*aTejib- 
HOCTb 5KeHm t HH r b RacaeTca BHyTpeHHaro pacnopaARa,— npa newb 
06* rpynnw HanpasjajLH cboh chjih Ha H3MCKanie cpeACTBi> et> 
noAAepacaHiio CBoero cymecTBOBama, — cjiyqajiocb, hto Mymmi- 
Hairb ne AOCTaBajio HceHCKHxi, pyKT>, a aceHin l HHaMT> — MyxccKHxi>. 
Hocji'bACTBieM'b 9Toro aajiaeTca noxHnjeme ce6* pa6o4HXT> chjh> 
H3i> cocJbAHHX'b rpynm>. IIoxHiijeHie OTHiOAb He hm'&jio u*.ibio 
yAOBJiOTBopeflie nojiOBbix'b CTpemieHifl, tbrt> RaRi> BToaiy CTpeai- 
jreuiio, no mifeHiD aBTopa, aojukho 6mjio 6u npeAmecTBOBaTb 
yae SHaKOMCTBO n oxhthtc jih ct> o6*beRTOMT> noxHnjema; nfi&b 

HOXHE^eHia SblJia HCRJUOHHTCJIbHO X03aftCTBCHHaH — HOAIHHHTb A-ia 

cjiyaema ce6* Apyroe jihu.0. 9thmi> nyreM-b B03HHRaeTb otho- 
uieHie Me»Ay A^yMa HepaBHonpaBBbiMH jiHn,aMH, h3t> ROTopwx-b 
oaho aBJiaeTca rocnoAHHoarb, Apyroe — cjyroio (famel)' 3to ot- 
HomeHie aBTopi> HasbiBaeTii nepBOHanaJibHoft ceMbeft (familie); 
neo6xoAHMOCTb pa3A*JieHia TpyAa npHBOAHrb kx TOMy, qTO bto 
OTHOuieHie hojijkho B03HHKHyTb sie«Ay JHi^aMH pa3Haro noaa. 
TaKi> KaKi> paSoqaa CHjra Morja ORasaTbca Hyasnofi RaRi> rpyn- 
nfe MyKHBHTj, TaRi> h rpynn* «eHm,HHT>, ROTopwa, RaRT> 6ujlo 
yse yRa3aHO, aBJiaj[HCb,~uo MurfeHiio r. Myae, bi> nepBOOMTHOM'b 
nepioA* paBHonpaBHbiiMn, cbo6oahumh TOBapnmaMH MyjRHHH-b 
bt> o6u;eMTi xosaflcTB*, paBHo h oSaaaTejibHo aceHaMH hxt>, — to 
yate ct> caMux-b nepBuxi. cryneHeft pasBHTia. mm HaxoAHM r b, 
no cjiOBaBn> aBTopa, ABoah-yio oopaiy ceMefiHbix'b oTHomeoiit: c r b 
rjiaBeHCTBOMT> MyjKHHuu, RorAa noxHTHTejieM r b 6uju> MyacqHHa, 
u ct> rjiaBeHCTBOMi> »eHH^HHu, RorAa MyacqHHa aBJtajica o6T>eR- 
tomti noxnn^eHia. IlepBaa <DopMa BOSHHRaJia ojiaroAapa npocTOMy 
noxumeHiio HfeHqaHti, ROTopaa OAHaRO He aBjiajracb BHaqaj* 
Aa h He MorJia ABJiaTbca OAHOBpeofeHHo h cjiyroft h aceHofi: 
oG'beRTb noxHn^eHia— qy»aa, HasHaiaeMaa Jinoib rjlr (xo3aft- 
CTBeHHbixTb) ycjryrb, aceHn^HHa, nnmerb r. MyRe, He Morjia 
BUSBaTb bt> noBejiHTejib CBoearb aiejaHia HM^Tb ee cynpyroS* 




102 



9TH0rPA*HqECK0B OBOSPfcHIE. 



A<aa BToro MHCJib AHKapn enje He cq3p*jra, tort* rrri> ct> drnwb 
atejiaHieM'b coe#HHeHO omymeme paseHCTBa, KOTopoe He mo- 

TKBTb BOSHHRHyTB MemjtJ AByMfl DepBOHa^aJIBHO HepaBH£lMH 

Apyn> Apyry HHAHBHAaMH nyTeM'b aScTpaKTHMM'b, Kor^a Bbiiue 
CTOflm,ift noffaBjmeT'b CBoe qyBCTBO npeBoexoACTsa: a He cqHTaw 
nepBo6MTnaro qeaoBiKa cnocoSHMMt rt* BTOMy paBMUiDJieHiio. 
iKeHmnka bt> 9tomi> cnyqafc Mowerb cjiyatHTb seHoft ffpyrHMt, 
ho He BJiaA'bJibii.y ea. 9to pascyacAeHie njcjnocTpHpyeT r b cnoco6i> 
ffOKaaaTejibCTBa aBTopoMT> cbohxt> nojiOKeHifi, TaKt Kairb nocjri 
9thxt> cjiOB'b owb npHBOftHTb npHMfepbi paBHOAymia MyKeft KT> 
HeoipHOCTH hxt> »eHT>, rocTenpiHMHOMy reTepasMy h np., ocb* 
njaa, ho He AOKa3MBaa 9thmt> BbLCRaaaHHoe nojioaceme. 

IlonuTKa kt> noxHmem© aceHmHHbi Morjra, KOHe^HO^OKOHqHTb- 
ea HeyAaqefi} MyaeqHHa-rioxHTHTejib Mon> 6htb HacrarHyrb u 
npHBeAeHij bt> RaqecTB* njr&HHHKa bt> qyasyio rpynny. Bt> Ta- 
komt> cjyqa* oht> A'kaaeTca paSora neHii^HHu^ KOTopyio oht> 
6burb HaarfepeH'b noxHTHTb (noneMy He ^Jtoft rpynnu?), h Ta- 
khmt> oSpaaoM'b B03HHKaeTi> aapoAbinrb Apyroro poAa CeMBH, 
rA* rjiaBeHCTBO HaxoAMocb bt> pyRaxT> ateHnjHHbi: 6yAyqn njr&H- 
hhkomt>, pafioMT*, HyatHMt bt> 3axBaTHBineft ero rpynnfc, oh'b 
Mon> tojibro TaftKOftTb nocfenjaTb jKeHmHHy, chhtbhcb ea 
cyupyroMi*, h He Mon> HasuBaTbea oti^owcb cbohxt> A*Tefi,TaRT> 
krkt> ero rocnoaca 6ujia ooa3aTejiBHO cynpyrofi CBoero „6paTa a 
no rpynn*, KOTopbift h CHHTaJca oTijoirb. 9thmt> r. Myae CTa- 
paeTca o6T>acfcniTB BbiAaiomeeea 3Haqeme, KOTopoe HMfcerb aaah 
ao MaTepH bt> MaTpiapxajibHoft ceMb*. 

TaKHM-b 06pa30M7>, OAPOBpeMeHHO B03HHKaK)TT> ab* <K>pMbl 

ceMbH: liHApoKpaTHqecRaa h rnaeKORpaTHqecRaa. Bt> nocjcbAneft 
rjiaBoit ceMBH aBjraeTca ateBmnHa, ho BJiacTB ea pacnpocTpa- 
HaeTca He na BCfcx'b MyaqMHi* Boofinje, a jthiub Ha qyacoro, 
nji-feHHaro Myae^HHy ; OHa CTBHOBHTca bt> hsbIscthmh OTHomeHia rt> 
AnyMi, MyacqaHaMt: rt> cBoeaiy, Tairc> CKaaaTb, saROHHOMy Myaty- 
6paTy h kt> He3aKOHHOMy^ HaxoAan^eMyca bt> ea BJiacTH njrfeH- 
HHKy. Bb 9tomi> GaRT* 3aKJH)qaeTCfl, no MH*mio aBTOpa, ocho- 
Ba npoHCxowAema nojiiaHApie. IIo aHa-iorin ct> bthm'b o6pa- 
3yeTca h nojHratfnqecKaa ceMBa: bt> nocji^AHefi MyatqaHa, hm*h 
saKOHHyio meny — cecTpy, BjiaA*Ji'b h*chojtbrhmh ateHmHHaMH — 
oayaeaHKaMH, aoShtbimu uoxHm.emeM'b, 6paqnua y3M ct> roto- 
pHMH BHaqaj* Shjih HeA03BOJieHbi, a Bnocji*ACTBiH, xotb h 6bijih 

TepHHMM, HO He CqHTaJIHCb 3aROHHBIMH. 

llS'b 9THXT> AByXT> BHAOB'B CeMbH BOSHHRaiOTB H paBJIHqHbie 

cnocoobi cqeTa poACTBa. B-b aHApoRparaqecKoft ceMB* noxn- 
meHHaa aceHiuHHa npoAOJiatajra cqHTaTBca qyacoft h, RaRi> Ta- 
ROBaa, ne HM^jia M'bcTa cpeAH qjieHOBT* rpynnw h AOJiacHa 6biJra 

nOM^Il^aTBCa OTA'bJIbHO OTTb HHXT>. ^TH ea CqHTaJIHCb TftKHMH- 




H3T> 3 AD Aff HO-BBPO nfifiOK . BTHOfPA*. JIHTKPATYPU . 103 



3Ke 4yafHMH h, KaKT> TaKOBUfl, He MorjiH bo&th bt> cocTaBT> rpyn- 
nu, cj&AOBaTejibHO rojikhli 6ujih ocTaBaTbca npn* CBoefi mh- 
TepH. TaKT> Rrycb A'fcaTeJibHocTb rpynnu HanpaBJieHa Ha ao6u- 
«aHie ce6* nwmH, u rpynna, ejrfegoBaTe.iibHO, He saCorajiacb o 
qyacHX'b, to saooTa o noxHmeuHoft aceHiiuiH'k, paBHO h o npo- 
QUTaHiu ea A^Tefi, ecTecTBCHHO AOJtWHa 6u.ua na^aTb Ha en 
noBejiHTejia — MyacnuHy, noxiiTUBmaro ee; TaRHMT> oSpasoMi* 
BosHHKaerb naTpiapxajbHaa ceMba. IlHaqe a*Jio o'Sctohto bt> 
mHeKOKpaTHHecKofi ceMbfc. 3;vfccb aeumHHa aBjajacb rocno- 
aeefi OAHoro hjih H*CKOJibKiix r b My»HHHT>, ROTopue, SyAyHH ny- 
jEUmh bt> rpynnlj, aojhkhu 6jujlh noMfcmaTbca bh* ea, bt> to 
BpeMH, KaK^b hxt> rocno«a ocTaBajiacb bt> csoeifb npereHearb 
nonffemeHin bt> KaHecTBfc paBHonpaBHaro MjieHa rpynnu. ft&TH, 

pOHCAeHHblH eK) OTb OAHOrO HJIH H'&CKOJbKHX'b nOAHaHH-ttbHUXt 
My3KMHHT>, CMHTaJIHCb 0<M>HIUa JbHO A*TbMH, pO?h*A6HHbJMH 0Tb 

en saKOHHaro Myaca— 6paTa^ ROTopuit (t. e. ahaa no MaTepn) h 
npHSHaBajrcH hxt> OTiioirb. BcjitACTBie toto, hto aaRTHiecRie 
OTn;bi He Sujih npH3HaBaeMu, a*th c*iHT(iJiHCb qjeHaMH 
rpynnu, h TaRi> Rani> no MfcCTy HaxojKAenia B'b oSnje&rb hom*- 
mema ohm CToaJiH 6jmme Bcero kt> MaTepn, to c^erb poACTBa 

AOJHKeHT> 6hLJU> BeCTHCb HO M8T6pWHCKoft JIHH1H. EcTeCTBeHHO, 

4T0 Ha nepBbix^-ace CTyneHaxi) pasBHTia noasjiaiOTca OAHOBpe- 
hghho 06b oopMw ce&ibH, npHHearb OAHaKO aBTopT> nojaraerb 
hto oTn,oBCKoe npaBo cKopte npeflmecTBOBajio MaTepHHCHOMy, 
TaKib KaK'b cayman noxnmeHia acenn^HHU My»HHHofl aojikhu 
6bijiH npeAuiecTBOBaTb nopaOometfiio MyaenHHw KeHmHHoft. 

8Ta nacTb Teopiw r. MyKe npeACTaBjaeTT> HaHOojiBuiift hh- 
Tepecb CBoeft opnrHHajibHoCTbio, ho bm^ct* -cb Tfein> hmghho 
OHa h aBJiaeTca HaaMeHte yfitAHTeJibHoft. OcTaeTca cosepmeH- 
ho HeacHbiMi), noqeiwy bt> aHAponpaTHiecKott ceMi/fc Myararaa, 
ocTaBaBmiHcfl qjieHOM'b rpynnu, AOJiaceH'b 6ujn> sa6oTHTbca o 
nponHTaaiii noxHnjeHHoft hmt> aceHmnabi h ea A*Tefl. ^Mctbh- 
TejbHO, r. Myae OTM'bHaeTb, hto a*th aBJiajHCb jihuib noMixofi 
AJia MyareHHbi yTHJKH3Hp0BaTb nopaSon^eHHyio wenu^HHy bt> 
KanecTBfe paSonefi chju, nona 3a6oTbi ea ecTecTBeHHO aojuhthbi 
6biJiH HanpaBJiaTbca «a RopaueHie A*Tefl, h hto BCjrbACTBie we- 
jiaHia ycTpaHHTb 9to npenaTCiBie bo3hhri> oSbmaft A^ToySiftcTBa, 
KOTopufi, no MHtmio aBTopa, BnpoHeMT>, coBepmeHHO tojiocjiob- 
HOMy, npHM*Hajica HCKJiioqHTejrbHO rt> TaRiwb HesaROHHbiM'b 
A*TaMT>. Ho npeACTaBHMi> ce6*, mo My»HHHa Smji^ o6a3am> 
aaooTHTbca o npoAOBOJibCTBin CBoefl ne3aKOHHofi ceMbH, Bee 3Re 
A*th ero, corjacHO npeACTaBjemio aBTopa, He nojiyqajiH Mt- 
CTa cpeA« ocTajibHbix'b A*Teft rpynnu, ocTasajHCb nyjRHMH bt> 

OTHOIIiefliH KT> Heft, CJI^AOBRTeJIbHO SjlHHfe BCerO HaxOAHJIHCb RT> 

MaTepn, a»3K6 6jH»e, h*mt> BT> rHHeKORpaTimecKoit ceM*ii, Tah"b 




104 



dTHOrPAftHHBCKOB OBOSPlifllH. 



KaKT> bt> nocjr&AHeft o<p<i>Hii,iajibHbiMT> no Rpaftaefi Mfepft oir^oirb 
npHSuasajicfl a a^a no MaTepn, Tor^a kekt* bt> aHApoRpanwecKoft 
ceMb* a*th lopHAHnecKH c^HTajiHCb ue HirfeiomHM* OTn;a, noqeMy 
npn TaKHxi> ycjiosiiix'b, npn 6jh30cth kt> MaTepn, ct> KOTopoft Hesa- 

KOHHMH ft*TH aCHByTb BM-feCrfc, OTA*JieHHBia OTT> npOHHX'b HJHeHOBl> 

rpyanbi, He pasBHBaeTCfl bt> OTHomeeiH rt> hhmt> cqerb poACTsa no 
seHCEofi JHHin? /Jajrfee r. Myxe OTMfcqaen^ ito ecrb HapoA- 

HOCTH, CTOflmiH O^eBB HH3K0 B'b KyjIBTypHOM'b OTHOfflemH, EO- 

TopuH He snaiorb MaTepHHCRaro npaBa, a npH3HaiOTT> mnn> 

OTI^OBCKOe, H 06T»flCHfleTb 8T0 T*MT>, „<1T0 BCK>Ay, He 6bIJO 

bosmo&hocth nopafioTHTb MyaqHHy, He cynjecTBOBajo h Ma- 
TepHHCRaro npaBa, Tairb HaRi> He AocTasajio *opMbi ceMbH, b'b 
KOTopott aeen^HHa 6ujia-6w rocnoaeft*. IIoBHAHMOMy, aaTopy 
npeACTaBMeTCfl, hto oaho njeMfl coBepmaao yaaHHbie hjih He- 
yAaiHbie Ha6*rH Ha Apyroe, a nocrbAHee hjh tojibro Tepnfcao 
ott> BTHXTb HanaAemft, hjih orpaHHHBBaJiocb saxBaTOBfb h no- 
paSomemearb noxmHTeja: npn Taraxt ycjroBiaxT> ecTecTseHHO, 
CJrfcAya Teopin r. Myne, xojurho npoH3oftTH. hto nepsoe mcmh 
BiapaSaTUBajro naTpiapxajibHyio , BTopoe MaTpiapxaxbHy© 

CeMbK). HO B'b A*fiCTBHTeJlbHOCTiI eABa-JIH MOWeTT* 6hlTb AOCTft- 

to^ho oceonaHitt npeAnojiaraTb, hto6h BsanMHbifl OTHomeHia 
AByxi> coc*ahhxt> njeMeHi> cje^aobbah upaBHJiaM'b, HaHepTSH- 
HbiM'h r. Myice. Bt> cpeA* OAHoro h Toro-ae noieMeHH, npn 
B3anMHbixT> Ha6*rax'b, aojukhh 6mjih OAHOBpeMeHHO onasaTbCfl 
h nopa6on^eHHUH aeHmHHbi h nopaSomeHHbie MyanHHu; wfe- 
AOBaTejbHO bi> Toft-ae rpynnfc o^HOBpeMeHHo ^ojukhh Smjih 
o6pa30FbiBaTbCH h 06* oopMM ceMbH. Kanie pesyjibTaTbi aojukhu 
nojiywHTbca rjlb ppynnu BejrfeACTBie oRHOBpeMeHHaro cymecTBO- 
BaHia o6ohxt> THaoBTb? KaKaa h3t> AByxi> AOJiaHa aBHTbca ro- 
CQOACTByion^efi h npu rhrhxt> ycjiOBiax'b, h nonesiy oahh nae- 
MeHa BbipaSaTWBaiOT'b MaTpiapxai"b, a Apyria — naTpiapxarb? 
OTB'bTOB'b Ha 9th Bonpocu mm He HaftAearb BT> TpyA* v. Myse^ 
oht> BOo6n^e ciHTaerb BupajKeHia „OTu,oBCHoe h MaTepHHcnoe 
npaBo* HenoAxoAflmHMH, TaRi> RaRi> bt> HacToamee speifA mu 
coeAHHHeM'b ct> cjOBaMH ^OTei^ f b a h „MaTb tt 3HaieHie 0 RpoB- 
homt* poactb*. Bt> to BpeMfl, npoAOJUKaerb aBTopi>, ROrAa TaKT* 
Has. OTi^oBCKoe h MaTepHHCKoe npaBo hm^jto npaKTHiecKoe 
3HaneHie, „OTei^'b a h n MaTb u Sujih rpynnoBWMH noHHTiaMH- 
BCJi-bACTBie BToro oht> npeAJaraeTi> saMliHHTb BupaateHiH ^oti;ob- 
cRoe h MaTepHHCRoe npaBO B — aHApo-H rHHeKORpaTunecRoft 
ceMbett. Ho ohcbhaho aBTopi* ynycRaerb h3t> BHAy, hto roc- 

nOACTBO MyJKHHHbl HdA'b 5K6HIU,HHOft npOflBJIfleTCH AaHCe B'b TbXTb 

cayHaaxTj, RorAa c^erb poACTBa BeAeTCfl no »eHCRofi jmmH, 
TaRi> 4to supaseHie ff aHApoRpaTHiecKaa ceMba a He MoxeTb 
cHHTaTbCfl yAaHHUMii. ^aj'be aBtopi* He Moaerb oxpHiviTb, qro 



• 




H3T> 3AnA«H0-KBP0nfifiCK. 8TH0rPA<D. JKHTSPATY FBI . 105 



pflAi> HapoAHOCTefi h AO Hacroamaro BpeMemi npo^ojiKaiorb 
coxpaHJiTB cqerb poACTBa no aceHCRofi mhui m apyrie npn3Ha- 
kh, xapaKTepHiae ajia MaTpiapxaTa, xoth yace a»bho He npe«- 
cTaBJiiiorb H3i> ce6a rpynm>, 06'beAHHeHHbix'b HCRJUOiwrejibHO 
OAHofi TeppHTopiefi. I\ Myne He ofi'bacHaerb HaM r b, RaKi> moivlh 

paBBHTbCfl H DOAA^pHfaTbCfl §TH HHCTHTyTH cpeAH DJCeMeH'b, 

ByjtbTypa KOTopuxTb ABJieRO He Moacerb 6uTb HadBaHa nepBo- 

SblTHOft, B'b TOM'b CMblCXfe, KOTOphlfi aBTOp'b npH^aeTT) BTOMy 

cJOBy. Il,*Jibift pflA'b flBJiemtt o6mecTBeHHofi jkh3hh ocTaiOTca 

aBTOpOBTb He BblflClieHHblMH, H eCJIH ( OHl> H DpHBOAHTb npHMfepU 
H3*b JKH3HH HapOAHOCTefi, TO JffbJLH&Tb 9TO HCRJHO^HTejlbHO A«5fl. HJIJIK)- 

CTpan,ia cbohxtj coBepineHHO TeopeTHqecRHXT> paacyatAemfl; cemh 
npHMfcpw: 3aHMCTBy»TCfl He H3T> 6biTa HaHMeHte RyjibfypHMX'b 
HapoAHOCTefi, a 6e3i> OTHomema rt> cTaAiu pasBHTin hxT), ecjui 
TOJibKO Ta hjdlh HHaa qepTa hxt> SbJTa sasceTCfl aBTopy doaxoah- 
meft A£ fl BbiflCHemfl ero nojiosKema, Ao6uTaro He aHa«aH30M'b n 
CHHTe30MT», a ocHOsaHHaro mmb Ha yTBepwAemii, hto Mbicjib 
AHKapa cnocoSHa hjih HecnocoSHa ycBOHTb ce6*.TO hjth lmoe 
npeACTaBjieHie. Haira coBepineHHO HeacHO, noMeaiy r. MyKe chh- 

TaeTt, HTO aKTTb pOffCAGHifl He Bl> COCTOflHiH BbI3BaTb B'b MblCJH 

AHsapH npeACTaBJenifl o6t> ecTecTBeHHofi cbh3h, cymecTByiomefl 
Me»Ay MaTepbio n pe6eHROM*b, h OAHOBpeneHHO nojiaraerb, hto 
AHKapio PoJifce noHaTHa HAea o ghkthbhom'b 0TH,'fe-6paT* no rpyn- 
n-b bt> rHHeKOKpaTHHecKofi ceMb*, TpeSyionjaa HecoMHtHHo 6oji*e 
cjiofflaaro npouecca MumjieHifl, h*mt> nepBaa mucju>; noAoGHoe 
npnnHCbiBaHie AHKapio cnocoSHOcra TOJiKOBaTb to hjih HHoe 
aBjreuie mu nocToaHHO BCTpfcHaeirb y r. Myne. 

^aJibH-feftraee H3Jio»eHie bt> Tpya* r. MyRe nocBanjeHO o6i>- 

flCHeHiK) CT> npHHflTOfl HMT> TOHKH 3p4*HJfl H'&HOTOpbJX'b ofibliaeB'b 

yl o6paAOBi> HeRyjibTypHMxii HapoAHOCTefi (RyBaAbi, aeBHpaTa, 
Hifiora h np.) h onHCaniK) rfexT* BHAOH3MbHeHift, KOTopua npo- 
HexoAarb bt> CTpoenin rpynnw, 6jaroAapa B03HHRHOBemH) bt> 
hxt> cpeA* ceMbu* Mu He 6yAem> cjrkflOBaTb 3a pa3BHTieMT> 
mklcih aBTopa, TaKi> KaKi) npeAnpHHBTbifl ct> upeAB3aTofi TO^RH 
3ptma h MaJio o6ocHOBaHHua ^aRTH^ecRUM'b MaTepiajroMi> o6i>- 
acHema ero He npeACTaBJiaiOT'b nayHHaro HHTepeca. 

Bbime hbmh 6wjio yRa3ano 5 *ito aBTopy npeAnoJiaraerb, 
^to rpynna nepBOHaqajbHO sifHJia bt> AOMax-b, npeACTaBJiaio- 
njHXTb no CBoeMy ROHTypy cxoactbo ct> jiaAtefi: HCHjiHiij.y nep- 
BoSbiTHaro qeJOBfeRa r. My Re nocBan^a eTb OTA*JbHyio lvnaBy, 
TaRi> HaR"b oneuHAHO, hto, v ecjra HfHJiHni.e nepBo6wTHaro nejio- 
Btsa He cooTB*TCTBOBajn[o-6w Toft a>opM*, ROTopyio npeano- 
jaraeTi> r. MyRe, — MjeHu rpynnbi aojihchm 6h.ih-6u pacnojia- 
raTbca HHane, a cJi^AOBaTejibHO h noHaTia o-poACTB* nemGlMR' 
ho nojiyHHJiH-6bi Apyroft xapaRTep*b. Hcxoah hst* nojioaceHia, 



Digitized by 




106 



STHOrPAQHIECKOK OBOSPftHlB. 



uHH*M r b Bnpo4eMi> cepbeauo He noAKptnjiaeMaro, 4To nepBo6i*r- 

Hblft HeJKOB^R'b HOJTffefl'b 6bUTb TKHTb BT> TenJTOM'b KJIUMHTb, rA* 

npnpo^a ^ocTaBJiajia eMy roTOByio numy, 11 HenpeM-feHHO Ha 
opomi m * c t — aBTopi* oTBepraerb mwcjub, hto nemepti, 
He3Ha4HTejibHMa cbohmh pa3MfcpaMH, cjiymmn KorAa-HH6yAB 
HCHJinn^eM-b nepBo6biTHOMy qejuoB^Ky: oh* aBJiaioTca Jinmb Bpe- 
MeHHbiftrb ydlHKHmearb ero, h hmh HaiHHaiOT'b nojbsoBaTbca 
yace no B03HHKHOBeHin ceMbH, Kor^a rpynna Tepaerb CBoe 
eAHHCTBO. Bojbmia nemepw cjiyjKHjra SHJinin,aMH tojtbko Ha 
60 j&e bucokhx^ cTaffiflXT> pasBHTia. ^Pa3i> nepBbie jiioah hshjth 
bt> TponnqecROBfb KjfHMarfe, ohh nepBOHaqaJibHO AOBOJibCTBOBa- 
racb npnpoAofi, n, doaoSho TOMy kbktj bto bosmowho cpegH 
Mipa acHBOTHbix'i. ycTpannaTb ce6* jioroBHma bt> Beau* <5e3T> 
ocofiaro TpyAa, TaK* h jhoah MorjiH coeAHHeHHWMH ycujriflMH 
ycTpaHBaTb cefrfc noAo6Hua hmh. Ho rpynna npeACTaBJiajia 
co6oft ix'fejioe, pacMJieHeHHoe Ha iiOArpynnw, n Ka»Aafl H3i> 
nocj'bAHHX'b pa6oTa.ua a-** ce6a. Ecjih OHa BbipbiBaja ce6* 

flMM, TO 9TO AOJ»HO 6hIJIO DpOHBOftTH TaKT>, 4T0 KaSA^fl 

noArpynna ycTpaHBaja yraySjieHie a** ce6a, TaKT» qTO bch 
rpynna He uojMOBajiacb oahoA o6meft aMofi, ho nojiyqajocb 
H3B*CTHoe icojiimecTBo yrjiyfijieHifi, cocTaBJiaiomHX'b oaho 
jioe a . fljia KaafAoft noArpynnu OTA*Jiajiacb orb Apyroft ct*h- 
kok) (BaJiOMi)). TaKOBo 6mjio »HJiHme nepBo6biTHaro ne- 
jioBfcKa, KOTopoe, ycTpaHBaenoe ' npaBHJbHO, acijkho 6ujio 

AHTb JIOAK006pH3HWft KOHTypTb. Mbl He CTOTaeMl> HyiKBblM'b B03- 

pawaTb r. MyKe no Bonpocy o uepBo6uTHOM r b jKHjHm* nejio- 
irfcKa, TaKi> Kasi> MH^Hie ero ctohtt> bt> TaKOMTb p*3komt> 
upoTHBop^qin cb 4»aKTaMH, HaxoAflmHMHca bt> pacnopaacefliH 
Hay km, 4to HecocTOHxejibHocTb ero cjhuikomt* oqesnAHa. Mm 
npHBejH B3jflA r b r. MyKe no yKaaaHHOMy Bonpocy HCKJiioqH- 
TejibHO bt> Ka^ecTBlj npHM*pa, HacRojLbKO mctoat* CTporaro 
aHajiHsa h CHHTe3a, KOTopufi aBTopi> cHHTaerb Heo6xoAHMUM*L 
AJiH BTHorpa<tH4ecKHx r b HSCjrfeAOBamft h bt> OTcyTCTBiH koto- 
paro oht> ynpeKaeTi* cbohxt> npeAraecTBenHHKOB'b, OTcyTCTByerb 
bi> coScTBeHHOM-b TpyA* r. Myne. 

„Bi> 9tomt> TpyA* nnmerb aBTopi> bt> CBoeM'h „3aKjiK)HeHia a , 

H HM r fcJTb BT> BHAy ffllTb HOBOe OCHOBaHie HCTOpiH nepBoSbiTHofi 

KyjbTypM, nocKOJibKy OHa KacaeTCH Moeit cnei^iajibHoft c^epH 
3HaHia... Pe3yjibTaTbi, A^6hiTbie HaMH a^^ onpeA^JieHia nOHHTift 
rpynna h ceMbfl, KacaioTCfl TOJibKo nepBo6wTHofl rpynnw 
u nepBOHaqajibHofi ceMbH. MsyqeHie Toro, hto npoH3onuro hst* 
pa3BHTin oo*hxt> oopMi*, Tpe6yeTT> HOBoft CTaTHCTHqecKoft pa- 
doTbi, KOTopaa xoth h noAroTOBJieHa, ho eme He AoaeAeHa ao 
KOHu;a. Cji-bAyeT-b otkh^htb, hto tot^r naAeTb He oahht* jyTb 
cb^tu Ha iiepeoobiTHbLa OTuouieHia, h MHoroe ocb^thtT) apqe, 




Hffb SADAAHO-KBPOIlBfiCK. 8TH0rPA*. JHTEPATY PM . 107 



HfeftTb 8TO CflfeJiaHO BT> 9TOMT> Tpyfl*. Ho CaMhlft 3aB3flTIjfl 

neccHMHCTb , KoTopoaiy TeniHafl nepBo6tiTHaa KyjibTypa ^ejio- 
BinecKaro po&a npeflCTaBjrfljiacb bi> BH/vb xaoca h3t> npoMHC- 
KyHTexa, rpyniiOBaro 6paKa h reiepH3Ma, o^hhmtj onoBOMb 
nepiOffOMTb OTcyTCTBia nopHAKa — earn mh* h He y^acTCfl ero 
y6*AHTb — no KpaftHeft arbp* cTaBerb bt> Tyirain> tt . nocjrfeAHefi 
ivfejra aBTopi> BnojH'fe flociHrb yace HajiaHieM'b nepBoft nacTH 
CBoero TpyAa, Taira KaRi> coBepmeHHO HenoHflTHO, KaKi> mofb 
yqeHMft, xoTa-6bi h 61ujo 3HaKOMhift ct> AaHHHMH BTHorpa- 
<&in, BSflTb Ha ce6fl pfcineme eaojKHbix'b BonpocoBTb o nponc- 
xo»AeHiH ceMbH h nepBo6HTHOMi> cocTOflHin qejroB*Ka, pas- 
CMaTpHBafl nocjrfymflro bh* BpeMeHH h arfcCTa, coBepmeHHO 
H30jrnpoBaHHo, He npHHHMaa bo bhhmrbIc BjriflHia pa3JinH« 
HbixTb joipyrnxTb oaKTopoBT*, KOTopiae, KaKi* Hanp. pejrariosHbie, He 
roBopfl ysee o flpyrHX'bjOKasajrH ctojdlb Sojibinoe BJiinHie Ha o6pa- 
30Baaie h h HCTHTyTo bt> ceMdihmro h ofinjecTBeHHaro 6uTa 



H. XapyaMHU. 




C M "h C h. 



3AM-BTKH 



o pa3Hwx"b MeTOA&x*b M3y4eHia HapoAHuxi MsuiopyccKNXi Aywb. 

#o HeAaBHflro BpeMean cymecTBOBajrb oahbt> TOJbKO MeTOA'b 
Hsyqemfl HapoAHbix'b MajiopyccKMXT> Aywi>. JS pa3yMl»» MeTOA'b 
HCTopaqecKift. Kairb bt> JiymiJHX'b*n3flaHiflx , b AyMi> — MaKcmto- 

BH^a, AHTOHOBHHa H ^parOMaHOBH, TaK7> H BT> J[y4inHXT> H3- 

cjitAOBaHiflxt h AyMaxt — KocTOMapoBa h ^paroMaHOBa^ mm 
HMfcearb TOJibKo HcropimecKift KOMMeBTapift kt> AyMaMT>. flyMbi 
ceMefiuaro coAepraama, KOTopuxt Heab3fl npiypomiTb kt> t6mi> 

HJH HHblMT> HCTOpHqeCKHMt C06blTiflM r b, ne DpHBJieRaJIIi BBHMa- 

ma yieHBixt hctophkobt>. A Me»Ay t*mt> bto cahhctbo oopaiw 
npn pasHocTH coAep»aaifl ecTb aBjeme bt> HcropHKO-JiHTepa- 
TypHOM'b oTHOineHiH o^eHb BaacHoe. Oho aojijkho 6wjio 6m npe- 

AOXpaHHTb AyMbl OTb CMfcmeHifl HXT> C/h n^CHHMH HCTOpHie- 

CKaro coAepreaHia, nero He bhahmt> mu bt> H3CJi*A0BaHiHXT> 

HCTOpHKOBT*, KOTOpiie 0H6Hb HaCTO HaSUBaDT'b DfeCHH AyUaMH. 

Mto6m ycTpaHHTb 8Ty nyraHimy bt> noHHTin o AyaiaxT>, fl p*- 
nrnjcfl saHHTbCfl H3CjrfeA0BaHieM f b noaTHHecKoft *opMbi Ayni>, 
T0HH*e roBopa, H3CJi , feA0BaHieM'b npoHCxowAemfl aTOfi oopMH bt> 

CBH3H Cb 6blT0BMMH H KyJbTypHblMH yCJLOBiflMH HapOAHOtt JKH3HH. 

Coo6pa»eHifl cboh o6t> dTOM'b npeAMerfe a imoKHJrb bt> khht1> 
CBoeft uoAt 3arjraBieMT>: „Mhcjih o HapoABbix'b MajiopyccKHXT* 



(JmqecKaro 06o3p*feHia tt r.Cyira.OB'b HaneqaTaJTb^SautTKHO mbjio- 

pyCCKHX'b AyMaXT* H AyXOBBbIXT> BHpmaX'b Ci . 9TH n 3aM*TKH tt , B*b 

cbok) onepeAb, Aaiorb Mut doboa^ cKasaTb BicKOJbRO cjobi> o 
pasHbixb MeT0Aaxi> HsyqeHia BapoAHwxT> MaJopyccKnx«b Aywb *). 

HaHHy cb 3aM*hHaHiH r. CyMU,OBa o tomt>, 6yAT0 y Mena B Htrb 
nayqHaro H3CjrhA0BaHia oTA'feibHbix'b AyMT> g (102). CmIho ysipHTb 



l ) Xoth dTROrpa^HHecKavb Ota"Bjomt» bi npHBUHui pimeeo, aa HejocTaTKOXi 
xicTa, He neqaTaTb BoapaxeHift Ha noirfemaeMbia b* xypHaji CTa*n>H, oiuaao Ha- 
cTOfliuHMi 0 3aM < BTRaMii a 1 He b% upHuipi ApjrBMi aBTopam, do DOCTaHOBjeHin 
OTjiijia, xaeTcji si-bcto bi BHiy Toro, hto oh* xa»rb HiaoTopun cymecTBeHuu* 
Aonojueuia h pasincHeHiji uo 3aTpoHTTOiiy, Becma BasuoMy, aonpocy. Ped. 



AyMax*b 





O MRTORAXt H3YHEHI8 MAJlOPyCCKHX'b AYM'b. 109 



Moero pei^eii3reHTa,HTO bt> Moeft KHurfc ecrb HSCJi'feffOBaHia orndibAb- 
nvixb AyMt, h HCKaTb Hx*b Hyatao Bt VI rjraB*, Vjvb HanenaTanbi 
TpHHajmaTb AyMt no pyRonncn Havana Hacroamaro B*Ka. Oontfe 
Bonpocu, Kacaromiecfl ecn>xi AyM*b, pa3tacHeHH mhoio b-b nep- 
buxi> DflTH rjtaBaxi), cneujaJiLHwa are ocoSchhocth naotcdou U3T> 

3THXB TpHHa^maTH HJWh, HOM'&meHHUX'b BB pyKODHCH, orae- 

ceHH kt> iioejrfcAHeft, t. e. Kb VI naBt. 063opy 9thxt> ocofien- 
HOCTefl a npeAnociajn. HicKOJibKo saMfctmHift, Kacaiomuxca ca- 
Moft pyKonHCH u npaBonacaHia en, A-aa oijiHRH KOToparo ca*- 

JiaHbl HCTOpHHeCKlJI CnpaBRH 0 BJliflHiH TpHMMaTHKH JIOMOHOCOBa 

na CTapHHHoe MajiopyccKoe npaBonHcame bt> XVIII b. npn 
MHTponoJHTaxi TaBpinj!* KpeMeneijKOM'b h CaMynji* Mnciiau- 
CKOMi, a TaKHce npHBeAeHM BbiAepafKH H3*b CTapHHHbix*b rpaM- 
MaTHK'b KOHita XVIII B., npeAHa3HaHeHHHXb am ycTpaHeHiH 
MajiopyccKaro Buroeopa H3t> npaBonacaHia. Be* 9th saMiHaHia 
HanpaBJieHW kt> TOiiy, ^to6h BwacHHTb BHyTpeHHioK) i^HHOCTb 

pyKODHCH, HOJIOHCeHHOft MHOIO BT> OCHOBy ash cpaBHHTejbHaro 

o63opa BapiaeTOBii kt» AyMaan>. H bott> ofi'b btoA AOBOjibHO 
KponoTJiHBoft paoorfe a Haxoray bt> „3aMiTKax'b a TaKoft otshbt.: 
^BCTynHTeJibHbifl k% AyMaBTb 3aM*TKH no KpaTKocTH h oSmewiy 
xapaKTepy He HarfeiOT'b nayHHaro 3HaHeaia a (107). TaKTb jih bto? 
Mh* Kasajocb, q-ro Ha BOCbMH CTpaHHii,ax r b ct> jhuihhmx a ct> 
AOCTaTOHHOD hojihotok) BbicKasajit Bee HeoSxoAHMoe, a noApo6- 
hocth, Kacaromiaca op4>orpao>iH pyKooncH BOBce He yKasbiBaiOTb 
Ha ofimifi xapaKTep*b mohxt> 3aM*T0KT>. Hto KacaeTca HayqHaro 
SHaneHifl hxt>, to HeywejiH a AOJHKeffb pasMCHHTb, hto bt> o>fuo- 
jiorHHecKoft HayK* KpHTH^ecKaa ou,4HKa pyKonncn, Bt KOTopofi 
aaMiOMaeTCfl nsy^aeMoe npoH3BeAeHie, ecTb iftjio oqeHb Baaraoe, 
6e3T> KOToparo caMO bto npoH3BeAeme Tepaerb SHaieHie aocto- 
B*pHaro 4t»aKTa, Harferomaro npaao Ha BHHMaHie Haynn? Bt> a& h ~ 
homt> cjyqaft A Jfl mchh jhhho 9Ta oivfeHKa 6bua 6e3ycjiOBH0 He- 
oSxoAHMa h o6fl3aTejibHa, Tairb Kairb a hm*jh> bt> BH^y socnojib- 

30BHTbCfl CT^pHHHOft sanHCbio AyM7> ji&n HSCJI^AOBaHia TeKCTa HX1> 

no pa3HLiMT> BapiaHTaifb . Bt> caMOMi> H3CJr*AOBaHiH a CTapa^ca 
npn6jiH3HTej[bHoonpeA*™Tb nepBOOCHOBy KaHAoft aymm, bu^bh- 
raa tott> HJiH^pyrofi BapiaHTb en, KaKT> HaHGojrfee 0jiH3KiS kt> 
nepBOocHOB*, KOTopaa no CBoftcTBy ycTHaro noBTHnecKaro TBop- 
necTBa HHKorAa He MoaceTTb 6wtb OTKpMTa bt> ea HenpHKOCHO-. 
BeHHocTH. PyKOBOAHjeca a npu 8tomi> padHbiMH coo6pa»eHiaMH, 

KOTOpbia ^OpMyJIMpOBaHW MHOK) BT> BHA* A&BHTH UOJIOHfeHitt, 

npHJioaeHHwx'b bt> kohi^* KHHrn. Pa6oTa BTa — hcbh ah aa h AJia 
saypaAHaro HHTaTejia cKy<raaa, ho OTb jiiOAefi Haysn a oacHAajrb 
HbKOToparo BHHMama ki> Heft. Mb* caMOMy JnoSonuTHo 6ujlo 
3HaTb, npaBHjbHo jih a ycTaHOBHjn> KpHTBHecKiS aieTOA^ AJta 
HsyneHia TeKCTa AyMT», He CA*Jiajn> jih h KaKoft-nnSyAb no- 



Digitized by 



110 



9TH0rPA<£H*lECK0fi OB03P*HIB. 



rp^mHOCTH bt> npHMfcHeHM 9Toro MeTOffa. Rt> coMuftniio, vb 
„3aM*TKax'b tt r. CyMUosa a He Hainejn> HHqero, KpoM* o6mnxT> 
opa3-b: ^Bb Haqajrfe ^yMT> (cjr&A<>BaJio 6bi cKa3aTb: naoicdou dyMwi) 
r.~ JKnTeuKifl, roBopHrb oh*, noMfccTH-rb neSojibinia saMfcTRH, 
3aRJK>qaH)in,ifl hjih KpaTKift nepecRa3T> coAepraaHia, hjth npaTEoe 
cpaBHeHie BapiaHTOBT>, a bt> no^cTpo^Hwxnb npHarfeqaHiax'b no- 
M*CTHjn> yKa3aHifl Ha neqaTHMe BapiaHTbi* (107). Bora h Bee. 
Ho Bee jlsi to, qTo aojkkho 6mtb?... 

3aT*MT>, He COBCfclfb TOHHO, XOTfl H 6JDLH3KO Kb HCTHHll, T. 
CyMH,OBT> rOBOpHT'b, qTO OCHOBHOe HOJIOWeHie MOerO C0HHHeHL8 — 

„o BjriflHin nacbMeHHOCTH Ha nfccHOTBopqecTBO HapoAHoe a (80). 
il 6bi 0Ka3ajflnh— «e od«0w nucbMeHHOcmu, ho h mROJbi bt> 6utobmxi> 
en npoflBJieHiHX'b, ne na ece ntbCHomeopnecmeo napodnoe^ a Ha 
AyMbi. KaKi> 6bi to! hh 6mjio, 3aAaBmHCb TaicoH) mucjilio, a 
ocTaHOBHJicfl bt> nepBofi rjaBft Moero coqHHema Ha cuHTaKCH- 
HecKHXT) oco6eHHocTax-b pfc^H bt> Aywaxb, nojaraa ne 6e3T> 
ocHOBania, hto 3/rkCb rjiaBHMM'b o6pa30MT> h HyatHO Hcaaib 
oiKOJTbHbix'b BJiiaHifi. 3aT*MT> y»e Ha 9tomt> npoqHOirb rpyHT* 
n BbiABHHyjrb ocoSeHHocTb noBTHqecKaro ctilm Ay Mb, h pfcqb 
BeAy o cHHOHHMax'b, 9nHTeTaxT>, cpaBHemax'b h t. n. smmb 
HacTOJibKO, HacKOjbKo Bee bto xapaKTepnsyerb ncnxuqecKoe 
HacTpoeme nfcBii;a aYmt*, pa3yM*a noA'b 9THM r b nfcBii.OBi'b TBop- 
qecKyio cnjiy HapoAa, oSHapyacHBaiomyiocH bt> ayMax-h. Paay- 
MteTca, A^a 9toio a AOJ»em> 6hun> npHBOAHTb otpmbkh h3t> 
AyMi», bt> KOTOpbixi* BHpa»aiOTca MpHqecKia HSjiama qyBCTBT>, 
to 9jerHqecKoe, to caTHpnqecKoe HacTpoeme nljBiia, yRaati- 
Baioujee Ha tott> mctoat* Mucin h qyBCTBa, ROTopuft Bwpa6a- 
TbiBaeTca oSwKHOBeHHO noAi> BjiiameMTb KyjibTypHofi npHBbiqRH 
rt» caM0Ha6jiH)AeHiK), rt> aHajiH3y nepejKHTaro h nepeAyMaHHaro. 

Kt> 9THMT> BHyTpeHBHM'b HpH3HakaM r b HIKOJIbHblX'b BJiiaHifi Ha 

no9THqecKift cthjb Aywb bt> kohh,* rjaBbi a npHcoeAHHHjrb yna- 
saaia Ha BHfciiiHie npusHftKH — u,epKOBHOCJiaBaHCRie apxaH3Mbi, 
m*cto rjarojibHaro CKa3yeMaro bt> HpeAJioaKCHiH h t. n. EIocj* 
Bcero 9Toro mh* cTpaHHHM'bKaHfeTca saasjieHie Moe"ro peueH3eH- 
Ta, qTO ff coqHHeHie Moe HHqero He noTepajo 6bi, ecjH 6u nepeaa 
i\naBa coBCfeMT> OTcyTCTBOBajia a (80). IlepejuicTbiBaa CHOBa fl 3a- 
Ml3TRH a r. CyMi^OBa, a cjiyqaftHO ocTaHOBHJca Ha OAHofi *pa3fc, 
Koiopaa pa3p*mnjia Moe HeAoyMtme. Bott> OHa: „h bt» ape- 
A'bJiax'b 38 cTpaHHi^'b aBTopT> (t. e. a) He ctohtb TBepAO Ha 
*opMajbHofi CTopoH* AyMi>, p cb 25 CTpaHHuu nepexoAHn* bt> 
c*epy oaKTuqecRaro coAepwaHia a (80). TorAa CTajo j{Jka MeHa 
acHO, qTO r. CyMu;oB f b HenpaBHJibHO nonajn* BTopyto nojOBHHy 
oTpwi^aeMoft hmt> nepBofi rjiaBbi, h npHTOMi> He cb 25, a cb 10 
CTpaHHj^bi, OTKyAa HaqmmeTca xapaRTepn CTHKa no9THqecRaro 

CTHJia AyMT> Cb COOTBtTCTByiOn^HMM npHM'fcpaMH, KRKOBbie 0HT> 




O MBTO^AXTi H3yHBHIfl MAJOPYCCKKX h JWWb. 



Ill 



npHHAJTb sa nepeAa'iy <&aKTH<iecKaro coAepmaflia Ay* 1 ^. 9to 
noaasajocb mh* t^mt* 6oa*e cTpaHHWMTb, hto ko bci>mi> rja- 

BHM'b CBOerO COHHHeflifl fl npHJIOWHJIT> nOffpoOHblfi KOHCneKTT>, 

H3T> KOToparo bhrho, b»kt> eoAeprcaHie rfa»aoft raaBH, TaKi> h 
jiornqecKoe cooTHOiueflie nepBoft rjaBM bo bc1smt» ocTajBHuwh. 

HeROBOJIBBLlfl BTOfl TJiaBOfl MOft p6I^6B36BTl> 3aM*HaeTT>: „ A»TOpT>, 

roBopHT-b obt> 060 mb*, cne^aiCHCTb-fcHJOJorB, h OTh Hero MH 
MorjiH oacHffaTb oOmupuaeo h n.'buBaro H3CJi , fcAOBaBia 0 jimmi Ayarb*. 
IIpn 9T0M-b ohi> yRasbiBaeT'ipBacoMHBefliH MEKJiomH^a, IloTeOHH 
h 3hmm, KaKT> Ba noco6ia no BTOMy Bonpocy, npeAnoJiaraa, hto 

OHM MHli „BU01LWb He H3B*CTHbl U (80). Ho M3b SarJiafiifl 9TOit 

rjiaBu: „<yrpoft pfc^H h no9THHecKiit cthjib bi> BapoABbixT> Mauio- 
pyccKHxi> Aywaxi* 1 ', BOBce Be bbrho, hto a oSfcmajnb AaTb 06- 
tuupnoe h i^feHHoe H3ca*A<> BaH i e o A3t*iub ffyMT>, 11 Ba3BaHHbiMM 
coMHHefliflMH a Be Mon> BOcno«ab30BaTbCH npocTO noTOMy, hto 
bto He cooTB'bTCTBOBajio Moeft ^jua— ynasaTb B'b CTpOfe p*HH H 

BT> n09THHeCK0MT> CTHJTfc MBJIOpyCCKHX'b AyM r b IBKOJIbBUa BJlia- 

ma; no9TOMy a CAfcJiajrb tojibko to, hto Rasajiocb MHfc Heoo- 

XOAHMblMl) A^fl MOeft B.'fejIH. 

Ho AonycTHMT*, hto a (cjrfeAyfl yRa3afliaMi> r. CyamoBa), 

3aBBJICa 6U BCeCTOpOHBHMTa H3CJltAOBaBieMT> a3HKa AyMT>. He 
3Baio, hto bhiujo 6u Hsi) 9Toro, ho npeAnoararaio, MTO BbimJIO 
6hL Be oaho, a ABa conHBema. /IjMaio Tanace, hto ofauupnoc 
coHHHeme, nocBanjeHHoe a3UKy AyMT>, 6wjio 6m BeyAanao — 
Mowe-rb 6biTb, no cja6ocra MOHX'b cHJTb, MOKerb GbiTb, no 
CBoficTBy nporpaMMw, npeAJiaraeMoft peijeseBTOM'b. Oflb Hrejajn> 
6m, HTo6u B'b B3biK*b AyM r b a yKa3ajn> Be oahh TojibKo n,ep- 
KouHOOffaBaBCKie apxaH3Mw, hto6m a c6jiH3Fjn> BTOTb a3MKb 
cb a3biKOM*b Cjiosa 0 nojKy MropeBfc h Apyrnx'b ApeBBtitiHHX'b 

naMflTHHKOBT>, HTOfibI a CpHBHHJTb n09THH6CKyiO TCXBUKy Ay^t 

(9aeTeTbi, cpaBBeaia h np.) ct> bdhh^ckhmh npieiiaMH TBop- 
qecTBa Apyrnx-b cjiaBaBcrax'b HapoAOBi). Mory CKa3aTb Ba 
9to, hto ^nyTH bth mb* b*aomh u , bo h ^apyrw saaeMu^* 
XoAflJTb h a KorAa-TO bthmh nyTBMH, c6JiHHcajn>, nanp., a3biKi> 
AyMb ct> a3biKOM'i> CjiOBa o nojiKy IlropeB-fe h ApeBBiftrnHx-b 
ji*Tonnceft (bt> jieKn.iax'b, qHTaBHhix'b B r b neTepOyprcKowcb yBH- 
BepcHTeT*, h BT> A^chiv , * fur slavische Philologie jlrMHa), ho 
HHKaKi> ae Morb npoBecTH bchmxt* reBeTHiecKHx'b BHTeft MeacAy 
KOBAOMb XII h KOHi^OM'b XVI B^Ka. H He TojibKo a Be mopi. 
Hnq*Mi> sanojiHHTb 9Toft HeTupexB-bKOBofi w apyrbi u , ho h Apy- 
rie jk)ah, 6oji r fee MeHa cHJbabie bt> BayK*, BHnero Be moimh 
BbiAyMaTb, KpoM* npeAnoJioaceflift h raAaHift. BOBce Be ot- 

pHD,aH) B03MOSCHOCTH HpOHUKHyTb B'b 3a MRH H H By K) A^JIb AOKO- 

3auKofi CTapHHbi, ho 9Toro Hy»HO npeacAe Bcero ycTaao* 

BHTb TBepAyK) noqBy B'b CaMOfl 8T0ft CTapHB*, 009TOMy, He 



Digitized by 




112 



dTHOrPA0H<IECKOE 0B03P&HIB. 



mejLSLE ^CTpaHCTBOBaTB no TyMaHHUM'b oftiracTHBrb MeqTaHia a , 
a orpaHHqHJCfl HscifcAOBaHieATb ojrHKafimefi jiHTepaTypHoft 06- 

CTaHOBRH,cpeffH KOTOpofl DOflBHJIHCb AyMhl .Y rfeinaK)Ce6fl MblCJtbK), 

hto 9TO He 6e3noJie3HO h ajtr t*xt> yqeHMXT>, KOTopue aaxo- 
t&jih 6w noftTH A«J">ine m6ha Bb HsyqeaiH asbnca aYmt*. Ho 
cqtrraio HeoSxoAHMWM'b npeAynpeffHTb hxt> ott> yBJieqemiL npn- 

BOAHIU.HX'BR h COMHHTe^bHBIMB BblBOAaAfb H SaKJfOieHiflM'I). TaiTb, 
BTb n 3aM*TKaXT> a CBOHXT>, SaHflBIHHCb nOA6opOMT> BlIHTeTOB'b, 

BCTp^qaiomnxcfl BTb AyMax'b, r. CyamoB'B no noBOAy BnHTeTa 
^woBTa KOca a , ynoTpeS-naeMaro bt> raJHURHxi* n'fecBax'b am 
o6o3Ha«ieHifl KpacaBHiua, npegnpHHHJLi> BRCRypciro bt> 3anaAHyH> 
EBpony h, onnpaacb Ha mh^hIh aBTopHTeTHbixT* yqeHHx*b, 
CA*Jiajr , b bbiboai> „o poactb* ncnxia MCuiopyccoBi> ct> 3anaA- 
Ho-eBpone&CKHMH HapoAaMH tt (86). Oho, Mowerb 6biTb, h Tarb, 
ho npn MeM*b ace Tyrb Ay mm, t6mt> 6ojr*e, qTO anHTerb Bzavh 
He hst* AyMi>, a H3*b HBceHT*? Bnpoqe&rb, cairb r. CyBmoBT*, no 
BHAHMOMy, He paaJiBqaerb AyMi> ott> nJbceHi>. 3aKJiK>qaio o6t> 
btomi> H3 r b Toro, mo oht> CBajrHBaerb bt> OAHy Kyqy npaM^pu 
HS'b •rfex'b h ApyrHXT>. Ma jo Toro: p,nme bt> raJTHnin oht* Ha- 
uiejn> AyMu, HasbiBafl nfcceHHhie nepecKaaw AyMi> eapiaH- 
TaMH HXb (88), a HSBtcrayio ntCHio 0 BaftA* cqHTaerb Towe 
AyMofi (39), He oSpanjan HHKaKoro BHHMama Ha to, qTO OBa 
He HM*erb CTHxoTBopHaro pasariipa AyMT>, ROTopwii, Rani* a 
o6*bflCHHJn> 9to bt> nepBoft rjiaB*, cocTaBjiaerb ne cjiyqaftayio 
npHHaAJiewHocTb hxt>. OSpanjaiocb sarfewrb Kb n 3an*TRaMT> tt 
r. CyMuoBa no nosoAy Bnpnrb, KOTopuMt nocBflmenbi bt> 
KHHrfe Moefl ab* rjaBH — BTopan h TpeTbH. 

<H Mon> 6m 6e3i> ocoSeHHard TpyAa, noJib3yflCb paspaSo- 
TaHHbminb MaTepiajiOBTb 0 jiaTHHCKoft cpeAHeB*ROBofl noasiH, co- 
oCnjuTb bt> cBoeft rhhp& CB*A*HiE o TfexTb poAax r b ea, KOTopwe 
6 mm co3AaHbi cTpaHCTByion^HMH mROJibHHKaMH, TaRt HaabiBae- 
mmmh, BaraHTaMH h roaiapAaMH. He cocTaBJUfleTTb ceRpexa bt> 
HayR*b, qTO ct> 9thmh BaraHTaMH h roaiapAaMH MHoro cxoa- 
cTBa» npeACTaBJiHiorb HaniH ^MaHApoBaHHbie nbaM/i* h ff nHBO- 
p*3bi tf , ROTopwe coqHHSJiH h pacnpocTpaHfljiH bt> HapoA* BHpmH 
HpaBoyqHTejbHaro, HpaBOonncaTejibHaro h HCTopHqecRaro co- 
AepwaHia. 6e3T> coMH*Hin, MHoria h3t> bthxt> BHpnn> cjlohth- 
jihci> noAT> 3aaaAHO-eBponeftcKHMH BjiiaHiaMH, ROTopwa pasHbiMH 
nyTHMH npoHHRajiH b-b K)acHyK) Pycb. JIio6onbiTHO Oujlo 6m 
OTMiiTHTb 9tm nyTH co bc*mh nepeAaToqHWMH nyHKTaMH, C*b 

AORyMeHTaJIbHHMH CJTfeAaMH CymeCTBOBaHifl 9THXT> nyHKTOB'b^ 
HO 9T0 He BXOAHOEO BT» UAHWh MOerO COqHHefliH, TfeM'b 6oJi*e, 

qTO He Bee b^ BHpraaxi> mo»ho o6i>flCHHTb Teopieft saHMCTBo- 

BaHifl, HOMHMO GblTOBblX'b yCJIOBift WH3HH, KOTOpblH CJiyffiHJLH 
n()BOAOMT> KTj CaMNMl> 3aHMCTBOBHuiflM r b. He UOTOMy JIH>AH TSJCb 



Digitized by 



0 METOflAXTb H3yHBHIfl MAXOPyCCHHXT> ffYMT>. 



uk HHaqe jsju&m h HyBCTBOBaxH, hto yBireKajracb jnrrepa- 

TypHMHH SaHMCTBOBaHiflMH, HO UOTOMy SaHMCTBOBaJIH T* HJH 
HHhlfl JIHTepaTypHBIA OOpMbl, HTO OH* XOpOHIO BUpasaJH HX1» 

mbicjh h qyscTBa. Bott> Honesty, mh* RaaceTca, HywHo HCKaTt 
npess^o Bcero 3aposrAeHia hxt> Mbicxefi h HyBCTBi> bt> peaJXB- 
Hoif'b coAepacaHin hxt> khshh, h noTOM^b yae cj*Aarb 3a cjo- 
BecHoft oopsfott hxt> BhipaaceHia bt> npoH3BeAeHiax , b noeain, sa 

HCTOpHKO-XHTepaTypHblMH BXiflHLHMH Ha 9TH npOMBCAeHifl M*- 
CTHJblMH H HH036MHBIMH . OTCTynJIdHie OTT> 9TO& nOCJI*AOBaTe*b- 

hocth HeMHHyeMo BJieqen* sa co6ok> c6hbhhbmh npeACTaBJie- 
nia o6t> OTHOinemn no93in kt> khbhh, o caMofi cynjHOCTH no- 
93m. ]S<JLfi BMACHeHifl mejcjeh Moeft 6epy npHBrbprb y r. Cyii- 
u,oBa, KOTOpjuft, noBHAHMOMy, He Aaerb ocoSeHHoft n,*Hbi 6h- 

TOBLIMT> yCJOBiflMT* KB3HH, OTb ROTOpblXl* H^eTb nepBblft TOJL- 

qeRrb kt> cosAamio noBTHHecRHXTb npoHSseAemfi. Oht* Aynaerb, 

HTO H*CHH 0 BOJIORHTCTB* ffbflKa 3a ffieHH^HHOft MOIMH SblTb 

saRMCTBOBaHu ct> 3anaAa. H a aonycuaio bto. Oht> yTBep- 
2CAaeTT>, hto ram* BjnoSqasaro gbflKa hbt* HapoAHoft cxoBecHo- 
cth nepemexb bt> connHema Kbhtkh h KoTdapeBCRaro h aohuh* 
BOcnpoH3BOAHTCfl MCuiopyccRHMH ApamaTypraMH . H fl He npo- 
thbt> BToro. Ho H3T> Bcero npeAUAynj,aro oht> A^aerb bmbo/vl: 
9 cyacAeHie, roBopHTb oht>, o Hpasax'b coBpeMeHHbix'b ffbaqKOBT> 
no BHpmaurb XvIII b. hah no nepcoHasairb bt> KOMeffunrb 
KponHBHHn^aro 6wjio 6u HeocHOBaTexbHo" (98). 8Toro a He 
noHHMaio. HeyscejiH cocTaBHTeaH BHpnn> XVIII b. He hm*jih 
npe/jcb co6ok) acHBuxT> coBpeMeHHbix'b hmt> abhhrob'b? H pass* 
KponnBHHD.Kifl noBTopaeTb oaho h TO-ace, H3o6pa«afl TOJTbKO 

BeTXOSaB'BTHhIX'b ABHHKOBI>? 3ai*ftrb, HaROHen.'b, HCKJTIOHaTb OT- 

cioffa C04HHeHifl Kbhtkh h KoTxapeBCRaro, a. TaKse HapoAHbia 

H*CHH O BJEK)6HHBbJLXT> AbSHKaXTj? JtorHHeCRH H606X0AHM0 AO- 

nycTHTb, hto h bt> sanaAHO-eBpoueiicRHX'b n*CHax'b Toro ace 
poAa, Bt oa6jdo 9 HOBejuax'b h t. n.— to 3Ke HeB*pHoe H3o6pa- 
seHie acH3HH, Ta-«e HenpaBAa? 3HaHHT?> — no93ia ecTb ssyK'b 
nycTofi, ecTb CRasRa, He HMt^n^aa cepbeaHaro oTHomenia m> 

HCH3HH. Si H6 AyMaK), ^TOSbl Cb 9THMT> BWBOAOMb COrJiaCHJICfl 

caMi> r. CyMu,0Bi> h bc* oxothhrh JiHTepaTypHAix r b cSjinseHifi, 
KOTopua HMtK>Ti» BasHoe SHaieme tojebro TorAa, Kor^a bbo- 
AHTca CT> HaAJexcaiqeK) Hay^Hoio ocMOTpHTejibHOCTbio. CTpaH- 
CTByiOT'b no JiHn;y aeMHOMy roTOBHa nodTnqecRia TeMH, toto- 

Bbie THQH, KaKTb „TyiRH HefieCHbia, B-BqHO XOJIOAHbia. B'BHHO 

6e3njtOAHbia tt . Mo3KeTT> 6utb 9 oh* TaRi> h ocTajincb 6u 6e3- 

MOAHblMH, eCJIH 6bl RT) HHBTb paBHOAyUieH'b 6bIJTb OOBTb. Ho 

OHt cSjinacaerb cb hhmh BHyTp^HHifi Mip*b CBofi, OH'b Hanoji- 
HaeTi> nxnb SH3HbH) AyHH cBoeft. He 6esnjLOAHbi oh* h TorAa, 
RorAa naAaiorb Ha napoAHyfo HHBy, xoth, Koae4HO, MHoroe 

BTVoi*PA*racBOs oiomni. XXVII. 8 



Digitized by 



114 



9TH0rPA*H<nBCR0B 0B03P*HHB. 



3ftBHCHT r b OTT> CBOftCTBR CaMOft DOHBbl. B*b OffHOVb M*CT* OH* 

posAaiorb AHBUbia npoH3BeAeHia IIIeRcnnpa, bt> ffpyrom — y6o- 

Ilfl BHpmfl nUBOp*30Bl>, ROTOpblfl BT> CBOK) Oqepeftb Bhl3bIBaK>T"b 

h3t> AyuiB HapoAHoft 6oj*e rjyfioKie tohu, hbctbohho SByia- 

Wiie BT> AyMaX-b. JlBJfllOTCfl T6LKHM1> OOpa30MT> HOBHH HOBTHie- 

CRifl 00pm* ajih BHpaaeHifl 6poAflHHXT> xeMTb. H bottj aaAaqa 
HCTopHRa JiHTepaxypLi sauioqaeTCH, no MoeMy MH*HiK), bt> tout*, 
hto6m cj^AHTb sa nepejrHBaMH shshh b* noBTHqecRom> TBop- 
ibctb*, a ecjiH oht> orpaHEHHTCfl oShjhmh JHTepaTypHhiMH 
T6MaMH, He o6pam;afl BHHuania Ha to, RaRi> h noqeiiy bhaohs- 
MiBHJiHCb oh* noAt BiriflHieMi) KH3HH, to ocyAHrc> cam ce6n 
Ha OesnJOAHyio noroHio 3a B*TpoM«b bt> no**, h HHiero se 

HOftMeTb OHT> BT> HapOAHOft HOB31H, BT> HHAHBHAyUbHblX'b OCO- 

6eHHOCTflXT> HapoAHaro n*CHOTBopqecTsa. Oco6eHHO onacHO 
bto caMoorpaHH^eHie npn HsynemH AyM*, caMoft opnrHHajtb- 
Hoft ®opME* HapoAHaro ManopyccRaro TBopqeeTBa, ROTopaa, 

CKOJbKO MB* H3B*CTHO, HH OTKyAa He SaHMCTBOBaHa. BblXOJJ 

H8*b Toro nojQaceHifl, qTo oh* co3ahhh do nosoAy peaJbHUx*b 
ABieHifi 3KH3HH, A pasjraqaK) MeacAy bthmh BBjieHifiMH o6meie- 

JIOB*qeCRifl Orb M*CTHbIXT>, HCTOpHieCRHX'b, H MeSAy BTHMH 

noc«*AHHHH— syjbTypHO-SuTOBbifl orb no ji hthh ecRH xt>. Koh b^ho , 

CO BC*MH 9THMH HBJeHLflMH BT> 6 0 Jib III eft HJttf M6H bill eft CTCOeHH 

coBnaAawrb saHocHbia tomm, h a diary sa t*mt>, xarb Hpa- 

CTaJUHSHpyiOTCR OH* Ha HOHB* M*CTHOft BapOAHOft HCH3HH, a 

qTo6w He y r JOMTb ch orb CBoeft saAaqn, He Bxoaty bt> caMbift 
reHesHCb bthxt> Tein>. ^SL He nepexoARJTb, CRasaao bt> Moeft 
RHHr* ? sa qepTy T*x r b A&HHbixi>, KOTopbifl Aaera naifb (unmaft- 
raaa, co6ctb6hho nosanpaa cTapHHa, npeAOCTaBjaa apyrHirb, 

60JI*e ROBS Q6TeHTHMM r b CHJiaJTb, HCRaTb B*b AyMaXT> 0T3ByR0Bl> 
CTapHHbl OTAaJteHHOft tt . 

Tenepb nocMOTpnarb, RaKT> oraecca RTb MeTOAy Moero H3- 
cji*AOBaHjfl r. CynmoB'b. H3b*ctho, ito ocKopSaeme oTua 
h MaTepn CHHTaeTca bt> HapoAHoft MajnopyccRoM noasin Be- 
jHqafimHifb npecrynjieHieM'b. Oco6eHHO bmcoro nocTaBjeaa 
bt> Heit MaTb, RaR*b chmbojh> scero CBHToro Ha seMJi*. Besrb 

C0MH*Hitf, JK)60Bb R-b HBTepH eCTb MOTHBTb, p83BHTblfi B*b 
H083iH BC*X'b XpHCTiaHCRHXTb HapOffOBTS, H CCJIH 6bl OHT> 

BCTp*qaJiCfl Hairb bt> oahhxt> TOJbRo MajopyccRflXTb BnpmaxT>, 
to MOHfHO 6hjio 6h noAynaTb, mto bto RBjeme noApawaTejib- 

HOe. HO 0BT> Cb OCOgeHHoft HftCTOftqHBOCTbK) HOBTOpaeTCfl H 

B r b n*CHflxi> h bt» AynaxTi. 3aM*qaTeJibH0 npn BTOMT*, ITO B*b 
AyMax'b nocTOflmo HsoSpaHtaejca CTpaAaion^arf MaTB. H 9to 
He TOJibRO bt> AyMax'b ceMefinaro coAep»aHiH, ho h bt> h*ro- 

T0pUX7> AyMaXT>, H306paHMOn^HXl> 6oeByK) WH3Hb R038R0B < b. 
KRVTb BT> TbXTb, TaHT> H BT> ApyrHXT>, p*Mb HAeTb 06URHOBeHH0 




O METOflAXt H3YHBHIH MAJOPyCCKHXT> AYlTb. 115 



o jittimepw-tfdowb, KOTopaa coRpymaeTca o cbohxt* A*TaxT>, ho 
He o donepxxb^ a o cunovbsxb. OneBHAHO, bto ca^ht* Toil bhoxh, 
Korfla ^3T> ffeHB roAbiHhi, KaKt roBoparb ffyMa, SHMHaiiHea se- 

JIUKH BOfiHH Ha BKpaHHH**, KOrffR KeHD^HHW BT> 9THXT> BO&HaXl> 

' nacTO TepnjLH Myaei h c who b eft. Ay Ma ctohtt> Ha CTopoH* 
desaamHTHofl MaTepH-BAOBU h pacTOHaeTT> ropbnia yaopasHH 
HenocjiyfflHhiMi> cbihobbami*. To- ate A*jiaeTi> h Bapnia, h Ay- 
xoBHHft cthxt>, HasuBaKinjift MaTb npaedoio eupnon, a npaBAy — 
jcamepwo pudnm. GaOBa bth, b 3 at bin h3t> ffyxoBHaro CTHxa o 
npaBAfe h BpaBAfe, 6e3i> coMHfeHia, oTpasaiorb A'bftcTBHTeJb- 
hoctb, ecjin mm 6yaeMi> paayMfcTb noAT> AificTBHTejibaocTbio 
6jiaroroB*ftHoe ysaseme rt> MaTepa, paaBHBmeeca hoat> BJiia- 
HieMi HCTopHnecKaro momchtr h BoenpoasseAeHHoe bt> hobth- 
necRoft «opMJb. r. CyMii;oB'b HaxoAHrb, hto bt> Boupocfe o Ma- 
Tepa, o ea noBTunecROM'b o6pa3$, a comera „ci> acTopaKO- 
jiHTepaTypBofl hohbu Ha HcropHKO-CbiTOByio 6e&b AOCTaTOHHaro 
*aRTHHecaaro ocHOBaHia". t II*chh o npaBA* a KpaBA*, roBo- 

pHTT* OHT>, HM*K)Tb AJHHHyK) HCTOpiiO; OH* BOCXOAHTb HT> AP^B- 

uBfluiefl anoRpa®HHecKoft aHTeparyp*, o newb hoapoShocth 
cm. bt> AHCcepTai^iH r. MoqyucRaro o FojiyOiiHoft KHarfc. 0 aa- 
romt>-j[h6o OTHoraeHiH A^Teft kt> OTUfrWb Ha MaJiopyccaoft noHBfc 
HejiBBa cyAHTb no cthxotbo peHiaMt o npaBA* a apHBA* tt (101). 
H Haxoaty, hpo HeyAo6HO supBaTb to hjih Apyroe nojioHceme 
h3t> itfkiaro paAa fcaRTHHecRHXTb AaHHbixi>, ct> KOTopuMH oho 
CBaaano, h aaaBHTb o HeAOCTaTOHHOCTH ♦aKTHHecaax'b AaHaux'b, 
a 3aTbMT> cAfcjaTb cchurh Ha yneHuft HCTopaao-JiHTepatyp- 
huS annaparb, bt> ROTopoMi> crpynaHposaHbi AaHHHa, npeA- 
mecTByK>n^ia no BpeHeHH aaynaeMOMy MaTepiajiy... 4to we? 
Jivb auoKpH«H«iecRofi jHTepaTypw a AyxoBHaro CTHxa o Tojiy- 
6hhoS KHHPfe acate cAluiaiOTca ^oTHomeaia A*Tefi R*b OTijaMT> 
Ha MaJopyccRoft noHBfc?* H mosho jih noHHTb 6esi> btoS dohbu 
to, hto BupocJio Ha Heft, xoth 6bi h noAT> qyacHMH BjiamaMH? 
H HeyaejiH HCTopHRO-JiHTepaTypHutt MeTOAi» bt> tom* to jib kg 
aaKJtoqaeTCfl, hto6u BABHHyTb nsyqaeMoe npoHBBeAeflie Bb ro- 
TOBbiH paMRH, o KOTopuxT> caMi> ace r. CyamoBb roBoparb^ 

HTO OH* ^COBepmeHHO 6e3DJ[OAHbI B-b HayTOOM'b OTHOffleHitt* 

(102). flfixbe, ecjia pei^3H3eHTb bt> oahomi> m^ct* rosopHTb, 
hto a, y, H6 ao bo Jib ctb y a c b pojbio HCTOpHRa AHTepaTypbi, BTOp- 
raiocb bi> HCTopiw 6biT^ a (104), a AByMa CTpaHnaaMH same 
CTHBHTb mh* Ha BHA'b) too a AoaycRaio B o6o6n^eHia HO BH'fem- 
HHM'b, cayqaftHUBTb npH3Haaairb tt (102), npn newb pasyM'berb 
OH'b noA* oooSmemaMH to, hto a „a^h ofi-beAHHema wbcewb 
6epy cjhiiikomt> o6n^ia paMRH a (102), — to bi> OTBfrrb 
Ha bth 3aH*HaHia a AOJmeHi> caa3aTi>, hto r. CyMi^OBi* 
A*ficTBHTejn«Ho Hameai> ai> nocTpoeain MoaxTb Mucjeft to, hto 




116 



BTHOrPAftHqECROB OBOSPttHIB. 



6CTB H AOJUKHO 6bITB BO BCHROBTB HHy^HOBTB HSCJTfeAOBaHiH— 

qacTHbifl nojioaeHia h o6mie bbiboai*, ho tojibro oht> He o6pa- 
thji» BHHMamH Ha to, rfffc ctohtti nepBbifl h r«* nocji*RHie. 
OoMKHOBeHHO fl Hffy hh flyKTH bhmmtj nyT6Mi> orb nacTHaro 1Tb 
oSnjeMy, mh se orb nacTeft ki> itfuiOMy, h AYMaio, hto m> 

HCTOpHKO-MTepaTypHOM'b COTOHefliH HHCTO A^AyHTHBHhlfi nyTB 

noKa eme HeB03M03seH7> hjih, no MeHBmefi Mfepfe, HenaAeseH'B. 

fli&a OROHHaTejiBHaro BBiacHemfl HeAopasyirbHifi no noBogy 
MeTOAOBi> a ocTanoBJtiocb Ha IV h V rjiasaxt Moero coiHHeHifl. 

Bt> IY rjiaB-b a pa3BHBaio mhcjb, <rro MHoria aymh 6ojrfee 
paHHflro cjiowemfl npe^CTaejiflioTB AaJTbHiftmee pasBHTie n*fe- 

CeBHHX'B MOTHBOBT>. S Ha<IHHaK> Cb yRasama Ha SblTOBBIfl ycjio- 

bih, ROTopufl noAAepacMBaJiH bb HapoA* HHTepecb m> coAepaca- 
mm n-bceH'B o njrfeHHHuax'B, nonaBtHHx'B bt> TypeijRyio HeBOJuo, 
o TaacejiHX'B nocjr*ACTBiflXT>pa3opeHift h norponoB-B TaTapCRHxnb. 
BarfeM^ aepexoKy kt> caMbi&rB nrbcnzwb o n jt6h hhi# <xb h no- 
ApoSHO ocTaHaBjHBaiocB Ha tomt> thh* njrfeHHHn;T>, KOTopwa 
Ao6poBOJiBHO, OTRa3BiB&K>Tc# otb CBoero po Aa- n JieMeHH . Caepsa 
HAyTB ntCHH, tojbko HaMeicaiomia Ha npHqHHy btoto oTRasa, 

OOTOSfB T* nliCHH, B'B R0T0pUXT> npHHHHH BTa BBiCTynaen* 
flCHbe H OTHeTJIHBfte. TOJCBRO nOCJI* 8THXT> 6BIT0BBIX f B h nfc- 
CeHHBIXli qaCTHOCTeft a CHHTaH) BOSMOSHBIM'B rOBOpHTB 06l> H3- 

B*CTHoit Ay«* npo Mapycio — nonHBHy BoryciaBRy. Ectb h*- 
ROTopBie BapiaHTBi n*ceHT>, bt> eotopbixt* njrfeHHHija TOHte Haabi- 
BaeTca nonoBHOK) hsb BorycjaBa, ho MeHH He yAOBjeTBoparorb 
9th BfffcmHia MepTU cxoACTBa efl ct> Mapyceio, boch*toio b-b Ay- 

MaXB. SI CMHTaFO rOpaS^O 60Jtbe BaJRHBlVb TO oCCTOHTeJIBCTBO, 

hto bt> AyM* h iMySzse, H m Hp 6 paSBHBaeTCfl tott> caMbifi Apa- 
MaTtiqecKiS mothbb, rotophS OTMfeneHb bt> n4cHaxi>, a rjas- 
aoe — Ay^a nepeHocHTB btotb mothbb cb ceMettHofi hohbh na 
o6n;ecTBeHHyio. OTCioAa h fltjiaio 3aKJioqeHie, hto Ay*a o 
Mapyc* BorycjaBR* npeACTaBMerB hhhtO HHoe, KaK* nodTH- 

HeCRyiO ROMHOSHI^H) GOJE'be CJIOKHyK), MiBTB n^CHH, KOTopua 

ABjih MaTepiajn> A^a 9T0ft romuoshuIh; a TaRi> KaKT> MaTepi&t-b 
Aojaem* cymecTBOBBTB paHBme KOMnosai^iH, to mh* KaxreTCfl 

BeCbMa B03M03KHEJMT,, HTO TBOpn,M HtKOTOpblXTS AYMT> H0JIB30Ba- 
JIHCB rOTO BBIDfB y»e HfeceHHLiM'B MaT6piaJ0MT> AJIH CBOHXT> OpOHB- 

ueAeHifi. TaRT» me tohho & 6epy i^'feJBifi pflAi> n^ceHHux'B moth- 

BOBT> 0 CBaaaHHUXTj CO CMepTBH) R03aRH bt> CTenH, BAaiH orb 
pOAHMXTb H pOAHHBI, H U OCTene B HO BOCXOHty OTb MaCTefl Kb 

u$&omy— cnepBa rt» rbwb AyMairb, ROTopua He bbixoabtb H8«b 
c<pepbi ceMefiHbix'B oTHomeHift, noTOMi> r*b AyMaarb o 0eAop* 
BespojiHOiTB h Hfiac* KoHOBqeaK*, mo6p&7R&K>m t m'b Sojirbe 
CJioxcHbia oTHoineHia R03an;Kofi shshh, rA* OTA^JiBHbie irbceH* 
Hue mothbei nepepaSoTanu b^ oaho cTpottHoe n;*jioe. TaxoBU 




O MBTOAAX'b H3yHKHIfl M A J OPVGGRHX'B AVMT). 



117 



o6o6m;eHifl, CAftsaBBU* ■ ueoh> aa ocHOBaaia doKyMeumaAhuaeo 
aaaJHda irfeceB'b h conocTaBJieBia hxt» cb aym&mh cootb*tct- 
Byionjaro coAepraaaia. 

T. CyMi^oBi* HaxoAHTT> npe»Ae Bcero ^CTpaHHMMi** aarjia- 
Bie IV rjiaBu: ^OTpaareaie n*bceHHMx f b mothbobt> bt> BapoABBix'b 
MajropyccKHXT> RyMaxT>% xotb bt> bcmt* wbrb BHHero cTpaa- 
naro. ^a-irfee obtj roBoparb, hto w OAal* jhibb rojiharh pa30- 

6paHW nOKOfiHWBfb Il0Te6B6R) no MOTHBaWB U , H HTO „Bpflai> JH 
MOHTHO CyffHTL 0 H'feceBRHX'B MOTHBaXT), R&R1> O HeM'b-JIBGo A<>- 
CT8T0HB0 H3B'feCTB0M , b H Onpefl'feJteBBOM'b' 1 (105). Ho BtftB, MO- 
THBBI-TO, Ba KOTOpue yRa3MBaK) fl BT> n*CBBXT>, rfe C&Mbie. aa 

KOTopHe IloTefiBH yKa3ajn> bt» RojiaARax'B: bto — noAonHnna (cm. 
IIoTe6Bfl, CTp. 288), CMeprnt MOAodua, eope Mamepu (ibid CTp. /24 
h cjt&a )• T'feM'b Cojrfee CTpaBBO Baaffeqaaie: 9 mu Be aaxoAHMi* bt> 

9T0ft(lV)rJiaB* HHRaRHXT> M0TBB0B1>, eCJH BOBHMaTb MOTHBT> TaHT>, 

RaRi> noHHMaJTB ero IloTe6Ba a (105). HeyacejiH nuKamaz, ecM bto 
t* caMue mothbli^ hto h y IIotcSbh, t. e. npocrfeftmie aieMeaTBi 
irbCBH, H3i> ROTopuxT* cjaraeTca Go&'be hjlh Meafee n,*jibHbifi 
no9iH4ecRitt o6pasi>? /Jajrfee pei^6H3eBTi> roBoparB, hto a „orpa- 
BHHHBaiocb nepecRasoii'b h^crojebrhxii ffyarb", h npa btomt> 
saMfcqaerb, hto am Aoaa3aTeju>CTBa conoAHBaeaBaro OTBOine- 
aia n*ceB , b h nywb (B'fepoaTBO, nfcceB'B B7> nyuawb) a flcuaceBTj 
6bun> npHBecTH Bbi^epsRH Hsrb t*xt) h ffpyrnxt, bo „TaKHx-b 
BUAepiKeR'b, npOAOJHRaerb obT), bt> KHHrfe JKuTemtaro nmrtb u 
dumb we Mootcemb, hto npHdaaerb caMi> asTopib, saMfcHaionjift, 
hto n&n 9THXTb ffyMi* (o CaMofijrfe KomRfc, o6t>-Hb. BorycjuaBu,*) 
noHTH Beso3MO«uo noAofipaTb napajuejeft bt> ntCBJixTb" (105). 
Bo-nepBhixTj, mofb jib a roBopwTB o nfcceaBbix'B MOTBBaxrb, Be 
npaBOAfl BBiAepaKeiPb hb'b irfeceB'b (cm. CTp. 139 — 144)? Bo-bto- 

pbUTB, a rOBOpK), HTO 6CTB AyMbI, RT> ROTOpblMT* BeJB3fl BOAO- 

6paTb n^ceBBBixi) motbbobi», b Ba3BiBaH) bth AyMH. 8to MB*- 
Bie woe r. CyMWB , b nepeaocHrb ri> AyMaM*, bt> rotopuxt> 
a yRa3aJKi» □'bceaHue motbbh, h 3aT*MT> npHBBcuBaeTi mb* 
MB*Bie, hto rt> %yM&M r b BejiB3a yRasaTb n^CeHHhlXTj MOTHBOB*B. 
B'B-TpeTBHx'b, BBiAepaceR'B H3T> AyM'B^ noA«ii63Kain t HX'b cpaBHe- 
aiio ct> n*CBHMH, no ero MOBaMT*, b*tt> h 6bitb ae Moserb 

BTb MOeft KHHPfe; Ba CaMOMT> Se A*J1* HX*B OHeflB Mfloro (CM. 

CTp. 145 — 150),— Aa h caM-b r. CyMi^OB^ b*crojibrhmb cTpo- 
aaMB Bume sasBHJL'B, hto a orpaaMHMca nepecaasoMii b*- 
cROJiBRHX'b AyMi>, a ate npnSaBJiK) ott> ce6a: nepecaasoM^, ho- 
Topbifi conpoBowAaeTca BUA^patRaMH hst* a7mi>. HaROBem>, 
r. CyMD,0B r b yAHBjaeTCfl, RaKT> mosbo tobopbtb o&b OTpaaceaiH 
ntceHHbixT> mothbob'b bt> AyMaxi>, aorAa niceHBbiti penepTyapi> 
MaJiopyccoBTb CTaparo BpeMeaa coBciMT> HeHSBicTeHt (105). 
nocji-fe 9Toro SHflBJieHia ocTaeTca AonycTHTB oaho b3t> AByxi>, 



Digitized by 




118 



BTHOrPAQHIBOEOB OfiOSPfcBIB. 



hto hjih trfeCHH o ni*HHHD,axT>, o py6aHhixT> K03aKaxi>, do- 
rH6inHXT> bi> 6opB64 a* TypBSMH h TaTapaMH, oCpaaoBaiHCb 
H3T> nywb) hjih 3se hto OH* cosaaaM Bt Hame BpeMfl, nocifc 
Toro, BaKi> caMaa 6opjb6a 9Ta cA^JiaJiacb DpeAaaieMnb cTapaau 
iuy6oRoft. IIpBXOAflTca npsnoHBHTL to, hto CRasajn> IIoTe6flfl 
bt> CBoefi RBarfe: „06i>acBeBifl MajopyccBHxt h cpoAauxnb flap. 
ntceBTb 44 : „$yMaio, roBoparb DotcShb, mto TaRoro poAa nfecsB 
(o py6aHBixi> RosaRax^) npednoAaeawmcA AyMaaa „o CMepTB 
TpexTb 6paTfceBi> tt h „o CMepTB Oe^opa EespOAaaro", EOTopoMy 
poAT> 3aM*BBeTT> A*yp& a cfcqeBoe TOBapH ctb o u (II, CTp. 734). 
Bt> BHffy Bcero cRasaasaro se chhtbio bosmoshumx AynaTb, 
qTO o6o6meaia, CAftraaaHa mboio, BenpaBBJbBM. 

He OTBaauBaeTCH, BnpoqeMT>, orb ofiodmeaifi h caM?» r. CyM- 
uobt>, xotb btb o6o6meflifl ae Bcer^a yflaqau, xaRi> bto mm 

OTHaCTH BHA^JIH, OT^aCTH yBBABMl* B3*b MB^flifl ero 0 TOM*b, RTO 

6mjtb TBopma AyMt, BMcaasaaaaro hmt> no noBOAy V rjaBH 
Moero coqaaeaia. 

C^HTaio Heo6xoAHMiiM'B HanoMBHTB qHTaTejiio, qto nocxfe 
o6o3p£sifl BHpmeBMX'b h n*ceaBMX , b mothbobt>, passman- 
mnxcfl bt> AyMaxTb, Bt V rjasfc a CTaBJio Bonpoct: kto 6mjh 
TBOpi^a h nfcBijM Aym>? IlyTeMi c6jra»eaia ncaibvb cb jry- 
mbmb co ctopobh CTHxoTBopBaro nocTpoeaia T*X»b HffpyrHXT> 

fl npHXOSy RT> BBIBOAy, qTO CTHXOTBOpflaS OOpMa ffyiTb B03- 

BHRja aa noqBfc ncajBiro sapmeaoro npoacxosffeais. ftjia Meaa 
aeyftfiABTejEbfliJM'b RaHceTca saMfeqaaie r. CyMijOBa. qTO AyMU, 
CKQjvbKo u3efbemHo, cyn^ecTBOBajia yace bt> kohh^ XVI Bfcaa, a 
aaa6ojrbe CTapaaabie o6paan;M Bapmi> npHBoasy a, no ero 
MB*aiio, B3«b naMflTaaaoai> nojroBBBM XYII b. (92). Bo nep- 
bmxi>, H saaa), qTO bto ABJieKO BeH3B*cTH0, vhwb 6ojfee, qTO 
vb ApyroifB M-fccrfe caMi> r. CyamoB-b ae tbrt* pfemaTeJbao Bhipa- 
saeTCfl o6t> btomt* npeAMerfc (cm. CTp. 98). Bo BTopuxib, aa** 
RaRoft nojOBHHM XYII BfcRa — nepBofi a jib BTopoft? IlepBaa Bap- 
ma, 0TpuB0KT> B3i> ROTopoft npBBeAeai> y Meaa, otbocetcb stb 
1616 roffy, o qeirt a cjrtgOB&io 6m caasaTb pei^eaaeaTy, a qTO 
npoinio mbmo ero BaaMaaia. Torga CTaxo 6m acao 7 qTO xpo- 
aojioraqecRaa pasaai^a Mea«y noflBJieaieirb njwb a Bapnrb, 
ecjra «aae aonycTBTb noaBjeaie nepBofi Bapma B*b 1616 ro^y, 
ae TBR'b B6«iaRa, aaat bto eMy sejaTenao. ^a npaTOMt, 
roBopa o nnsojibBMxnb Bjnaaiax , b aa Ay mm, ayarao hm^tb bt> 
BBAy, qTO ao aacb aohijih Ay mm bti no3Aa%ihnax f b ycTBHXT> pe- 
AaKijiflxt, RorAa BapmeBaa JHTepaTypa mapoao pacaaayjracb 
no aapoABMMii mROJraM'b. Ho a*^o ae bi> btomt*. Bt> Bonpocfc 
o TBopmax'b a n*Bn;ax'b jijvb au Meaa Baacao to o6cTOSTexb- 

CTBO, qTO OBB A*8CTBBTeJbBO MOrJIH HOflBHTBCfl BO BTOpoM UO- 

jOBBBt XYI B*Ra. rjtaBBoe AORaaaTeJibCTBo saRJitoqaeTcsr ae 




I 



© METOflAXt HBYHBHIfl MAAOPyCCKHX'b JSJWb. 



119 



B'b TOBTb, HTO B'b AyM* o6t> "AjieBCfc* IlonoBHH* ynOMHHaiOTCfl 

jHija, sHBmifl bo BTopofl nojoBHHt XYI B*Ka, a bt> tomt», 
hto B'b bto BpeMA cymecTBOBajia y»e oOcTaHOBKa, hm£b- 
mafl CeacnopHoe Bjiiame Ha TBopnecTBO Ay* 1 - XapaRTepHiia 

OCOSeHHOCTH BTOft 06CTaH0BKH COXpaHHJH HftMT> IIHCBM(iHflhl6 

AORyMeHTu. Bi> bhhi*6 Moefl OTM'feneH'b oahhi> h3t> bthxtb AOKy- 

MeHTOB'b, H3T> KOTOparO HBCTByeTb, HTO BO BTOpofi DOJOBHH'h 

XVI B*Ka cyn^ecTBOBajn> oCunati ycTpaHBaTb npn n.epRBax'b 
He TOJbKO iukoju, ho h mnHTaiiH, a kt> caMMMt nepBbiM'b ro- 
Aasfb XYII B*Ka othochtcr AORyMeHTaabHUH yBasaaifl Ha mnn- 
TaJH „am JiiOAeii pm;epcbKHX'b otb HenpiaTejeft bt> pasnuxii 
OHTBaxTb noKajr-feHeHHwrb 44 . Maxepiaxb /uifl AyMi> A^sajia caMan 

2KH3HB BTHXT> ^pUI^epCbKHX'b JK)Aeft tt , HCD0JIH6HHafl OOaCHOCTefi 

m npHKJiiOHeHiB, a noBraqecRaa <aopMa AyMi> BwpaoaThiBajiacB 
hoa^ BJiiflHieMi) mKOJiw, KOTopaa, k8Kt> noRasano bo MHoraxi> 
MtcTax'b Moefl HHHra, coBMfcmaja bt> ceSfc caMtae pasHooCpas- 



6bi oSjienb SbiJioe bt> AyMy, TBopuu Ay*H> OTOBCiOAy 6p&iH Bpa- 
ckh — to H3i> HapoAHbix'b ntceH'b, to M'b BHpmi> pasHaro co- 
AepjRamfl, to h3t> CTapsHHbixi> HapoAHbix'b BeaHiaHifi, hoa- 
apasjieHHMX'b niROJibHbiMH RaHTaMH. CyAH no npeoSjiaAamio 
xpHCTiaHCRofi MopajiH B'b ApeBHtfimHX'b AyMax'b, BTO 6bIJH 
cmapuu, »HBmie B'b mnHTajiaxT), oneHb hbcto jhoah 6biBaju>ie, 
n OTi> HenpiflTejieft bt> paaeuxij 6aTaJiiax'b noHaJifcHeHHbie". Ho 

H BOBCe He OTpHIl,aK), HTO H3T> Cpeftbl B mDHTaJIBHbIX'b cTapn;HB'b tt 

moimh BbiABHHyTbCfl BoftcROBue Rodsapn, ROTopue, nojbsyacb 

Bbipa60TaHHOK) OOpMOK) AyMTj, CTOflJUH fiOJTfee HeaaBHCHMO, KaKT> 

o-rb niceHHaro, TaHT> h ott> BHpmeBaro MaTepiaaa, nfeirb nep- 
BOHanajibHbie TBopiju AyMi>. 9Ty hocji*ahk)K) mbicjib b Bbipa- 

3HJTb H B'b aaRJUOHHTeJTbHblX'b CTpORaXT> MOerO HSCJlfcAOBaHifl. 

Taan> cRasaHO, hto, cyAR no H3Bl*CTho ott> 1711 roAa, Ha 3a- 
nopoachH cjE^Dbixi> MyawRaHTOB'bnpHHHMajiHB'bnojiROByiocJiyatCy 
h BHA&Bajra EWb acajroBaHbe napaBH* ct> sphhhmh. Bt> cocTaBi> 
BToft nojROBofl My3URH MorjiH Dona^aTB jioah, oAapeHHbie hc- 
Rpoft noBTHqecRaro oraa h bi> TO-are BpeMfl coBMto^aBmie bt> 
ce64 KHHjKHoe HacTpoeHie ct> HapoAHUM'b: noTOMy HeyAHBH- 
TeabHO, ecjH Taarb-jKe, Bb 3anopo»CRoft C*hh, ct> canaro ocho- 
Bamfl efl B03HHBajH mothbh mhothxtj aymt>, H3o6njiOBaBmie 
peaJtbHbififb coAepacaHieMT> h, Moserb 6uTb A^^e, BoenpoHSBe* 

AeHHblfl BT> HOBTHHeCKOft OOpM* AyMT>, ROTOpblfl paSHOCHJIHCb 

hotomi> no Bceft YRpaHH*, nojiynaa Aajn»H*ftiHyio o6pa6oTRy bt> 
nojiyHapoAHofi, nojryRHHHCHott cpeA*, doctoahho noAA6p»HBae- 

MOft mnHTaJEHMH H HapOAHblMH HIKOJiaMH. 

Hto ace AyMaerb o6i> btomt> npeAMeo* r. Cyici^oB^? Oh* 
nooBfln^aeT'b Y rjiaBfe Moero Hscx^AOBaHia Bcero HtcKOJbKO 



Hue cjroBecHbie BJieaieHTw 





120 



9TH0rPA<DH1BCK0B 0BO3PftBlB. 



CTpORT> H, OCTaBJHfl BT> CTOpOH* IjiHTblft pARTi nOCblJORnb, npeft- 

mecTByiomHX'b MoeMy BHBOfly, orpaHHHHBaeTca saaBjenieirB, 
hto CTapn;u, „RaRT> jhoah oH3H<iecRH HeMomHiae, RaafcRH h npe- 
CTap*Jiwe, KaKt jhoah ^yOoraro <iHHa tt , He moimh co3^an> Taxis 
CH-onbHbifl xyAoacecTBeHHMH npoHBBeffeHia, r&ri> ay mm* (106). 
He ffyMaio a, hto6h „y6orift «raH«B tt HecoBMfccTHMT> 6bjjtb cb 
no9THHecKHMi> RapoBaHieMt, KOTopoe, aaKT> h3b*ctho, He ra- 
CHeTt h bt> HeMonjaxt CTap^ecRaro BoapacTa. BsaMfeHi* noero 
o6o6memfl r. CyMijOB'b npe^yraraeTTb CBoe: ^Bosmooicho, roBOpHTB 
oht>, hto h ^CTapH,d a 6bijih TBopi^aMH ayMT>, ho He TaKie yfiorie, a 
npedtwAoo/cumeAhuo TaKie. Kara 6oraTBipH BejiHROpyccRoft 6hjhhn 
o copoKa KaJiHKai'b ct> rbjihrok). Mootcemz ffwmb, /fbficTBHTejBHafl 
aH3Hb cTapoft PycH Rasa-aa TaKHxt Corarapeft, cTapijeKB-nt- 
CHOTBopn;eB f b^ 9to M08A0 6vmh npn cymecTBOBaHbi bt> ^peBHefi 
PycH hhh^bhckhxtj TOBapHmecTBt n 6paTCTBt. H3T> flpeBHHXT> 
jrfeToiraceft h noynemfi bhaho, h^o najroMHHKH xorhjih TOJinaMH, 
too npeAnojtaraerb npoHHyio opraHH3an;iK) B (106). Bt> KieB* 
eaceronHO mojkho bh^tb tojidh 6oroMOJiBijeBT>, ROTopbix* ofteaRo 
ate hhkto He cqHTaero 6oraTupaMH-n*cHOTBopn;aMH, cocTaB- 
jiaiomHMH ^npo^Hyio opraHH3an;iio a . H ecJH CTapijBi-irfcCHo- 

TBOpUM B03MOJKHBI filJJIH BT> ffpeBHeft PyCH, OOTOMy HTO BT> 

Heft cyn^ecTBOBajH HHnjeHCKia TOBapHmecTBa h 6paTCTBa, to, 

KOHeHHO, OHH B03M0JRHBI CblJIH H BT> K)JKH0fi PyCH, rfllj, RaKT> 

noffpodno pascnasaHO bt> Moeft RHHrfe, uinHTaJin bxoahjh bt> 
cocTaBi> TaKTb HasuBaeMBix'b ^cTapenHXT* 6paTCTBT> tt , ra* hikojih 
h mnHTajiH 6mjih ynpe»AeHiHMH ijepEOBHHX'b 6paTCTBi>. Tojibko 

BTH QTapmJ-H'feCHOTBOpnibl BB I03KH0& PyCH HftffeJIH fiOJlfee npO- 

CToft BHffi>, h*mt> Bejin^aBBie 6oraTBipH* n$CHOTBopn;Ei , noxosrie 
Ha copoKi> EajuHRi* cb KajHKoio. IIo MoeMy mhIsbho, H*rb na- 
Ao6hocth npn6*raTL rt> npeffnojro»eHiaMi>, Ror^a nsy^iaeMoe 
HaMH aBjeme o6i>acHaeTCfl HajoraBHMn h bhoih* AOCTOBtp- 
humh *aRTaMH. CyMHjOB'B saRanqmaerb CBOH goraflRH O TBOp- 
n;axT> /ryan* cjrfcAyiomnMH anoBaBor: ^cpe^H Tannxt CTapi^eB-b 

MOrJIH 6MTL 6oraTBipH-II*CHOTBOpBiia, HaCJTfe^HHKH ApeBHHXT> 

BaaHOBT>, npiflTejiH 3anaffHMXT> BaraHTOBTb h rojiiapffOBT*" (106). 

He Mory cjr*AOBaTb no BTOMy CROJB3ROMy nyra b*b OTKpH- 
Tin noflraHHuxt TBopn;oB , B HapoffHux-b MajEopyccRHxi> ayMi bt> 
ofijracTH fflHpoRHxi> ^ajibRjropHHX'b o6o6memft. ^to h roBopHTB? 

9T0 CHJIBHuft H IJJIOflOTBOpHHft MeTO^, HO T0JTBK0 BT> pyRaXTb 

ocTopowHaro h onHTHaro H3CJ*ffOBaTeJifl, oojia^aion^aro HyB r 
ctbomi> M*pH h npoB*paiOBa[aro MeTOfl^ cxo^cTBa mctoaomti 
pasjHqia. TenepB ate h hcho Bnacy orho, qTo ffM mchh 0606- 
meHie ecTB h^^to ncROMoe^ a ^jia Moero peu,eH3eHTa — h*hto 
roTOBoe. /(jth TaRHX'b o6o6n^eHitt mosho HfiHHsaTB n^Jtuit paffi 
napajuiejieft h cSjiHaeHift, BHCflmnxt Ha BOSAyx*, ho TaRoe 



Digitized by 



O MBTOAAXTb HBYHRBlfl MAJlOPyCCHHX'B HYWb. 121 



nocTpoeHie Synem bm*tb bc* npnsHaRH BpyAHnjH, a se 
Hayxn. 

3aKaHHHBafl cboh saMfcTHH, He Mory He BBipasHTB (taaro- 
AapHocTH r. CyiiijoBy sa to. wo oht> Rajrb mh& hoboa^ kt> 
nepecMOTpy mohxt> ^MBicjeit*. Bt> CBoe BpeMB a He BanncajrB 
npeAHCJOBia kt* hhmt>, npHmjocB TenepB BanncaTB bocji*cjio- 
Bie. CBOffiy Bee cnasaBBoe wb HeMHOiuirB nojoaseBiflM'B." TjiaB- 
Hoe, Raicb b3b£ctho, bt> HayK* — MeTOfl^. Best MeTO^a b*tb 
HayKH. Ho BOBMoseH'B b*b Heft He oahht» MeroR*. CaMa aayRa 
mnpe mctoaobi>. Dio Mfepfe ycBoeHia Bsyqaeiiaro MaTepiaja oaa 
BiiABHraeTi oahht> KeTOAfc 3a apyrHMt Tara, ssyieBie nywb 
BusBaJio upe»Ae Bcero BCTopeiecRift MeTOA*, BHHCBHBmifi 
Taftifl noApodHocTH b»b co^epsafliH nym, 6eaT> kotophxt> ae- 
B03M09CH0 6hjo 6bi AaJ«>B*fcnee ABHseHie bt> says* no bo- 
npocy o Aynaxii, o nt>OHCxo»flfcBiH h oco6eHHOCTBxi do&th- 
MecKofi oopiuj hx*b. %jle AonojraeBifl HCTopH^ecKaro MeTOAa 
noTpe6oBajiCfl HCTopHKO-JTHxepaTypHBifi MeTOAi>, ROTopufi, ot- 
npaBJtBfiCB oi*b fiojifte hah neH*e paspaGoTaaflaro HCTopHne- 
cxaro h BOo6nje GuTOBoro MaTepiaaa, CTpeif htca nocTasHTB 

erO BTb CBB3B CT> M&CTBBIMH HyJBTypHUMH BBjefiiflMH BDROJBI H 

AHTepaTypu julh Toro, htoSbi hohbtb ycjOBia, cpe^H KOTopHX* 

B08M03KH0 6BUIO HOflBJieHie TBBOft OpHrHHaJftBOfi OOpMBI flOB3iH, 

KaKt HapoAHUB MaJiopyccKifl Ay^Bi. 3Toro iiexoAa, no M*p4 
curb h yM^HBH, AepsajicH a. Ho caiio co6ok) paByM&eTCfl, hto 
a ae CHHTaio BonpocB 0 nyva.x'h HcnepnaBBBiMi* name bt> npe- 
Afcjaxi> Hoero MeTOAa, noaTOMy a nam* cBoeiiy coqBHeHiio 3a- 
rjiaBie: „Mbicjih o aapoABBix'B M&nopyccKBX'B AyMax-B". Enje 
6oxfee nsjiewb b orb ^bmnemR, htq rt> nyuawb aenpHM'bBHirB 
MeroA'B cpaBBHTeiBHO-HCTopHqecRift, npaKTHByeMBifi bt> oojibe- 
jiopHBixrB HSCJi^AOBamBX'B^ Tjsjb wb cpaBsesii) npHBJteRaiOTCB) 
rbe'b Chtobbib, TaBi> h JiHTepaTypHBiB HopMM, cymecTByiomia 
y APyrax-B HapoAOBi. 51 sejajra 6u tojibko, wo6bi npeACTa- 
BHTejH BToro MeTOAa H3i> yBasesifl m> HayKt o6jiaAaJiH Tep- 
nHMOCTiio no OTBomeuuo wt ApyrHH7> MeTOAaMi* ea, KOTopue 
Tose mrbiorb HeaiaioBaacHoe 3HaneBie. 



II. HlNTauKifi. 



Digitized by 



HtKOTopue o6wsaM m BtpoeaHifl KpecTbflHi HepenoecKaro 
ytaAa, HoBropoACHOH ry6epHiN *). 



CennwHHUH foctbdtA — CKAodnuuu. — B*b HHKOio-PaMeHCKom> npH- 

XOR*, ropCKOfi BOJOCTH, CBOTRH HaqHHaiOTCfl paHO, a HH6BB0 

ct> HhkojthhcI ffHff, 6 A€Ra6pn, a ycTpaHBaeMun B*b bto apeiM 
SojTbmia Cecfeflbi hm£k>tt> xapaRTepi> cws^hut Ha apTejibBbirb 
HaqaJiaxT>, Bt> h3b^cthomi> cejeaia napan corjamaiOTCfl Mearjy 
co6ok) C03B&TB Ba ryjiHBie cbohxtj AtBymeKt h mi> Apyrax* 
cejeBifi, B*b 3apaa*e onpeAfeJieBBbilt robb, npBBHMafl bc* pac- 
xoabi, conpHsesBBie c% 9thmi>, aa ce6a. K*b 9TOMy rbk) Ha- 
HHMaeTca npocTopaafl H36a am 6ecfeAU, npioop*TaeTca Repo- 
chht> bjh CB'feqH h rocTHfli^u ^jifl A'feBymeKT>. DpHrjraineHHiJfl 
A*BymKH cxoahtch aa ryjaaie, aaxBaTHBt ci> co6oio xynmie 
BapflAM, h ycTpanBaiOTCfl no poABMirb a saaRoiiBiirb. Ch> aa- 
CTynjeBieMT> abh Beceaifl /rfeByiDKH xon&vb no bc$mi> AOMairb 
cb ntcHAMH, noRadbiBafl cboh aapflAH, a ct> aacrynjeHieurb 
Benepa coSapaiOTCH bt> aanflTyio asfiy, ta& y»e aojrha&h>tc* 
hxt> napBH cb rapMOBHRaMH h nponie spaTeaa. 3aBOAflTCfl 
n-bCBH h arpu; aasBaaifl arpi>, cjyataiAHX'b npenpofioatAeaieirb 
BpeMenH, cjrfeAyiomifl: „aceaaxaBbe% „coc*ah% „6apa u h „i*a- 
peBsa a . BecejffTCfl aa 6ec*A* bmotb ao yTpa. Kaxflaa a*- 
ByinRa oOasaTejiBBO nepeMfeBarb cboh capaoaau afccROXbRO 
pasTb, cb u*jibio noRadaTbca spHTejiflMT. bo bc*xt> cbobxt> aa- 
fflAaxT*. Taaifl 6ec*AH bt> AaaHOMi> cejesia GhiBaiorb seiepa 
no Tpa; sarfeM'b ycTpaHBatorb rA*-BH6yAB bte> Apyroirc* ceje- 

BiH. Oco6eHHhIlTb MHOrOJHOflCTBOMT> H nopEAROlfb OTJHMaiOTCK 

SecfeAM bt> c. HaRoxo-PaMeHte a rt» noxBajifc napaeft 06x0- 
AflTca 6e3i> boarh, a noTOMy h h^tt* oShiqnux'b 6ecfeflBhixT> 6e3- 
o6pa3itt. Bt> ApyrnxTb ORpecTHbix'b npaxoAaxii TaKHit 6ecfca/b — 
CRJiaAHHB'b He ycTpaaBaioirb **). 

IIpuHotueHiH oKteAtwoMb . M^CTBoe aacejreaie saBHMaeTca we- 
jE'bSBfaiM'b npoH3BOACTBOMT>. H bott>, npH nepeB03R* Kejrfcsa H 
rB03Aefl, bt> ceJieHiflxii, rjtf& BCTptqaK)Tca qacOBBH a npa bhxt> 
KpyacKH ajh ABaen, RpecTbaae RJia^yTb okojio RpyaeKT> RycRH 

•) Cm. ,8THorpa<lHnecKoe 06osp4Hie a XX, 121. 

••) He ecTb ah 3to ocTaTOKi cTapHHBofl ,6paTHHHB-HHKOJbmHHH 8 ? Ped. 



Digitized by 



0BB1HAH B7> HKPBIIOBCKOM'b y., HOBrOPOACBOft TOB. 123 

acejfesa, rBOSffs, a HBOi^a h iyfeahie * seJitSBiae npyTBH. CaMO 
co6oio paayM-feeTCfl, hto bth npHHOineflia 2&rbm> npoAaiOTca h 
cocTaBxawrb aoxoat*. hacobhh. 

JIoHumanie tuwinwb. — Bt> BayuKOMt npnxoAfc, TopcEofi bo- 

JEOCTH, Ha^HHRfl Cl> 8-fi DflTHHII^X HO IlaCXfc H AO CaMarO ELttB- 

HHa aha (20 ijoja), BaceJieHie no nflTHm^awB Be npHKacaeTca 
bh kt> KaKofl paSorfe, A&2te bi» ropaiee BpeMfl cfeHOKOca; sa 
HapymflBniHX'B btotb oCbi^aft HajiaraeTca mTpaat 3 py6jia, 
BOTopue npaiaraiOTca kt> MipcKHM'b cyiwMaMi), 6ojn>meK> qacTbio 
nponHBaeMbiMT> spa. Orporo npHAepHHBaacb BToro oSbrqaa, bt> 
ochob* KOTOparo jiearBrb iuy6oEoe nowraBie npopoEa Hjiin h 
nflTHHn.hi HjbHBCKofl, bth cejieBia, no dOBaMt Bayiasi^flKO-Cbi 
Meate CTpaAaiOTb orb rpaAoCBTin, ypoacaH Jiy<nne, ydopsa c*aa 
h xjrfe6oBT> coBepmaeTCH 6e3T> dom*xh co CToposu noropu, <ito 
p*«e GusaerB bt> ApyrnxT* npnxoAaxi>, ae npHAepsHsaion^Bxcfl 
BTOro oGbliaa. (Ot* i-Ha x. Cpew. Abo pa, Aaeicki Byperauia). 

ApMU3(mckiH Hepo3MmiwAs dem>eu. — ^ajieKO aa MOpHMH HfHBerb 
HapoA*b ApMusonu (^apMaaoBM — epaHE'b-MaccoBBi?). HapoATb 
9toti> o6jiaAaeTT> BepaaM'bBBiaMH A^BBraMH, HOTopuH, nonaAafl 
bt> Apyrifl CTpaBM, cjiMByrb hoa'b hm6B6mi> w apMH30BCKHxi> py6- 
jieft a . 3aB*TBaa iienTa npocToro ^ejOBtKa AocTaTt 8thxt> ag- 
Herb, TaKi> KaHi>, hm*b TaKofi pyfijb, motkho skhtb npHni- 
BaiOMH^ nocjrfe KasKAofi noEynRH py6jo> BopoTHTca Bt KapMaHt 
npeacHaro BJiaA*JBii,a. Out Tepaerb cnoco6HOCTb BpsBpanjaTbca 
jfflmb bt> TaKoft jtaBEii, Tjib Ha noporfe npndHTa JioinaAHBaa 
noAKOBa, EOTopyio ToproBHH npHdHBaiorb a^h ycniunBoii Top- 
roBjH h 66ju>raaro npHBjreHeBia noEynaTejeft. 

noHtmanie pow?b, depeeteeb u Kcmneti. — OKpyaraiomaa npn- 
pOAa HM*Jia Boo6m;e Ha nejEOB-feRa bt> asbiqecRia BpeMena 
3HaqHTeJibHoe BjriflHie, h Mip*b pacTHreJLHbifi nojbsoBaJca 
b*b to BpeMH 3HaqHTejLBHMi> noq HTaHieMTj h o6osaHieMi>. 
Ci> TeqeHieirb BpeMean, noffb BjriaHieMi> xpncTiaHCTBa, Apes- 

Hftftmifl BtpOBaHia ROpeHHMM-b 06pa30M'b H8MfeHHJHCB, ho 3a- 

b*tbi CTapHHM, nepeAaBaeMMe h3t> poAa bt> poat>, sceraEH 
AomjEH ao Hamero BpeMeHH bt» bha* cMyTHbix'b cyeB*pift hjih 
B<b ©opirb oahhx'b ofipflAOBi), 6ez r b noHHMaaifl cymHOcra nxT>, 

TaR*b BaBT> npHqHHM B 03H HR H 0 B6BQ ff TOTO HJIH AP7 ror O 06- 

pflAa saTepfljincb vb paA* noKOj*Hift, h casfb Hapognb npo- 
A*JbiBaerb see bto Tenep* 6e3C03HaTejn>H0, bi> CMy npeAaHia 
h npwBbiqKH, o6fl3aTejtHo npiypo^HBaa HcaojcHenie bthx'b 06- 
pflAOB'b vb xpncTiaHCTBy. noATBepKAemeirb BTOMy cjryBCHTb 
Meat Ay npo^Hirb coxpaHHBmeecfl ao cero BpeMera B , bpa3Hbixi> 
M*CTaxi> Poccin HBHoe pexnriosHoe no^HTaHie pasraqHux'b npeA- 
m6tob^ oKpy«aion;eft npHpoAH, Hanp. A^P^BbeB'b n n,*Jibixi> 



Digitized by 




124 



dTHOIYAOHIECKOB 0B08F4B1K. 



pomi>, KaMHeft, HCTO^HHKOB'b h T. a. TIo DTOMy Bonpocy MB* 
npfruuiocB oCpaTHTt BHHMasie bt> K>KHoft nacTH HepenoBeij- 
Karo y*3ffa, Hoeropo/iCKoft ry6 , na o6HJiie ponvB, rrmaTejaao 
oxpaHfleMHit. TaKia pomn coctohtb (SojrtmeH) qacTbio h3t> 
cocbobmx , b 6ojbmHX , b ffepeBBeBT> BejHHecTBeBHaro bhrb h ciy- 
warb bt> HacToanjee BpeMa Aaate b*kotopmmt> yKpameflieirb 

MfcCTBOCTH; npH MBOrHXT> H3T> HHXT> BBICTD06BIJ laCOBHH. Cy- 

mecTByioT'b TaKia ponjH bj> YaoMCRofi, ^MHTpieBCKoS h Top- 
CKoft BOJrocTaxnb h bt> cj&fljiomBX r b cejteHiax'B: Ejiexoetb («m- 
cobbh, a bt> AynJ* OABoro nepeBa pomn HaxoAHTca HBJieHHbift 
KpecTT>), Civupoefb) (qacoBHa), Cmenanom (qacoBHa), Konopem, 
AOHdauMb (qacoBBfl), Eopy (qacOBBfl), Ocmpoey, 3aepaotcbfb^ Kap- 
noetb, 3adnin ^ydu (nacoBHa), ttenumh (qacoBBfl), flmntb (qacoBHa), 

EOAhWOMb PflOptb (laCOBBH), FAUHCKOMb MwUKUHtb (nacoBBH). IIpH- 

3HaKaMH noquTama 9thxt> pomfb cayman*: bo 1-xt», hxt> He- 
npHKOCBOBeBHocTb, t. e. oh* no oSn^eny corjtaciio ofimecTBa 
^3anoBiAaHbi tt doao6ho cbs njeB h li mt> pomaM^ ApeBHHXT> aapo- 

AOBT>*, BO 2-XTb, OKOJIO MHOTHXTj ponyB, KaKT> fl CBUBaJTb, BBICTpOCHU 

bt> HOBMuiee BpeMH qacoBHH, npHnesfb se nyarao RyMaTb, 
qTO pomH HacaareHU bocji* ycTpoficTBa cejieBia n nojyRHJH 

CBOK) CBBTOCTB OTTb HaCOBBH, TaKT> HaRT> 9TH pOHJH COCTOHrB 
MT* BfeKOBHX'B BeJTHKaHOB'B, BT> CpaBHefliH CB KOTOpBIMH Ha- 

CToanjie jrfcca KawyTca mojioabmh; bt> 3-xt^ cymecTByeTB 
mhoto pascKasoBii o tomt>, ito rto noKymaJiCH cpyfiHTb xotb 

OffHO AepeBO H3T> 9THX7> pOH^Ti, TO CT> HHMT> BCKOp* »e CJiyna- 

jocb KaKoe-BHdyAB HecqacTBe: jih6o ocjrfenHerB, jihOo 3axBo- 
paeTi> h yMperB; bt> 4-xt>, nojoAewb, h3t> yBaxeHia rt> bthmtj 
pon^aMii, HHKorAa ho co6npaeTca noAt hhmh secejutTBca h bo- 
Aktb xopoBOgu bt> BeceHHee BpeMH. 

IIo^HTaHie se otaImbhbix'b AepeBbeBi> BbipasaeTca b*b 60- 
cja6ofi CTeneHH. TaKi>, Hanp. : Bimaiorb na A^peBBfl Tpa- 

QOHKH HJIH nOJOTOHn^L CB HaiBHTBlMH Ha HHX1> HepBUMH HJH 
RpaCHBIMH KpeCTHKaMH, KOTOpbie 6bIJLH nepeA^B T*MT> DpHfiHTBI 

rt> HapyaHoft crtH* AOMa bt> Teqeme inecTH h6a^ib, Ha oc- 
HOBaeiH noBtpba, hto Ayma yMepmaro bt> npoxoAsesie 40 
AHeft npHJieTaerB bt> CBoe SbiBraee sHJiHii^e^ yMUBaeTca BOAoft 
h yrapaeTca BBiBfcineHHBiM'B noaoTeai;eMi>. Tanoe A^peBo ira% 
nopoAM MOssceBeJBHHKa p*akhxt> pa3M4ppBT> HaxoAHTca, Hanp., 
bt> a- fizHuwb; oho ace yB^maHO nojOTeHn,aMH. ^pyrie, no 
HCTeqeniz yRasaHHaro cpoKa, b uB'feiuHBaiorb btr TpaaoHKH ea 
upnAopoacHue RpecTBi. Jiflwbe, A*ByujRH bt> «eHb BeceHHflro 
Eropifl npHBHSBiBaiorB RpacBBie JEOCRyTU Ha SepesBi, BBfcpaa 
hm*b cboh) cyAB6y h saraAWBaa o CBoeft SyAymeft aoji*, a bt> 

TpOHH.blH'B AOHB QyCRaiOTb BTH JOCRyTRH Ha BOAy. 

H3B*CTeH'B OOhlHaft npOTaCRHBHTB OOJKBHUX'b CRB08B AYMH- 



Digitized by 



0BH1AH B7» HEPBOOBCROVB Y., HOBrOPO^CKOtt FTB. 125 



CTUfl AepeBBs; xoth 3A*cb oht> He coxpaHHJrcn, ho saTO Ha- 
6jnH)ffaeTCH TaKofl cnoco6i> fbiem* oojbHbix^ Afrreft: hmchho, 
hxt> npoTacRHBaioTB Mewffy CTyneHHMH crboshoS ji*cthhi^u 
(a. Bopi>, YjioMCKOft boji.). flajrfce, itftae6Haii cnjia npHAaeTCfl 
AepeBy enje bt> HfeKOTopux-b cjiyiaflx'b, Hanp. npn 6ojih bt> 
noflCHHi;*: mtoou nojiyiHTb oSierqeme, (JojBHoft AOJraceH'b 
noTepeTBca oSeaaceHHoft cnHHoft o AepeBflHHbifl noAnopra, cto- 

flll^ifl OKOJIO 3a6opOBT>, HJEH «e O CpeAHIOK) CT*HKy OBHHa (a* 

KjionyaoBO, Yjom. boj.). M&neHbBHXT> A*Teft npn GeacoHHHitfb 

CTyRaiOTb DflTKaMH O CTfeHKy BT> HeiKHJIOtt XOpOMBH* (c. Mo- 

pou,Koe, MopoaRofi boji.)* Xotb bi> bthxt> cjiyqaflxi* nrpaerb 
pojb He croflmee ha KopHK) a^P^bo, a tojibro coopysenifl h3t> 
aero, ho B*pa bt> KaKyio to cMy, npoHcxoAHmyio HMeHHo ott> 
AepeBa, hcho BupaaaeTCfl bt> Bume npHBeAeHHbix'b $aKTaxT>. 

IIoHflTaaie KauHefi h Bfcpa bb Hx f b HyAOAfcficTBeHByio CHJuy 
HafijiioAaeTCH bt> oahomt> hsbIicthomT) mh* cjiyqafc, a hmghhoi 
npa 6oji*3hh „03biRT>% nponcxoAameft ott> n AypHoro raasy* 
(npH3HaRH: HeAoatoraHie. h jrerKoe JiHxopaAOHHoe cooroflHie), 
coSnpaiOTi, bt> nojrfe n RaaceniKH-6pHKyHKH a h3T> MejiKHxt sa- 
jryHOBT>, ROTopue oSMUBaiorb bb KaKoft-HHdyAB nocyAHH* bo- 
AOfl H 9T0K) BOAOK) ORaiHBaiOT'b 6ojibHoro ct> npoHSHeceHieM'b 

MOJlHTBTb (A- KopOTHeBO, IleTpHHeBCROfi BOJOCTH). 



Coo6n^HJi> M. K. rep€icuM(m m 




YKpaMHCKifl iiereHAU m BtpoBamfl, cBH3aHHUH ct> MMeHaMN 

HtKOTOpUXl> CBflTblXV 

1) IIopoKb Ham (20 iiou). Yean 3Tb Sro ciriflBCfl: 9 mp fi 
Hjn>fl qojioBHRi>! BHHt TyMa! bhht> He sna nKhA h achb!" Bhht> 
6jtbi> njoxeabKuft, HHKOMy HHHoro — 9 CMiftcfl, Bon* 3Tb T060H) tf . 
Ct&bt> Bory mojhjtbch, CTaB'b nHCHBiRaTB, y nsxHiamo n ce- 
pe^y pas'b y a^hb &hbi> art* coHn;e safiAe. A TocnoAB aHroia 
cocjiaBii. „ILibfl tf ,Rase, 9 UpopoRa, xoienib ao TocnoAa Bora* 4 ? — 
Xoiy, Ta «kt> to M6hh focnoAb jacTb? — y) Sbi r b xo^enib, Tairt 
to6h Bon> h AacTb-, tu 3Haemb UoHeAiuioR'B? 44 — A ARi>-se He 

3HaiO? Mbl 3T> HBIMT) y OffHblM'b MHHaCTBipH CHOBHflaJIblCb H 

npuqamajrucb, h Bemwb npeocBflmeHHbift He ftncTbi. CRopoM- 

Horo a TocnoAb £ro, hrt> bhht> safiojins-b, ysABi* Ha He- 

6eca; abb ysAB?> Ha Hefieca, OTRpbiBTb, mo6i> 6yB*B bhht> cba- 
TbiMii: n Tu, CBHTbift Hibfl, 6yjb CB&TbiM?> h UpopoKOK); XTO 
to6h 6y«e MOJUUTbCA, tbok> MOjrwTBy no^MTaTbi, — HacbiThi cbh- 
tok) nwmeio a . Kibfl IIpopoKT> saBHgye OTije mo xjihSt* poABiTbi 
qoJiOBHKT> posBie Tafi no&Hae , a bhh-b no csoeMy Harjra^ae^ 

skt> qoJOBHKT> Bora MOJieTa ero, BLibio, npoce, to! Hh- 

^bitt Rase: „xn6a Hjiba HpopoKT> Borbl u Haouoga orb To- 
cno/ja Bora, TocnoAB hhmt> saMbinua (nochiJia): „0TTaKi> h 

TaR-B U , H CBHTUft* IIOHeAHJIOR'B (BMiCrt CB HXBeft) *). 

Hjibr 3aBtAyeTb rpoMOirb. „Ba6ycH), aja qoroarb boho rpe- 

MbiTb?*— /Jjia Horo rpeiiuTB? xa toto rpeubiTB 

nero jiHTa ceMHan,ATi> hojiobhrt> y6biBT>, RasyTB. M n,mrb 3a- 
BHAye Hjibh IIpopoKa. KasyTB, mo to Ayma CBHTa (y6HTa rpo- 
mdmT)) — Borb ero saae, hu go Toro He aoxoabimo. Y hbct* cba- 
meHHRi> 6yBi>, a n^e ahbhbihoio 6yjia, Tafi Rase 6yjio: „art> 
6m MeHe rpoMii y6biBT> 9 a moh lionaRA H3"b poahbi yiiepja, to 
mu-Cti npocBHTMJiMCb 6u y aboxb c*b nonaABeio a . A eaty Una 
IIpopoRa npucHMBCfl — sacHyB'B (SaTioinKa), rrb oti^m pe*m npo- 
roBopbiB'b: — w He 6yAe, SaTioiuRo, Toro, mo6*B Te6e rpoirB 
y 6biBT>^ — TBi He nowraemb CBHToro Hjibio IIpopoRa; yxpeuiB 



*) Cm. n AHTponoMop<(iraeciiA npexcTaBieHU u di-oorp. 06osp. II, V, 161 erp. 





YKPAHHCKIfl nrBHffl R BfePOBAHIH. 



127 



th nwb boakh* Bmwb (6aTH)mRa) *kt> ycTaBT>: „MaTymEO, mo 
M6HH CHMjroca! tt — „<H-» to6h crhabrbi pasfiupb nasajia, mod* 
Tu tbi He iibib'b BOffKH, a tu He cayxaeniBl tt 3aaBiB7>; oaho 
ifae, 0^ ho fifle Ta.nBe BOARy,- art* cxhjebibca Ha cTyjH, TaRi> 
h 3acHyBT> (yMepnb). Y Shx-l xpecTBHBe 6yjibi — 3a nonaaeio 

B3flBT> — H #0 4KH TpU^ DJO BOHB1 #3MT> He D06BUH (KpeCTBflH&MT>) — 

h 6och, h rojtn, h rojiOAHH xoaujbi. DEWb hrt> yMept, nonage 
OAHy ffo«iRy oTA&ita, xto ero 3Hae Ryaw h sbbhs'b; ffpyry sa 
o6T>ftH3waqoro— TaRi> MynBiBi*, Tairw uynwb hokbi He iiobh- 

CBuracB y jthch (8th oaRTH, oiobhaho, npHsmaiOTCfl Ram> 

HaRaaaHie sa rpfexH GaTioniRH). 

3a pafioTy wb aeHB Hjibh MowerB nocjrfeAOBaT* HaRasaaie, 
HanpHMip'b: „Tejw 3A0XHe*. 

IIoHap'B, npoHcmeffinift ott> rpoMOBoro yAapa, TymHTB He 
cjrfeflyerb. .TyniBiTB hcjibbr— ffyxe 6yAe ropHTb h ae aaTy- 
inBiniB. Cthsorti y cycHAa 6jwb HeyRpuTBift, Aonv* bhiiiob'b. 
„I],eft Hjibh xoht» kojiu Hapo6e thujulbI* (tobophtb coc*at>)— 
h gaBaft npuRpBiBaTb^ art* HBiHys-b nepBO Ha cthfb, bkt> yga- 

pblBT) rpOMHb, a CTHJRORT> flRT> CBHIRa TOpBITB. A BOHO CZHJtJ Hffe 

qoJiOBHB'b, cuepeAy (y Hero OAe»Aa) art* pw3Bi: n no6j>uii ho- 
jiOBHne, He Tyinu, He TpeBoarc>, aropuTt Toft cthi"b, mo tu 
npuTpycHBi>, Taft noTyxHe" .. Bort MBijyB&Bi> (ocTajBHoe 
yu*ji*jio). 

HenacTafl ^ HJia opaieTCfl b% rpoay bt> Tpy6u. ^Bhh'b TyAH 
xoBaeTbop, art> Bepxi) HeaaKpwTHft, JiyKaBwft xoBaeTBua u . 

Art* HaxoAe rpoaa, Tpe6a hbitbtb: „bu aarojiH cbath, h 
tbi, Hjibh IIpopoKa, h Bojtb — Ca.iiaBoxT>, hchojihb He6o h 

36MJH, H TBI, CBATBlft Bo«e, CfiflTbltt RpHDKBlfi, HOMblJiyft HaCT> 

rpHmHBixT) a , a to bhht> (jiyRaBbift) hhaxoa** hha'b nojiOBHRa. 
IIhcja Hjtbh HeJD»8ff RynaTBi^H — 6yAe rojosa 6ojhtb — y 

BO AY HaMOTOBT>. 

(Cm. IlporpaMMy ajia coSnpyaHiff araorp. CB*A*Hifi, hsa. H. 



2) CbatoB BaocM (11 «eBp.). — „ Ob htm ft Bjiacift HaBHAye po- 
raTOK) crotbihoh). Hanrb nbiCBiteHHBiS AHAycB 6yjo 3i> Beqepa 
npuRaaye: ambhtbch, mojoabiuh, modi* saBTpa npHHecjiBi pa- 
HeHBRo BOfluuH 3i> EpuHfiiniH, HaJuitTe y numRy a6o mo 
TaMT>, nocTaBTe Ha noRyTH, dhai> cbrtbim'b, Ta BRHHBTe CTpa- 

CTOBOH CBHHKbi; Hexafi CTOfiHTB AO TpOXTb jeHB, IlOKhl CBflTBlfi 

Bjiacifi He HarjiRHe; Ha Tpera cyTRM bhht> AhAh ocbhtmtb h or- 

pOHBITb. tt aR«b BUCTOfiHTB (BOga) Tpoe CyTOR*b, yBHJBlOTB y RO- 

jroAesH, cROTBiHy no xahbrmti noRponjiflTB • H i^e 6a6ycn 6yjo: 

^MOJOABmH, BHeCBTB RCMeBBRy npflABIBa u ; BH3BM6 TpBI MB1- 

qe^KH sMBi^e; BHSBMe h nojo^ce Ha noKym; Bon> AhAh cbat wfl 




757—789). 



Digitized by 




128 



dTHOrPA4>H<IB0KOE OBOBPftHIB. 



3Hae, ag Bona #hxt> xHHe. Si 6yao nbrraio: ,6a6ycio, a** qoro 
boho?"— y^KopoBy nHAKypuTB, Taw, mo npuKbiaeTbCJi" (Cm. 
IIporpaMMy, 578 — 586 bood.). 

3) CBHToft EeenuMpvu C2o nana). — HeHSBfcCTHO, qeuy noKpo- 
BHTejibCTByeT'b. „Ero thhb jeacHTb (bt* B'fejiropoA'fe), a cain» 
iihiuobT) y KHftHBfa ajih Toro, mo BCHKbifi (6631* pasSopy) npn- 
MaAyBaBCfl; MWjyBaBT> h cjinnoro h Hpusoro:, y cTapa ro;i;u 
CBflTuft TocnoAb h IleTpo xoauju Ta BSHaBa-nu jiioAefi-, Te- 
nep'B He 6yAyTi> xoautb qepesi* OAHy BOARy, Ta noraBH cjosa; 
h 40J0BHR0BH cayxaTu He xoqeTbija, Hepe3 r b OAHy jiaftRy Cbh- 
Tbift He nHACTyQe tt . (Cm. Ilporp., Bonp. 798). 

4) Heam Boum (30 hou).— FascRasiniia CMfeniHBaex7> HsaHa 
BoMHa cb HsaHOM'b Tojiobochkok) (KpecTHTeJieM'b, 29 aBr.) 
— Ha Cyxoro HsaHa Mara B7> npa3AHbiKi> CTajia KpumuTb Ka- 
n y CT y. fluxHHa njiaqe— AWTHHA^e ahjio: „y»e th m&hh bbh- 
pbiBCfl!" MaxHyja pynoio. Taft SHfljta roJiOBy- cmeniija pyKM, 
cnjiecHyja pyKaMbi Taft ORaneHMa; TocnoAb aarojia SHCJraB'b— 
B3ajiu Ha He6o a . Bt> 8tott> npa3AHHRi> ^HejbSH RpumbiTB Ka- 



5) Cb. AnmoHuda. — „Pocy cb. Ahtohbia& A&e; XT0 Buita no- 
qnxae, MOJre6HH cjryace, TOMy Bona Aae xopomy pocy^ hrte> pa- 
HOKt xojioAHbift, a6o Tenibift — cb. AHTOHbiAa TbiMTb) saBHAye a . 

6) Ba6a 6yjro EaJKyxb: „yqbiHHTb, mojoabiii.h^ nmeHhiqHOH 
MyRbi; saBTpa zpectm nemiw". CaeqyTb ooMOTarojb n jaTOHKOMt , 
Taft ycTpoMJiHTb y nmeHbimo, y 6oHRy, h ctoRhtb Taurb, noKbi 
ciaTb; toah xpecTb 6epyTb Ha noje, poaciioTb nureHHiuo, no- 
jaMaioTb, Sn^flTb. Byjia nmeHHii;H!... Tenepi» tbkoh He6yaa!... 
(Cm. riporp., 1007 Bonp.). 

(3aracaH0 on cTapyzn Cotowh vb c. mtfesHiri, BixropogcEaro y., Kyp- 
csofi ry6., b* 1892 r ). 




Coo6n4iurb M. K. BacuAtevb. 




Mttxawi-b (l6TpOBMHi» AporoMaHOBi> 



(HeRpojorb) # ). 



Poahjich bt> ceBTfl6pt 1841 roAa bt> r. Taimb nojixaBCKoM ry6. 
flBopaHCKifi fowb flparoMaHOBuxi npoHcxoprt orb yBpanHCRoM Roaaij- 

KOfl CTapiUHHBI, H oOHXOpHMTb, pa3r0B0pHMMT> H3HROM'b Bl CBMettCTBt 

oma MHxaHJia HeipoBHHa Gun MajiopyccRii, ho no cbohmt> uneawb 
JparoMaHOBU Cmjih o6mepyccanH; 0Tem>, BOciiHTaBiuifica bi IIeTep6yprfc, 
npHHHMaJix yqadie bt> pyccRofl JurrepaTypi. MHxaHjn> HeTpoBHH'b bn- 
pocb nojn> rjiySoKHMi, HeoTpasHMbWb Biiflmero cBoero oma h, mosho 
fKa3aTb, cl nejieHORx ycBOHirb ce6t cbok> Jno6Hnyio mhcjib o Ba*HOin> 
3HaieHiH o6mepyccKofl jMTepaiypu n RyjbTypti AJia Majiopyccnaro oG- 
mecTBa; a najitHtfluiia oocioATeaLCTBa caarajuicb Tain> 9 mo Bee Ooate 
$ 6oji>e OTHHMajH ero orb MaJiopyceKoM uonm h nepeHOCHJiH Ha ofime- 
pyccKyio. Bb 1849- 1853 rr. ApanmaHOBT, yuuca B'b raAJWCRoarb ytoA- 
HOM't yiHAHmt, odaBaflCB noAi> npoAOJUKaiomHMCfl BjuameH^ oma. TorA& 
ze Majii>HHKT> ofiHapyMJTb 6oju>njyio h3ejiohhocti> ri HCTOpH^ecROMy me- 
Hiio. Bt> 1853—1859 rr. oht* y^HJica bt> HojiTaBCRofl THMHa3iH. Bi 1859 
roAy flparoMaHOBt nocTynHjm> Ha HCTopHRO-<j>H4iojioniHecRifl (J)aRyju>Teri> 
KieBCKaro y— Ta, bo BpeMH noneiHTejbCTBa DnporoBa. Ho OROHiaHiHyHH- 
BepcHTeTa, bt> 1864 r. oht> 3an{HTHji> AHCcepTauiio pro venia legendi: 
<HMnepaTopi» THGepifi* (nanes. B'b «Yhhb. H3b>. 1864 r.) h bi 1865 
r. CTajit unaTHUMt npHBart-AOueHTOMi, ho aaipyAHHTejibHbifl Maiepiajib- 

Hblfl 06cT0flTeJibCTBa (BOCHHTaHie CeMbH H CeCTpM, Tenepb H3BtCTH0fi 

MajopyccKofl nHcaiejibHHUH «0jieHH Uhuirh*) Chjih npiiHHOfi Toro, wo 
tojibro bt> 1869 r. oht> HanucajTb h 3amHTHjn> cboio MarHdepcRyio 
AHccepTaniio: «Bonpocb 06b HciopHqecROirb 3HaqeHui PhmcroA HMnepia 
h TauHTXi ^BieBi 1870 r.). Me»Ay t*mt> pa3ju«HHH neAaronwecKin 
cooCpaaeHia ycntjin npuBecru ero rt> mmcjih 0 h6o6xoahmocth Majiopyc- 
cRaro H3UKa B'b HasajibHWxi uiROjaxi., a saHHTifl MaJiopyccRofl btho- 
rpa$iett hm^jih rjitACTBieMt yBJieieHie flpanmaHOBa MaaopyccRofi HapoA- 
hoB cjOBecHOCTtK) Ho ero co6cTBeHHHm> cjuraairb, cCTyjui HaAi> 60- 
raiofi h npeRpacHofi HapoAHofl cjioBecHocTtio, a ocofieHHO HaAt nojm- 
TiiqecRHMH (t. e. hctophhgcrhhh ) irfeCHflMH, ROTopua noRaauBaiorb no- 
BTDMecRyio HCTopiio yRpaHHCRaro HapoAa, pa3CRa3aHiiyio m% caMHMi», 
3acTaBiuH ero RptnRO nojno6HTb stotl HapoATk h nepeaHTb BctMH ch- 
jaMH AyiHH Bet 4aciH0CTH MajiopyccRaro A*Jia wh Poccia h ABdpo-BeH- 
rpin>. B^ 1870 r. ^paroMaHOBi 6uj^ ROsiaHAHpoBaHi> 3a rpaHHuy, rAt 
h npo6u-n. ao 1873 r. Bt> BepjiHHt oht> yeepAHO cayman MoimceHa 
h roTOBHjrb cboh naTbH o TeoRpaTiH, Hane^aTaHHHfl noTOMt bi <3Ha- 
Hiii- h tOreHecTBeHHuxi 3anHrRaxT>, ho He MeHte yeepAHO HHTepeco- 

•) Cm. ,3Tiorp. 06oap. a XXV. 



Digitized by 




130 



9TH0rPA<X>H4BCK0K 0B03P*HIE. 



BaJica o6mecTBeHHMMH sanaaHUMH TeqeHiflMH Haiam 70 roAOBt. Tose 
6ujo ci> hhmt> h bt> Apynjxi> ropoAax* EBponu (cpB. ero reiUejb- 
CeprcRyio daTbio: tBocTOiHaa noJWTHKa TepMaHui h o6pjceme> bi> cBtd- 
HHRt EBponu* 1872 r., $eBp.— Ma g) Bt> g^Ht (a bt> 1873 r. h bo 
JIbBOBt) AparoHaHOBi xopouio no3HaKOMiuicfl vb MajopyccKHMH ram- 
qaHaMH, y6*feflHJicfl bt> RpafiHevB neBtaecTBt u OTnajiocTH ramuRO-pyc- 
cKOft HHTejiJHreHuiH (cPyccue bt> ramiyH*, B. E. 1873 r., hub. 
$eBp., «JlHTepaTypHOe' ABH»eHie bt> ramuin> B. E. 1873., aBr. — 
C6HT. ), 4pe3BtnaftH0 yBJieRca rajHi|RHMi> Bonpocom* (bx KieBt ero no- 
tomt> npo3BajiH cMHxaiurL rajrHi|Riti») h CTajii niicaTB fljfl rajflnaHi 
pflAi> daTefi Ha Ty Temy, ROTopofi yarb ao Romja rh3hh He h3M^hajii>i 
c HHTe juiHreHTHbiari) ramqaHarb, Aa h Boo6nje MajiopoccaM'b, cjrfcAyerb 

BT> HHCbMeHHOCTH H OOlIjeCTBeHHOS J8H3HH AepKSTbCH A3bIRa HenpeH^HHO 

HapoAHaro, t. e. MajopyccRaro, oAnaRO no HAeairb cjitAyen npHMRHyrb 
ri o6mepyccRoft mTepaTypt h H3yqaTb 9Ty mTepaTypy RaRi> mosho 
TmaTeJU>Hte> . 3a 8Ty mncjil MajiopoccM H3B*cTHaro orrfcHRa h -rorAa, 
bt> 70-xt> roAaxt, h BcerAa BnocjitACTBin Ha3HBam flparoiiaHOBa *moc- 
RaJie^HJiOMti h <o6pycHTejieM r L> . 3a CTaTbio «11 movimento letterario 
ruteno (t. e. MajiopyccRoej in Russia e Galizia* (Rivista Europea 
1873 r., Jfo 1—2) nojibCRie aypHajw nam Ha3HBaTb flparraaHOBa 
cmocrobcrhmt> areHT0in>». He Jiyqme OTHecjiacb rt> HeMy h H3BtcTBaa 
qacTb BemRopyccoBi: bt> I^jopHxt bx 1873 roAy ffparoaaHOB'b no3Ha- 
rommjich ct> pyccxHMH peBOJiiouioHepaMH-coaiajiHCTaMH, H 3a CBOH flpRLfl 
MaJiopyccRia yStSKAema ohx- 6am npH3Hairb hmm 3a neJOBtRa OTivrajiaro 
h y3Raro nanioHajiHCTa... Bo3BpaTHBnmcb m> 1873 r. bt> KieB-b, flpa- 
roMaiiOB'b ciajrb bt> MajiopyccROirb o6mecTBt npoBOAHTb uuc*b o <eB- 

p0neH3M*> H 0 «TaROBTb C0UiaJIH3Mt H K0CM0II0JlHTH3M r fe, ROTopwe He 

OTBepraiorb qacmix'b HaijioHajibHbiX'b Bapiauitt o6mHXT> Hueft h $opirb> 
nocatAHioio Mbicjib (o RocnonomTH3Mt Ha HauioHaJbHoft MajiopyccRoM 
nowb) owl npOBOAHJTb h bt» yH — tcrhtb jieRuiaxi. 9to, Bnponeirb, He 
BHaHHJio, mo om> HaMtpeHi HanpaBmTb CTyj(eHTOB r b ri nojHTinecROit 
AtflTejbHOCTH: HanpoTHBt, — no ero mrfcfiiio, MHoro pa3i> BHCRa3aHH0»y, 
cCTyAeHTb AOJimeffb ynHTbca, y^HTbcn h yMHTbca, a He npHHHMaTb He- 
CBoeBpeMeHHaro yiacTiff bx nojumurb; noJiHTiiROirb Moxerb 6uTb tojh>ro 
ie^0B , feR , b BnojiHt o6pa30BaHHHfl h noAroTOBjieHHHft>. BcTynHTejbHafl 
lexum: ^IIojojReHie h aaAau Haynn AP^BHeft HCTopin*, HaneMaTaHa vb 
'JR. M. H. Hp.» 1873, h. CLXXV. Bt> OTRpHBUieMCH okojio Toro Bpe- 
MeHH RieBCROBfb cR)ro-3anaAHOiffb (hyvfejrfc Hmh. P. Teorp. 06mecTBa> 
flparoMaHOB'b npnHHMajix acnBoe yqacrie, npnen Tpe6oBajn> jifin stho- 
rpa^RiecKHX'b btioaobt, MeTOAa cpaBHHTejibHaro. CpaBHHTejibHHMX MeTO- 
AOMi Offb 6un 3aHHTepecoBaffb eme bi> 1869 r. («HobhM tiormA Ha 
BejHRopycbRHif 6oraTHpcbRH» enoc, BjiaA. CTacoBa>, ubobck. <IIpaBAa> 
X? 25—31); OAHaRO bt> KieB* He TOJibRO CTacoBCRyio Teopiio, ho h 
Boofiiqe cpaBHHTejibHtrif m6toai> bx 9THorpa$iH HaxoAHJiH cnJiaBameirt 
no OReaHy 6es6pexH0My». K% aTOMy BpeMeHH omocHTca TpyAU flparo- 
MaHOBa: 'OirojiocoR'b puuapcRoM noa3iH bi> pyccRHX^ HapoAHbixi irfcc- 




M. n. APArOMABOBb. 



131 



Hflxi>> (3airacKH I0.-3. 0r«. M. P. 1\ 0., t. II, KieBT, 1874); 3n*Cb 
noKaaaHO, r3kt> 3ananHbia ntceHHMa Terna, nepexofla Ha Pycb, nojiy- 
qajorb HacjioeHia rfcxt CTfhwb, qepeai ROTopwa oh* npoxopjiw; «n*CHH 
h CKasama o KpoBOCM*ineHiH>,— pesioiie »Toro Tpyja qirraHO Ha KieB- 
ckomi ApxeojiorHiecKOMi Ob^t 1874 r., a ivfcjoe H3CJi*H0BaHie Hane- 
qaTaHO 6mjo yse bt> 1891 r. wb V h VI tt. cC6opHHKa 3a HapojjHH 
y MOTBOpeHna * ,nojn> aar j . : cCjiaBflHCinrrfe npfcnpaBRH HaEpnoBaTa HCTopna » 
(bi 1892 r. Tpa6oBCKijl bt> cWislo noirfccTHjrb RaRi 6h caMOdOflTeJib- 
Hyio ciaTBH) <Podania o zwi^zkach mi^dzy najblif szem rodzenstwem> , 1 
rpcfe BOcnojfbdOBajiCfl BctMHMaTepiajiaMH,co6paHHHMH /JparoMaHOBborb, h 
tojibko bt» Mejoqaxt cafciiiajrb eMy HtROTopua Bospaxeiiia); «Rt> Bon- 
pocy o cjitpxi BejiHRopyccRaro 6oraTHpcKaro anoca bi> MaJiopocciH*, 
iiHCBHO rt> Op. Mmuiepy (flpeBH; h Hob. Poccia, 1875, X§9); apxeojio- 
mecRafl CTaTba: „IIajaTHHCRifl xowh h% fmt no pacRonKam* (3K. 
JI. H. Up. 1874, q. CLXXIX, CTp. 221-259). IIORa 9th Tpyjju no- 
HBJifljiMCb bt> neqara, roTOBHJocB RanHTajibHtflinee coqwreme: t Hcto- 
pHqecRia ntcHH MaJopyccRaro Hapojja Ct> o6MCHeHiHMirBji. AHTOHOBma 
h M. ftparoiiaHOBa». Tomt> I, BHmeflmiit bt> KieB* bt> 1874 r., coflep- 
ffiHTb ntcHH BfcRa RpyKHHHaro h RHamecRaro h ntcHH BtKa R03amtaro 
o 6opb6t vb TaTdpaMH h TypRaMH; II tom* (KieBi, 1875) — ii*chh o 
6opb6t ct> nojiaRBMH npn Eornant Xmojikhhiiromx. — yBjreqeHHUit hcto- 
pjnerRHMH h BTHorpa^HqecRHMH pa6oT8MH, AparoMaHOBi cnepBa CTopo- 

HHJICfl 0T1> BCflROft nOAHTHRH n nyftjIHlJHCTHKH , 3arfeMl ORHaRO BCTynHJUl 

bt> nojeMHRy ct> <KieBjflHHHOnrb u IIIyjibraHa h noM*CTHJi r b bt> «Rien- 
crobtb Tejrerpa<jrfe» h ^BtCTHHRt EBponu> pan^ cTaTeS bt> 3amirry m«v 
JiopyccRHXT> cTpeMJieHiS (oco6tifl 9THorpa$HqecRiii HHTepecb npeflCTaBJMi- 
eTT>' cTaTba: «HoBORejBbTCRoe h HpoBaHcajibCRoe pHKenie bo fl>paHuin.v 
B. E. 1875 aBr. — coat.) JltTOin* 1875 rojja flparoMaHOBi* C0BepmHjn> 
nyTemecTBie no rajraqmrfc, ByROBHHt h yropcRoft PycH; onHcaaae nyTe- 
mecTBia cm. tABCTpo-pyRi cnoMHHH> bt> <Haponi> 1892 r. Bt, 1876 r. 
HparoiiaHOB'b OROHqEJui b^ KieB* neqaTame «ManopyccKHxi Hapopuxi 
npeffamit h pa3CHa30Bi>> h <IIoBicTeft Ocnna OepROBnqa, c nepeAHix 
cjiobom npo raJHUbRe iracbMeHCTso.* OceHbK) Toro 3Re ro«a oht> BMtxajn* 
nvb Poccin n Combine yae He B03Bpamajicfl. CnepBa oht> nocejiRJica bt> 
BtHt, sartMi bcrop* nepetaaii'b bi> SKeHeBy h 3fl*cb Jipownji'b jio 
1889 rop, Rorp 6oJnrapcRoe .npaBRTejibCTBo npnrjiacHJio ero saHHib 
Raeej^py Bceo6mefl HCTopiH bt> Co^iflcROBfb yHRBepcHTert (qHTaTb Ha 

pyCCR0MT>fl3HRt); TaHTb 0HT> H npo«HJH> AO CMepTH. 

3a rpaHimeM 3paro»raHOBi Hanncajn* MHOxecTBO RHnrt h CTaTeti, 
nepeqacjieHie ROTOpwxi 3aHfljo 6u HtCROJibRo aecaTROBi cTpaHHUi: ne- 
peqeHb, hb^hhuB M. IlaBjraRoii'b, coaepairrb bt> ce6t 34 <vrp. MejRoit 
neqara h nptfTOMb pjieRO h nanem m nojioni.. Oflira H3T> ero coqnHe- 
Hift h HSffaHict Hocarb xapaRTepi noJUHTHqecRifl h ny6jiimifctHqecRiit. 
3aMtoHTb nyzHO, qTo flparowaHOBii noJioKHjn, ce6t 3a npaBHJio hh bt> 
RaRHXi> nojiHTHqe crhxi» aaroBopaxt He yqacTBOBaTb n orpaHHqHBajica 
BCRjiHjqiTeJibHo JiHTepaTypHoio A*aTejK>HOCTbio Om> 6ujrb ropaqnirb Bpa- 




132 



9TH0rPA*MqECK0B 0B03P*HIE. 



iom'l TeppopH3Ma: no HfleajiaMT> oht> 6ujl% Bparom BfflRaro ysRaio aok- 
TpHHepcTBa, 6ujn> aHTHMapKCHCTOMi, TepntTb He moit> nanpacfiuxi, 
TeopeTHHecKHXi* cnopoBi o MaRCHMaju>Huxi> nporpamiaxT*, t3aBTpainHHXT> 
hhhxt> peBOJH)iiiH> h t. a ; ra36TH0fi nOJieMHRH oht> H36trajrc>, h iota 
eMy HHoraa h npHXOAHJOCb BbicTynaTb ct> noaeMHRofi bt> neqaTH, ho, no 
ero co3Hamio, <nocjt bcakoM nojieMnqecKOfl ct3Tlh oht> ce6a qyBCTBO- 
Bajn> pn pa oneHt naoxo* (axopoBbe ero 6biao BOo6me >Moe). Cio- 
bomt>, yieHufi 6bijn» bi> mwb HecpaBueHHO cuwbe, qtirb nojimHirb. 
Ero cTaTkH o nauioHaJiH3Mt HMtiorb rfcCHoe OTHomenie r% araorpa^iH, 
h noTOMy npHxoAHTcn o hhxt> CRasaTB h*croju>ro noxpo6H*e. AparoMa- 
uobt> ropflHOB03CTaBajn>npoTflBi> oGnsaTejibHaro npeRJCHeHifl npeAiHaiu- 
onajiLHMMH lepTaMH, B03CTafiajrL, no ero BHpaseHiio, «npoTHBi> Ryavra 
HauioHajbHUXi. gbatuhl^: no ero y6tKAeHix), tojbro t* nauioHajbPHfl 
oTJianiH sacjiyiKHBaioT'B noweHia, ROTopua pasyvHU h cminaTMHu. A6- 
cojhotumxt> HaoionaJbHuxt xapaKTepoBi, h aOcoJUOTHaro cnauioHaibHaro 
Ayxa> oht> He npH3HaBajn> h xoRa3HBajn>, mo ct> HSMtHeHieMi. HcropH- 
MecRHXi ycjiOBifi shshh MtHHeicH xapaRTepi h Ayxi> HapoAa; HaponHyio 
ciOBecHOCTB Ra»Aaro Hapcp oht> npndHaBajii BHTepHauiona jlhoS ; na- 
cnerB 6oa%e MejiRnxi <HauiOHaibHUX'b cfiflTUHb> , Hanp., roctk>mobt>— 
oht> AORasuBaat, hto h ohh 6esnpecTaHHO sanMCTBymcn oahhmi. Hapo- 
AOMi> y APF oro H MeHte Bcero hm*iotl pesona nonacTt Bt wcjo Haiti- 
OHaJibHBixi cBHTMHb. HaHfiojite cymecTBeHHufl npHsnaRx HauionajbHOCTH, 
H3biRT>, AparoHaHOBT) yBaaaJTb, ho onmb tskh He RaRi cbrthhto, a 
RaRi> opyAie mhcm; <nmwb ate HHTejurareHium , noBTopaJit oht» Bcer^a 
h MHoro pasi, cAOJiseHi 6htl BcerAa h o6a3aiejibHO tott> ate, hto h 
y npocToro HapoAa, HHane Heimcjmirb shaocmocb h 9R30cmoct>> . Xotb 
TaRHni> oOpasoM'b AparoManoB'b bbicoro noAHMajrt 3Haieme MajiopyccRaro 
BSbiRa h Bcefl cBoefi AtflTejibHOCTHO noRa3ajn> ce6a, Kairc» MCTaro Majio- 
pocca, ho OAna nacTb MajopyccKoit HHTCJuiHroHuin, sa HenpH3Hanie Hanio- 
HajbHMXT> cBHTHHb h oco6eHHO sa BOcxBaaeHie pyccRoS jiiiTepaTypH, 
OTKasuBajiacb Aaxe CMHTaTb ero 3a Moaopocca; 3aT0 Apyraa iacTb, t. 
h. <pycbRO- (t. e. rajiHURO) yRpaiiiHbCbRa paAiRajibna napTHB> (oprami: 
<CbBiT> , «ToBapHHi> , <HapOA,» «Xjii6opu6>, <-StHTbe i Cjiobo> , *PaAiRai>, 
♦TpoMaACbRHiirojioo) nua flparoiiaHOBa, 6en npeyBeaHqemfl cRasaTb, 
KaKi> 6ora.— Bet 9th CBtA^Hin neoCxopMO coo6mHTb noTOMy, ^to ohi 
bt> 3HaMHTejnbH0ft CTeneHH yncHBioTb h Hay^Hue TpyAU h HHTepecu Jpa- 
roiiaHOBa: hmchho, yacHBiorb Bu6opi> SparoMaHOBMMi, rfcx*, a He hhuxi 
HayqnHXT> Tean*. Bott> 6oJite Baacuufl hsi* 3arpaHOTHHx , b coiBHeniS ero: 
1) <La Russie d'Europei — wb *3eMJifl h jioah> 9. PeRJiro 1880 r., 
ct. 277- 918; SparoManoBy 3A*cb npHHajvesvrB noqTH bch cTanm- 
HecRaa, BTHorpa^HqecRaH h noJiHTHnecRaH qac.Tb, a no cioBam PeRJiro 
(dp. 919) <3paronaHOBa bbaho na RaxAoff CTpanimfo .—2) <Hctoph- 
qecRan llojibnia h BejrHRopyccRan AeM0RpaTiB> , ffieH. 1882 r., ct. 511.— 
3) <IIoJiiTHHHi (t. e. HCTopHHecRin) racbHiyRpatabCRoro Hapoxy XYII1 — 
XIX ctoji.> ; 9to— npHMoe npoxojxenie ^flcTopnqecRHXi ntcen hsjio- 
pyccRaro HapoAa>; t. I-fl: <3anopo»ui b 1709— 1739 p.>—ffieH. 1883, 




M. O. flPAlOMAHOBto. 



133. 



tc. 60+137; t. II: <rexMaHmHHa i Cjo6t«WHa b 1709—1765 p.> — 
SKeH. 1885, ct. 12-|-226 (6oju>me He buimo).—4) <Hoai yKpaiiubCbRi 
nici>Hi npo rpoiiaACbKi cnpaBH (1764 — 1880)>— JKeH. 1881, ct. 132: 

3A^Cl>, C06cTBeHHO, TOJlbKO pe3H)M6 fl HaTepiaW HtCROJlbRHX'b TOMOBl>, 

KOTopiie He 6tiJiHHane4aTaHH.— 5) cKosakeiuB^XXXIX tom* 9huhmo- 
nejtfH 9puia h Fpy6epa, 1887, ct. 126—137.— 6) c/Jb* nsHO-pyccKifl 
HHTepMBAijf Haqajia XVII b.» (KieB. CTap. 1883, Jfe 12— sa^cb coo6- 
uteui TCKCT'b flByxi* HHTcpMe^iM sepBOHopycca raBarroBHia, cocTaBJieH- 
hmxt* Ha MajiopyccKOM'b aamb ao 1619 r.; TaKi> -Kairb TaBaTTOBHTb uh- 

CajTb JiaTHUCKHMH 6yKBaMH, TO H AAA HCTOpiH MaJHOpyCCKaiO fi3URa TeRCTb 

HHiepjiiOAiii flBJiaeTCH BaaHtflumirb AOKyMeHTOsrb.— 7) cCTapfcttuiiH pye- 
CKia ApaMaTHuecKia cueHW* (KieB. CTapraa 1885, As 11)— Bee o Ttob 
se HHTepjiioAiax'b raBaTTOBiroa, ho yaee ct (J)OJibKjiopiioft cTopoiui: 06- 
CToaTejibHO BUHCHBHa Mdopifl cTpaHCTBOBaHia AByxi> GpOAflMX'b fioae- 
tobi, pa3pa6oTauHHXb raBarroBHqeM'b B r b MHTepjuoAiaxTb,— 8) ][tnu6 
pHA^ HajiopyccRHXi «BHpuieH>,— noMtmeHH bi* «KieBCKoS CTap\» sa 
pasHbie roAW — 9) <l3 icTopii Bipini Ha YKpaiHi^ — bt> MajiopyccROM'b 
c6opHHKt cBaTpa> 1887* r.— 10) <MaTepiajiM a^ih icTopii BipniiB yRpa- 
iHbCRHx**- JKHTbe i Cjiobo 1894, kh. 3 v kh. 4, kh. 5. — 11) <MaTepi- 
am h 3antTRH o6i yRpaHHCsofi HapoAHOfi <yiOBecHOCTH> — KieB. CTap. 
1882, Ms 11, 1883 roAa Xt 12.— 12) <MaJiopyccRiH h*chh o6t> ocbo- 
6o3RAeHiH RpecTWHm — KieB. Crap. 1887 r. JftAk 3— 4.— 13) «Typeu- 
Kie aHeKAOTH bt> yRpaHHcioM HapoAHOfi cjiOBecHOOTH> — KieB CTap. 1886 
r. JV».Vy 2—3. — 14) cIIIoayAHBHfi EyiraKa bt> yRpaHHCRHXi HapoAHHXT> 
cRa3aHiax> — KieB. CTap. 1887 r. Jft 8 a Xq 10.— 15) <#Ba Maaopyc- 
crhxi <jm6jibo h hxt> hcto4hhkh> — BtcT. EBp. 1887, iioab; 3AtCb no- 
RaaaHO npoHcxosABHie 3HaMeHHT0ft MaaopyccRotf bhpiah o .Khphr* h o 
saAHom noirfc. — 16) «L6gendes pieuses des Bulgares> — MSlusine 
1888 r., J&Ns: 9, iO, 12, — 17) <CiiaBHHCKH rfe cRa3aHH« 3a nomepT- 
BOBaHie co6ctb6HHO RtTe> — G6opMR* sanapoAHH yMOTBopeMfl 1889 r., 

KH. I, CT. 1 — 32. — 18) « CjHaBHHCKH-rfe CRa8aHHfl 3a p03RA«HHe-TO HB 

KoHCTaHTHHa BeJHRHM» — C6opH. 3a Hap. yMOTB. 1890 r. kh. 11,-19) 
tLes origines bouddhistes du <Dit de Tempereur Goustant> — I Con- 
gres international des folkloristes. London 1891.— 20) «HayRa Teo- 
joriiHa b 3axiAHift EBponi* — JliTepaT.-HayROBa 6H6jrioTeira Jfe5(JIbBOB'b 
1890)- -o 6n6jiettcRoS rphthk*. — 21 ) <Cjuibhhcrh-t1> sapHHHTH na ejHa 
eBaHrejiCKa aerema> — C6ophhkt> sa nap. yMOTBopeHHfl, 1891. — 22) <3a- 
6tAt»RH Bptxy cjiaBHHCRH-rfe pe JIHFHO3H0 -eTH^ ecKH jiereHAH> — C6opH. 
sa Hap. yMOTB. 1892 h 1893 rr.— 23) c^yAaubRi aymrm npo yRpaiHCbRy 
HauioHaJibHy cnpaBy>— 1-e h3A. 1891 r., 2 e MSA. 1892 r., ct. 294 
(JlbBOBt); 3Atcb HasepqeHa HCTopia paaBirrifl HaiuoHajiHSMa y pasHbixi 

Hap0A0BT> H . BT» MBCTHOCTH y MaJIOpOCCOBl, HORa3aHM BCt HeAOCTdTRH 

MaJiopyccKaro uauioHajiusMa, noApoSHo, ho oieHb 6e3nomaAHO npoH3Be- 
Aena outHKa A^HTejibiiocTH MajiopyccRHXi y , ieHHXT> h bt> saRJiioqeHie 
nOBTopeHa oou4iia>i Miicab o nojibst H3yqeHia o6mepyccKoH JiHTepaTypu 
h HayRH — 24) <JIhcth na HaA/iHinpaHbCbKy YRpaiHy>— 2-e U3A. JlbBOBTb 




134 



9TH0rPA*H<IBCR0B 0B03P*HIE. 



1894 r., ct. 199.— 25 J <Crapi xaprii bubhocth> — SKhtbb i Cjobo 
1894 r. bo BCtxi> RUBraii>; HscjtflOsaBie ocrajocb HeoROH<ieHHbiin> no 
cjiynaio CMepTH aBTOpa.— OrpoMHoe MHOzecTBO saitToirb, nepeBOAOBi* h 
peiieHsiM /JparoMaHOBi noirfccTHXb bt> (aohaohcromi>) Athenaeum (MezAy 
npo4HMi> CTaTLK) o Bepecat: The last menestrel of Ukraina), BiMelu- 
sine, Tradition, Archivio per lo studio delle tradizioni popolari, 
Rivista Europea/BT> paaHbixi cjaBAHCRHXi* H3Aa*riHXT> h bi t. h. pa- 
AHKaju>HHXi> MaJiopyccRHXt H3«aHiax'B: <ToBapHm>, <HapoA>, <3Lwn>e 
i Cjiobo> h ap* PeayuTaTU 9THorpa$iH h HdopiM peiHriH oht> nacTO 
cTapajca h yiriurb nonyupHSOBaTb; oco6eBBO m3b*ctbh ero rhhzrh: 
<OnoBiAaHBfl npo 3a3flpix 6oriB> , <PaB i nocTyn> h mb. AP- 

CpeftH eBponeflcKHXi yqeBHXt AparoMaHOBi» H0Jii>30BajCB 6oibmoH 

H3B*CTHOCTblO H aBTOpHTeTOMT> . 0co6eHH0 BpRO 9T0 06flapySBJ0C& BT> 

aHBapt 1895 r., BorAa nowraTeji flparoiiaHOBa bo JbBOB* npaaAHOBaii 
wOHjieM ero TpHAuaTHJitTHett HayqaoM A'feaiejtHOCTH. Torna co sctxi 
cTopOBi EBponH 6mjih npHCJiaHBi bo JIi»bobi> ropave h ftaxe Bocrop- 
ateHHtie npHBtra, Hanp., orb Au^peAa PaM6o, V. Mop^Min, T. IlHTpe, 
JL Jleze, M. IIlfl<]>$a, TacTOHa IlapH, AnpH RapHya h np. Rapnya, 
pexaBTOpT* <La Traditiom, npHBtTCTBOBajn> /JparoMaHOBa pse one- 
Hem, llapHsa, BceM $paHnii> h <BOCRjnma,n> Ha bch> Espony> (et je 
crie a travers TEurope): <floarotf zh3HH flparoMaHOBy!> DosejiaHie 
bto BnpoqeMi. He c6iuiocb, TaKt Kain, 8 udha (ct. ct.) Toro se 1895 
r. flparoMaHOBi BHesanHO yMepi. m> Co<{>iH orb pacniHpeHia aopru. 
CiiepTb ero npoiSBejia Ha ramam, (xof opue b*a*> o6flsaHbi eiiy cbohmt. 
yucTBeHHHMi.paaBHTieM'b) noTpacaiomeeBneqaTJi'feHie. Bet 6e3T> HCRjnoie- 
Hifl rasem h zypHaiu, hom^cthjih o Hem bi Bbicmeit CTeneHH coqyB- 

CTBeHHHO 0T3HBH. GKOp6HBlfl DHCBMa H TCJierpaMMH CO BCtXl KOHIjOB'b 

BBponu h H3i> MaiopocciH cocTaBEU fioamoM TOirb bt> 442 newfflbix'b 
CTpaamu. 

. 0 JRH3HH h TpyAaxt flparoManoBa cm. 1) Eiorpa^HiecRiM cioBapb 
yHHBepcirreTa cb. Bjajmiipa; 2) Dizzionario degli scrittori contem- 
poranei — de Gubernatis'a; 3) Dictionnaire des ecrivains contempo- 
rains, par de Gubernatis; 4) Carnoy: Dictionnaire de folkloristes; 
5) <HcTopHH JiiTepaTypu pycROH" npo<J>. OneJWHa OroHOBCRaro, noarfegH. 
tout* (3A*cb oieHb noApo6no HdjoseHa 6iorpa$w flparoManoBa h coRep- 
same Bctxi ero coiHHemfi, HanHcaHHHXT. Ha pyccRoirb h MajopyccROBn* 
flSHRt, ho ecTb MHOsecTBO ohihOori, h HeBOUHuxi, HCRazemfi); 6) 
<MHxatUo EeTpoBHq /JparoMaHOB, 1841 — 1895, floro H>6ueH, cuepTb, 
aBTO<5iorpa^ia i cnac tbodib, c nopTpeTOM HeOix^HRa, sjiaAHB i bmabb 
H. HaBJiHRi, JIbBOBi 1896 roAa; 7; <JKim>enHCb flparonaHOBa> , noit- 
meHHaa BBaHOirb OpaHRO b% ero zypHajt <ffiHTbe i Cjiobo> 1894 r., 
rh. I; 8) BazHoe 3Ha^eHie HMtioTb <ABCTpo-pycbRi citohhhh> caMoro 
flparoMaHOBa, HOMtmeraHe bt» <JIiTepaTypHO-HayROBiH Bi6jiioTeui> 1889— 




rr. h bt> <HapoAi> 1892 r. 



A. KpuMCKiii. 




KPMTMHA h BMB/1IOrPA01fl. 



loraHH-b ray pit. Mcjiairb ero bjiIahIh Ha wH3Hb ero nocjit- 
AoaaTejieM. CoiHHeHie, ypcroeHHoe npeHin FaarcEaro oGujecTBa pacnpo- 
CTpaiiemfl xpncTiaHCTBa. UepeBOflt ci> H*MeuKaro n. H. XoiiyTOBa. 
TainKeHTTb. 1893, cip. XII + 577. (Hsr. Ha cpepTBa TypReciaHCRaro 
reHepajn>-ry6epHaTopa). 

Cyp6a boctokob^hw wb Poccin neiajiLHa. He tojbro oGhrho- 
BeHHaa ny6jiHRa, ho pjRe yneiaie, Kpoirfe caMHXi> cneuiajrHCTOBt-opieH- 
TajiHCTOBt, coBepnieHHO HraopHpyrorL boctokt>. Hann> yxx npnxopjiocB 
Ha CTpaHHuaxi> <9THorpa^ecRaro 06o3p*Hifl» onrfeqaTt h*ckojibko 

cMOHCTpOBT>> BT> 06jMCTH pOCCifiCROfl OpieHTdJIHCTHRH , Hanp., HepBHO, 

b* rh. XXIV, CTp. 136 —137, a ct Toro BpemeHH npH6aBHJiocB eiqe 
HtcROJitKO <J>airiwi>, KOTopue mosrho saiiecTH bt> Haiuy CROp6HyiO Jit- 
TonHct. ToAa pa TOMy Ha3aAi> pn oporo npeppHHjrraro bt> Mocrb* 
H3Aamfl 6tijna cocTaBjieHa CTaTta o MoxaMMejrb; aBTopt CTan>H He 
BHecL bt> Hee hhwo HOBaro h cBoero, ohi> hbjeoxhjtl tojibro rfe ph- 
UHH, ROTopHfl pbho ysst npiHMTH sanaflHoft HayROfi RaRi> HenpejioiRHUH 

HCTHHH, H TtMT> He MeHte OHT> BCTp*THJn> p'felllHTBJILHHfi OTnopi> CO 

dopoHU H^ROTopHxi qjieHOBt rommhccm, saBlyryiomefl H3naHieMi>: nepey- 
6tpTi> hxt> ypjioct tojij>ro Torp, Rorp aBioyb CTaiM bootoo noRa- 
3ajn> hmi> 3anapHe mROJibHue yHeduum, p H3BtCTHyio <ScTopiH> 
McjiaMa* Miojuiepa (Torp enje He uepeBepHHyio Ha pyccRifl hsker-l), 
RaRii nocjrfcpee cjobo HayRH. Korp HaKOHeux cociaBt rhhhi 6hjtb 
roTOBt h o Hefl 6ujia nana bt> o<J>$Hiuajii>HOMT> HapmH peaeH3in, to ct> 
ynoMjrayToft CTaTtefl o MoxaMMe^t noBTopHjiact Taxe Hdopifl, ^to h 
npH efl cocTaBjeHbi: pei^eH3eHTB ycMOTpto bt> Hefl hIoto HOBoe, He- 
cjiHxaHHoe, hjih— BHpaataact ero cJOBaMH — «RaRi> 6h h3jihihhioh) caiio- 
HaAtflHHOCTB h CTpeMJieme rt> caMo6tiTHOCTH tt l ), a noceiiy nocoBim)Bajn> 
o6paTHTtcfl rt> Hapaxx BHniepieMy Tpyjjy MiojiJiepa (oneBHpo, pise He 
no3a6oTHBHiHct npowraiB cnepBa stotb Tpyjr&I). Docjrfc nop6Haro Ra- 
3yca mh yate cnoROflHO, hah He oco6eHHO B03Mymaflci>, OTHeceaicH rt> 
HtROTopHMi flpyrHMt, Hanp., rt> noM*memH) bt> cBonpocaxi IIchxo- 
joriH h OHJioco$iH> apxHHeBtaecTBeHHOfl KOMnuinrJi r. yMaH^a o6i> 

apa6cR0fl $HJIOCO$iH, R1» OTRpUlilO cHaCTOJIBHUMX 9fflJHRJL0nep , ieCRHM , L 



1 ) HHTepecHo npoxojxeBie 4>pa3H:... „ca*OHajijiHHOCTfc h cTpenjeaie ki» caiio- 
6uthocth, npocTHpaDn;ijicji xaxe top o, vro obi xaeTi co6cTBeaHue vepeBOAU ci» 
flepcaxc&aro h apa(5citaro a . HojoxHTejBHO, pei^eB3eBTi otbochtcji ci BeoAO^peaiejn 
si anaHii) boctotou» bbh&obi! 

8THorpA«raosoa obobp^hxb. XX VII. 



Digitized by 




136 



8TH0rPA*HHKCK0K 0B03P6HIB. 



CjioBapeM r L» t Mockobckhbtb) ocTaBHiaroea bt> jkhbhx'l cuna y npopona 
MoxaMMep (no CjiOBapio 0Ra3LiBaeTca, mo diovb chht. KacHMT> aorhjtl 
AajRe, HaAO noJiaraTt incognito, A4 Bpeieirb xaJUM^a MoaBiH), hjih, ua- 
Koneu'L, rt> noflBjieuiio 9Jia6opaTa naciopa raypn bi> pyccHOMi nepeBOAt. 

IloflBJieHie 9Toro nepeBOAa 6escnopHO npHHaAJieajHTL kt> iHCJiy ne- 
4aJUbHuxi> flMeHifl. KoneqHO,HtrB xyAa 6e3i> Ao6pa:TaypH Bceae nejio- 
B-fcRt 3anaAHHil; MHoroe H3i> Toro, mo pyccum yieHUMT* npeACTaBJifleTca 
«KaRi> oh H3JinniHefi caMOHaAtflHiioc/rbio h CTpeMJieHieMt Kb caMo6HT- 

HOCTH», OH1 yCBOHJIt eme Ha IUROJIbHOfi CKaMBt, H31 yieCHHKOBt; Koe- 

ito nojie3Hoe oht> nomewb 6hjlt> y3Han> h3t> KpeMepa, flo3H h Boo6me 
jiK)6oro h3t> rtx-L aBTopoBt, ibHMH TppaMH ohi> nojib30Bajica; ct> 8Tofi 
T04KH 3ptHi>i M03KH0 6h CHHTaTb pyccRifl nepeBOAi> ero khhfh He 6e3- 
nojie3HUMi. Kt co»ajrfeHiio, Aypnaxt CTopoirt bi> ero coimhchm ropasAO 
6ojibiue, m^mt> xopouiHXi. Mu nojoxHTejibHO He noHHMaeni>, RaRia npn- 

MHHJbl 3aCTaBHJIH T. XOHyTOBa B3HTI>Cfl 3a IiepeB0AT> RHHVH, COCTaBJieHHOfi, 

bo 1-xt, HyTb jih He paAuaTt atari* TOMy Ha3aAi>, bo 2-xt>— nac/ropoMt, 
KOTopufl, b% ciuiy CBoero AyxoBHaro cana, oonaam HMto H3b*cthhh, 
onpejrfcjieHHNfl yGtameHia h He CMiert bhAth h3t> hxt> paMRH, h bi 

3-X'L — He OpieHTaJMCTOMT> H 4eJI0BtK0MT> He KOMneTeHTHHMt. 3ojiOTaa 

MeAajiL, BUAaHHaa nadopy TaypH <raarcRHMT> o6mecTB0MT> ajih saiitfiTH 

XpHCTiaHCTBa> *), MOJKCTL CBHAtTCJIbCTBOBaTb 0 HayUHUXt AOCTOHHCTBaXt 

TpyAa Taypn TaRt »e Majio, KaKi> Majio CBHAtTejn>CTByen> o6t> btomi 
KioHeHOBCKoe yiacTie bt» auopH; npo$. KiOHeHTb Moatert 6trn> npeRpac- 
HjbiMi> 6a6jieiicKHMT> BRsereTHROMX, ho bto He o6fl3HBaen> ero ri> npe- 
RpacHOMy 3HaHiio HcnaMa. 

TjiaBHaa ouin6Ra Taypn, noBJiiflBiuaa Ha bc* ero cyasAeHia o6t HaaMt, 
h npoflBJiaiomaflCfl Vb nepBofl m rjiaBH (tllpopofcb apa6oei*)—3aKMO- 

HaeTCfl BT> TOM1>, 4T0 OHT> He yiteTL pa3JM<iaTB C06CTBeHHO MOXaMMe- 

AaHCRoft ochobh on> rfcxi, HacaoeHifi, ROTopua najioaeHH 6mm nep- 
caMH. Ilepcu, 6jiaroAapa <npeAaHiHMi>> (xeAHcaMi), coBepuieHHO nepe- 
paSoTajiH MoxaaiMeAOBO yieme, a BJiiaTeju>iiafl cy^ijBcRaa AORTpHHa, th- 
Tyjyiomaa ce6a MoxaMMeAaHCRofl, He Hmrfcert bt> cymHOdH HHiero o6iuai^o 
c f t HCJiaMOMT> (cm. moH cOiepR'b pasBHTifl cy<j)H3Ma> , M. 1895, orr. H3t 
<TpyA. Mocr. Apx. 06m.>). HcJiam — 8to npocTO apaiiRTb ajih MHOise- 
ciBa HAefl, B3aHMH0 HecoBMtcTHMUxi>. TaypH mnero btoio He pa36H- 
paerB. ( wb He SHaert TaRse, hto KopaHi Ra3yHCTHiecRH TOJiRyeica Ha 
thch4H pasjiH^Hbixt JiaAOB^ (6jecTflmie npHMtpu cm. b^ «Etudes orien- 
tales. Le droit musulmam Ho^ajia), a He 3Haa aToro, TaypH 6e3- 
npecTaHHO nonaAaert B r B npocaRt: HHorAa oht> nopimaerB MoxaMMeAa 
3a t* leHAeHum, RaRHXi> totl HHRorAa He nponoBl>AHBajn> h Ha RaRia, 
iiaBtpnoe, caMi Aynyjit 6u h njiH)Hyjn>; Huoi'Aa ace TaypH BOcxBajiaerb 
IIpopoRa 3a t* ycTaHOBJieHLa, ROTopuxi MoxaMMeAt h He AyMaat co- 
3AaBaTb h ROTopua 6mjih co3AaHU xeAHcaMH; Kopaia h coBpeMeuHtifi 



t) Haager Gesellschaft zur Vertheidigung der Christlichen Religion. T. Xo- 
nyTOBi uepeBOAHTi Vertheidigung: ff pacnpocTpaH6Hie a . 




KPHTHKA H BHBJUOrPA*!*. 



137 



HCJiaiTL, CO CTOpOHH p6JIHri08H0fl, COIUaJU>HO|t H nOJlHTHieCKOM, BTO — 

opo a Tose bi> TMdhTb raypa (orp. 3). KpOM* axofl rjiaBflofi, Rana- 
Taju>Hofl ohib6rh, raypa Aonycaaert xHOssecTBO nacTHHit, o6ycjiOBJieH- 

HHX3> erO MaJDbWL 3HaKOMCTBOMt CT> BOCTOKOBtfttmeMt B0o6me H CT> 
HCJiaMOMl Bl» HaCTHOCTH. BilXBaTHMl. HayAa^y HtCROJIbRO MtCTL H8T> 

pa36npaeMoM 1-ft rJiaBH ero RHara. raypa He sHaert (dp. 18), wo h 
apa6u pam>nie epHoOoasia nponuiH ciapo pejiaria aHHMHCTHHecKott h 
nojffl«enoHJi^ecKOfl (cpB. Hamy saMtey bt> *$te. 06osp.> kh. XX, cip. 
89 — 90). — Ha CTp. 37-fl oniaSaa noBipMOMy Majnem>Kaa. Hmh Gorana 
nepe«aeTca Kain> cy33a» (ci> <y>), «rorp KaKi> Ha cip. 49-* ropa Ha- 
3HBaeTCfl cOroAi>» (ct» <o>), — a no apaficRa 3bjrt>-to 3A*a opht> h 
totb ze; raypa He 3Haen> BOCTomixi hbmrob'b, He Moxera pasHyio 
TpaHCRpHniuK) pa3Huxi> opieHTaJtHCTOBt npHBecra wb OAHOMy 3HaneHa- 
Tejuo, onoro y Hero Tanafl necipoTa h nyraHLija: y Hero 6e3pa3jmHo 
qepeAy»TCfl «o» h «y», «e> h «a>, «e» h cb» h t. n. Ho HesHame 
apa6caaro asuKa BpeAHO OTpaaaeTca y raypa He tojmo Ha nepeAait 

C06cTBeHHHXT> HMeHl> (Btftb BTO OUtf 6HJTB 6u CpaBHHTBJbHO nyCTBRt, 

xoTfl, noaaayM, paaHaa TpaHCRpamua pasHuxi y^eHuxi npaBeaa r. YiiaHita 
Kb co3AaHi» AByxi> paaHwxi (J)h*oco$ob*: To66aH h flaoOCaa, a bto 
yaw* He nycTaRi), — He3Hame apa6cRaro astraa BpeAHO OTpaaaeica h Ha 
H3JioaemH. MoxaHMeAi, Bejiaa CAtaaTb ycTynny asHWHRaMt h bt» to me 
BpeMH He ocrop6htb MOHOTeH3Ma, Hapowo BiipasHJCfl o^eHb cShbhhbo: 



osHa^aerb <*ypaBja> (cm. JeiUeHCKoe hsa. A6aojm> BaxHAa, cip. 222). 
A y raypa MoxaMMep> npaiio roBopHTi>: cJIaTa, Yssa h MaHaia— bh- 
coRia 6ooicccmeay\ o^bhaho, y Toro opieHTaaada, Raaairb nojftsOBaaca 
raypH,npH «repaHHaa> doaJiocoRpameHHOBt CRo6Raxi>:«(d. Ik G6tter)>,a 
raypa hohhjtl^to bto B G6tter tt - 7 -nepeBOA'Bapa6cRaro ciOBa.— Ha dp.39-ii 
raypa, OTJiaiaiomifica Boo6me 'noApoGHOdMD, BApyrt roBoparB oseHB 
apaTRo: <bo Bpena 6oroMOj»>a 622 roAa rt> HoxaimeAy npaMRHyjia u*- 
jaa TOjnia npainejiBueB'B as* MeAHHU h noRJiaaact AOCToaHiem> h apo- 
bbk) HOAA^psHBaTb A&ia ero> . raypa coo6maen> bto TaRRin. cnoaofl- 
nuwb TOHOMt; Kaat 6yAT0 pt% HAen» He o 3aMtqaTejH»Htflmein> $am* 
cl to^kh sptHia ApeBHe-apa6cRaro 6uTa; aaropi He HaxoAart HHoro- 
poAHaro, MeAHHcaaro dacTynuanecTBa RpattHe CTpanHUMt, ohi> hh cjo- 
bomt> He 3aHaaeTca o samHUxt npa^iHaxi> Taaoro Heo6uHafiHaro ^airra, 
owh OTHouieHia oporo AP^BHe-apaficRaro ropoAa rt> Apyroiiy npeACTas- 
jiaerL ce6t noBapHOMy TaRi>, Rait Taani r% JlefiAeHy. Xopomo enie, 
ecjia waTejuo, noynaiomeMyca H3i> RHarn Taypa, npaAen> bs> rojiOBy 
BOcnonHHame o ropoAaxi* AP^BHe-rpe4ecRHXT> a o cyAt6t lysaaoBi (Sevot) a 
asraaHHHROBi (<puya8£<;). A to oht> cobcSitb He noMaerB, noieiiy bto cbo- 
6oahuM qejiOBtRi MoxaMMeA* He Mon> apaao yttTa otl cBoero poAa, a 
AOJUReai 6uurc> TafiKOMt 6txaTB, a no^eay fitrcTBO ero bi> qyaofl ro- 
poAt npeACTaBJiMOCb apcbhhm-l apa6aMT> ao TaRofl CTeneHH ptmaTejiB- 
humi> uiaroHi> a 3HaneHaTeju>Hi*in> cofiuTieMi, hto ohh hojoujh otl 




Digitized by 




138 



BTHOrPA*H*IfiCKOB 0B03**H1B. 



uero b6cth cboh) spy. — Ha CTp. 48-8 HOBtCTByeTca o 6htb* npH 
Beflpt (624), bt> KOTopofl 314 MycyjUMara pasSaio hoith irfcjyiD th- 
amy xpaSpuxi, MyacecTBeHBHX'b RopeftniHTOB'b. He THCjny, a ropasAO 
MeHbiue: npaB^a, cnepBa KopefimHTOB'b BHCTymrjio orojio 950 qejioBiurb, 
ho, nojyqHBiHH y ^arox$H H3BfcmeHie ott> A6y CotjnwiHa, sto onacHOds 
MHHOBajia, 6ojte Tpexcorb HeaoBtR'b BOSBpaTMoct aomoH, h Moxainefb 
npa BeApt min A*Jio tojibko ct> aboHhhmi, a He cl tpo8hhmt> *hc- 
Jtowb HenpiBTejeM, RaRt bto oht> h cam yTBepaaaen> Kb KopaHt ( cypa 
III, ct. 12—13). Kpoirfe Toro Taypn h He nonyiiaeTB ynoMjrayib o 
tomt>, RaKyio pojfc ciarpaja bt» no6tA* MoxaMMeAa npociaa CAyna&Hocmt> 
h Aaace utjiufi paAt aynatoocTefl, 6jiaronpiflTHUxi> ajia MoxaMMeAa (Dozy: 
Essai, p. 67 — 68); TaKHMt o6pa30MT> Taypn w&rb iHTaTejno HeB*peoe 
npeACTaBjreme o jhnuocth MoxaMMeAa. Boo6me Hacierb H8J0»eHifl TaypH 
mojrho cRaaait, hto oho to HHorAa MHorocjiOBHO h coAep»Hn> bi> cefrfc 
MHOxecTBO HeHy»HHXT>, aHeKAOTHHecRHXi) noApo6HOCTefi, to HHorAa ao 
HeBOSMOXHOCTH RpaTRo h He coAepMrb bi ce6t oieHb Ba»HHXT>, xa- 
paRTepmjxi> h cymecTBeHHHX'L yRasamfl. Kt TOMy «e, bt> H3jroaeniH 
coOurifl Mbi He bhahmi> y cocTaBHTejfl HHRaRoM pyROBOAflmeft HfleH: *h- 
Taeiut h He noHHMaemi>, Kb neMy TaypH coo6maen» totl hjih APF°* 
ciyqaft H3i> A^flTejibHOCTH MoxaMMeAa. HHorAa, BnpoieM'b, HORaseTCH, 
6yATO Offb Roe-qTO roBopirrc> He cnpocvra, a HaBtcraofl atawo, — 
Haiip., CyATO oh% xoiert cRa3aTt, ito ycirfcxa MOxaMMeAancTBa HMtron, 
noAi> co6ok) coioaJiLHO-BROHOMHHecRyH) noARJiapy (TaROBO MHtrie /Jo3h); 

HO CTOHTt BHHTdTbCH BHHMdTe JBffbe , H 0Ra8HBaeTCfl, 1TO HHRdROH H0- 

AofiHoft HAen TaypH h He aeaaerb npoBecn>: ona npocRajLSHBaerh 6e3i» 
ero B*AOMa, cobc*mt> hcbojebho , toju>ro noTOMy, tto ufcjraa cTpaHHUjj 
aBTopi cHHCHBaert hsi flo3H. HspliARa RaseTca, 6yATO csoeM CTaTbeM 
o MoxaMMeA* TaypH aeaaerb ORasaTb to, wo HairacajrL bt> rohu* raaBii: 
cHcto^hhitb MyTeHi), — ^to me 6yAen> vl hotoromt>?!> , t. e. 6yAT0 
TaypH »ejiaen» noRasaTb Ha ocHOBaniH ^aRTOBt, tto MoxaMMeA* 6un 
He saOjiyKAaiomitlcfl neJiOBtRT>, a C03HaTejibHHfi caMOSBaHeui. Ho npa 
BHHMaT6JitH0M r L pa3CM0TptfflH 0Ra3KBaeTCfl, HT0 h bto8 HAen Taypn He 
npoBOAHTL C03HaTeju>H0, h H3i> ero 6jrtjiHaro H3JioseHifl HHiero He bh- 
xoAHn> (nponymeHi Aaae TdRofi xapaRTepnufi $aRn>, rbri> npeACMepraaa 
npoci>6a MoxaMMeAa — a^tl eMy qepHHJTL h 6yMarn, stoSh oht> Mon» 
HanHcaTt HacTonmiM Kopa»B; ecjuif BoxapH fiMii HeAOCTyneHt cocTaBH- 
Tejno, to ynoMAHyTuft $aRTL Mon 6h 6htb eMy HSBtcTemb, Hy, xote 
H3i fliora: Hist, des phil. et des th^ol. mus., p. 13). Hocji* BToro 
He BtpHTCH a^kc, qio6i> Taypn A*8cTBHTejibHO nojibsoBajca Befijieirb h 
HlnpeHrepoMi, (y t*xt> Mucjrb o caM03BaHCTB* MoxaMMeAa, eojH He no- 
ctohhhomT), to iacTOMT>, npoBeAeHa cjinmROirb bcho); h xoth TaypH wb 

HHCJlt CBOHXT* HCTOHHHROB'b HaSMBaeTL HMeHHO AByX*L nOCJtAHHXt 8BT0- 
P0B1>, BCe TaRH OHeHBB*pOHTHO,qTO 0HT> orpaHHHHBajiCflnpeHMymecTBeHHO 
oahhmt> 303H h, RorAa He cnacbiBajii 6yRBajibHO, CTapajicfl npeACTaBHTb 
RoncneRTb H3i Hero. KoHcneRTb, BnpoqeMi, Bumejrb HeyAaqHbiK, no- 




KPHTHKA H BHBJIOrPA^Ifl. 



139 



T0My-9T0 BH6pacHBa»Tca ysa3aHifl onem> cyqecTBeHHNa. 0co6eHHO MHTe- 
pecefft totb ynpomeHHutt cnoco6i> iincara HCTopiio, Kb KOTopoMy npa- 
6traen> TaypH 9 Eor^a Buy npaxopTca npeACTaBHTb nocieneHHoe pa3BHTie 
BJiacTH MoxaiiMesa, 6HBmaro cnepBa sdhmwrb iejiOBtROMT> m B* Tese- 
HiHfffecROJU>KHXt jitTB CTaBfflaro rocnopHOMt Bcefi ApaBro: cMn (T.-e. mm, 
Taypn) He Mosem> (naKt He M<mein>?! He Haxo^HMi HyiRHMM-b, HairB cRyn- 

HO,— 9T0 HHOe fffeJIO) npOCJltAHTb BCt BOeHHNH H nojurrtrcecKia co6htw, 

bt> pesyjiLTarfe rotopnx'b Ilpopoxy ypjiocB npHBjieu Ha cbok) dopoHy 
6ojo»niHHCTBO apa6oBT>; boct3tohho CKaaaTt (Aaxe!), hto bt> TeneHiH h*- 
ckojq>rhx7> jrfcn> MorynjecTBO ero «o xaRofl cieneHii yBejmiHJiocB, hto 
oht> AOGTHTb npeo6jaflamfl HaA^ RypeHniHTaMH vb hxt> coH)3HHKanH> 
(CTp. 50). Axt, Karb npiarao cjiumaTB TaRia ptnn orb HCtopHKa! hh 

jaTL HH B3BTB — CJOBHO HflfflOHIKa CRa3Ky CRa3MBaeTT»: tflOJLTO JIH, RO- 

POtro jih 6popjn> no CBtoy ffo6puM MOJOAeui>, tojibso 3amejn> on% bt> 
oaho uapcTBO h cAtJiajicH iwpeMt*. — Ha CTp. 52-ft: «H3*i> H0B03aB*T- 

HMXt pa3CKa30BT>, EOM'femeHHIdX'L BT> Ropafffc, KftlTL HeJIBSfl 6oaie BCHMMT. 
0Ed3LIBaeTCH, 4T0 MyXaMM6AT> BO BCK) CBOH) 2KH3HB OCTaBaJlCfl HOHTH CO 

Bepmerao HesHaKOMiurt ct xpncTiaHCTBOMi; ftwi HeMHorHMi>, hto yAa- 
jiocb eiiy ysHaTb o6t> Incyct, oht> o6fl3aHi> 6mjtb, noBHpMOMy, RaROMy- 
iiH6yAB eBpero, ROxopNfl h caMt noyra hhwo He noHHnraJn> bt> xpHCTiaHCKoM 
pejurrur. Ropany H8B*fcCTHa HCTopia pojKAema Iacyca bt> $opMt, EOTopaa 
HanoMHHaerb o(fr> anoRpH^iqecROM'L eBaHreaiH*. RaRHHi> ate otyaacm'b 
eBpefl mofl shbtb eBanrejiie, xoth 6h h anoKpH$HiecRoe? a ecjH He 

MOFb, TO 3HaHHTT> fffeTB H nffffflHX APiaTB, <ITO C06eC , feAHHK'B MoxaM- 

MeAa 6mi eBpefl. Ecjih 6m Taypa BHHRHyjn> bt> Ayxt toto xpncTiaH- 
CTBa, RaRoe HapacoBaHO RopaHfarB, to yBHA*jn> 6m oieHB hcho, <rro 
oho — M0HO$H8HTCR0e; h Tt anoRpH^HraecRia eBaHrejua, OTpazema roto- 
puxi mm HHorAa noptaaeMi. bt> RopaHt, TaRxe Asmara MOHO^HSH^e- 
crhmt> Ayxoin>;H 3aM*qaHie MoxaMMeAa (coxpaHeHHoe Bi>KopaHt)oa3HRt 
CBoero <H09Horo co6ec*AHHRa» He Moaert othochtbch Kb eBpeio, a 
tojibro Kb xpHGiiaHHHy. IIpo$. Ho^ajQ* bi> CBoeMi cMahomet> noraa- 
Tajica bmhchhtb ct hojihok) onpeA^JieHHOCTBio Aaze HHAHBHAyajiBHMa 
RanecTBa btofo <HoiHoro co6ec*AHHRa»,—AO ToroacHH, Ha ero BarjiaAi, 
BCt HaMeRH KopaHa! Owb Aaate Haxopn> bo3moshoctb cm^jio yTBepa- 

AaTB, WO MoxaMMeAOBI) C06eCtAHHRl,-M0H0$H8HrL RHHtJIl HeHSBHCTtlO 

npoTHBi npaBOCAaBHueub h pa3CMHTMBajn> nocpeACTBOMt MoxaMMeAa oto- 

MCTHTB ILWb. H UpHTOBTL TaypH MOn> 6H SfldTB, HTO MoxaMMOAt HM-feJIT. 

CHomema He ct> oahhmt,, a coMHorHMH xpacTiaHaMH; o6i> 8tom*l hoapo6ho 
roBopHTca y innpearepa bt> pa3HHXi> MtcTaxi BToporo TOMa ero rhhth, 
a bt> npaJioxeHia Kb 13-fi rjiast ninpeHrepi cofipajii bc* cBHA*Teju>- 
CTBa BocTomixi aBTopoBt, ROTopaa 6pocaion> CBtrb Ha btotb 
nyHRTB. — Ha CTp. 53-fl h 60-fl Taypn BOo6paaaerB ce6t MoxaMMeAa 

RdRMKL-TO < MOTy H^eCTBeHHUDfL BJiaCTeJIHHOMX* BCefl ApaBiH, RaRHMl-TO 

uapeMt uapefl, h BocxamaeTca, ^to aroTBuapb cOTJinqaJica naTpiapxaJLBHOtt 
npocTorott: caMt npH&asMBaji'B AOManiHHxi ro3t> Ha cBoeMi ABopt h ho- 




140 



8TH0rPA*H1fiCKOK OBOSPfeHlB. 



Morajii »eHa»n» cbohmi bi> iai> noiianiRHXi aaHfliiaxi; bi XHJMiirfc ero 
uapcTBOBajia iyTt He 61>rhoctb».. . y Taypn noMfcimee OTcyTCTBie 
HCTopeqecKoft nepcneimiBH:— bt> MoxaMMeA*, ROTopwfl xm cpeAH ofime- 
c.TBa nojiypicaro, MajroRyjbTypHaro n ne mo®> HMfrrb R8kbxi-jih6o yTOH- 
4eHHXi> noTpe6nocTeft, TaypH bhahto KaRoro-TO <J>Hioco$a-cTOHRa, hie 
TOACTOBua, Ao6poBOJibHO o6paTHBiuarocfl kt> nepHoft pafiorfc. fla h canoe 
npe^cTaBjieHie o MoxaMMent,Ran> MorymecTBeHHOin BjracTejraHt, ne npa- 
BHJibHO. HpopoRi HHRorja ne 6uffb unorb BOCTOHHaro MorymecTBeHHaro 
B^acTejiHHa, spoA*, Hanp., nepcHACRaromaxa: oht> 6BMiepa-epa 6ojrfee, 
Htwh primus inter pares, h MHatHaeMt cjiy^an, Rorja, Hanp., HeAOBOJbHtie 
IIpopo4bHMT» xb&enewb bohhh 6pochjihci» na Dpopona h copBajtH ci Hero 



KapTHHaxt pan, RaRifl HapucoBajrb Moxamiejrb, TaypH aaMftnaerb: 
cMoaeM'b AoraAUBaTbCA, hto nojiOBijfl yBJte^eflw bi xhshh llpo- 
poRa HrpaiH yae ct> omrhb paHHaro Bospada pojo> posoByn. OieHb 
xapaRTepHO, hto My si cTapoft semiraHBi (XepftXH) o6*majn> b*- 
pyiomHMi. bt> paio nonpyrL, pamuxb no $03pacmyy (cip. 56). Ha- 
MeRT> Taypn Ha to, hto MoxaMMejn, thtothjuch &h3H1>m> co CTapyxofc- 
XeAHAiRefi, RpafiHe CTpaHem>: hsb^ctho, hto 8Ty c/rapyxy Ilpopon joo- 
6hjh> orb Bcefi Aymfl, HHRorna eft He H8irfeHfljn>, a Rorja, nocjit ea 
ciiepTH, Ha6pajn> utJitifl rapeMi, h8t> mojoahxi a*bhut>, to hh ojHa m 
ero seHi> He uorjia H3raaTb XeAHAay H3i» ero naMffra, TaRT>-HTO Anna 
6ojrbuie peBHOBaJia Myasa vl noRoftHHift, rt> stoH, no en Bupaxoiiuo , 
c6e33y6oft 6a6t>, vbwb ro BctMt cbohmi XHBbtvb conepHiman*. 
ropaqaa jrio6oBb MoxaMMeAa wh Xcahak* o6iflCHfleTca t*mi, hto oto 
6ujia nepBaa jReHmraa, ROTopyio oht» yaHan. Aorajpa TaypH o paHmxi 
nojiOBfcixx yBJueieHiaxt MoxaMMeAa bhojih* HeocHOBaTeibHa: owb 6un 
u*jioMyApeHi» ao 6paRa ci> XeAHAaefi. IIpaBAa, npnwHa Tyrb 6bura He 
Ao6paa bojih iohohih, a OTcyTCTBie xeHniHHi bt> tomt> Mtcrt, rA* oht> 
oamhoko nacb OBeifb h ro3t>; offb h co6npa-aca Raxi-TO paaa ABa, tfb 
iioxoTJHBHMH ufcjflMH, (jxoAHTb B^ ropoAt, ho HenpepiAtHHUH o6ctoh- 
TejibCTBa Bee saAepxHBajiH ero. 3HaTb bth ^aKTbi, coo6meHHHe y 8T- 
Ta6apifl, Taypn Morb 6u h SHasoMCTBa cb apa6cRHMi hsuromi: 
ctohjio eMy TOJibRo, co6Hpancb TpaRTOBaTb o MoxaMMeA*, npoHHTaTb 
MeffiAy* npovHurb oqeHb H3BtCTHyio RHHry BapTejieMH CeHTb-Hjepa: <Ma- 
liomet et le Coram (Par. 1865, CTp. 85); y Mb»pa, ROToparo Taypn 
hro6h HHTajrb, 9To coo6maeTCH bo 2-mi TOM* ero <The life of Moham- 
med^ CTp. 14. 

CTpaHRiieio 66-ft HanHHaeTCfl BTopan raaBa: <HcAOMb*. Bi Hanait 
aBTopi nepeqncJiaerb sarjiaBia o&beMHCTbixi coHHHenift, ROTopmn offb, 
roBOpHTL, nojbaoBajicfl npn cocTaBaemH cBoeli cTaTbH, h TOJibRO o c»a- 
THX'b, coAepxaTejbHUX'b JieRuiaxi* ^osh (Essai sur Thist. de Tisl.) He 
ynoMHHaerb hh cjoBa. H ceitnacb se, Ha CTp. 67-ft, mu bhahmt> m*cto, 
cnjiouib cnHcaHHoe hst> ^03h; Ao6pwft nacTOjKb Taypn, saHHBniHCb nay- 
HeHieMi saROHa MoxanxeAOBa, 8a6ujrb o BOCbMOft 3anoBtp aaROHa Moi- 





RPHTHKA H BHBtflOIT A*Ifl . 



141 



ceeBa. — Kara tojmo aBTopi, pasfiipaa RopaHi, OTcrynaert ora flo3H 
h Kpeiiepa p nycRaerca Kb co6ctb6hhbi6 aomhcjiu, 0 ht> TOTqac-L bh- 
cRasiiBaeTB nojiHtflmee OTcyTCTBie KpHTH466KHXi» npieMOBi. M3B*ctho, 
hto KopaiTb— 8T0 em 6e3nopflgowoe, MexaMqecRoe (nocMepTHoe) cmo- 
qeme HspeqeHiM MoxaMMeAa, cKasaHfluxt bt» TeqeHiH mhomxt> ji^tl bt> 
pasHoe BpeMa h no pasHturB cjiyqaflir&. Bto xejiaerb cl tojiroitb cy- 
Ahtb no KopaHy o cym HciaMa h o "HacToamBXt BoasptHiax'L MoxaM- 
MeAa, totb jkomewi cnepBa ycTanoBHTb xpoHOJioriio pa ota*jibhhxi> 
cypi> BopaHa, sarfeMi pacnojioMTB hxi bt> xpoHOJiomecKOMt nopflflirfe 
h yrb T8khmt> o6pa30MT. yjiaBJiHBaTb BHyrpeHHioio AiaaeRTHRy nocTenen- 
Haro pasBffrifl ybkmjsfimA MoxaMMeAa; ipoM* Toro, BCTptqaacb ct Ra- 
roH-jih6o ota^jibhoM mhcjibio KopaHa, HSCJitAOBaTeab Bcerna nomewb 
npHHHMaTB vh cooOpaaceiue, npn r8khxt> o6cTOflTeJU>cTBaxi> OHa BHCRa- 
aaHa, h t*mt» 6ojrfce — bt> RaRoit aoraqecRoM cb«3H naxopTCH ona ro 
Bceiiy ROHTeRdy. Hnqero noAo6Haro Taypn ho A^aerb: owl BuxBanj- 
BaeTB TeRCTM H3i> pa8HHXT> MtcTL KopaHa, He npHHMMafl bt> cooopaae- 
Hie 8bojdoiuh BsrjiflAOBT> QpopoRa, h MexaHRHecKH eoeAHHaen. 9th pa3- 
posHeHnue TeRcra bt> oaho utJioe; Htrt HHqero H3y MHTejibHaro , ecjM 
cb TaRHMi npieMOirL moxho yBHflaTB bt> Hc^aMt to, hto KOMy «ejia- 
TejiBHO BH/i'feTb. Ho Taypn h bthmi He ynoB jeTBopaeTCH : owb nonoJiHHert 
cbow RapTHHy H3BJteqeHiHMH h3t> nycyjibMaHCRHX r b npesaHii (xepcoBi,). 
A npH noMOimr xepcoB^ h no^aBHO mojrho cfltJiaTb h8t> MoxaMMeAa see, 
qTO yroAHo: MoxaMMep*, no mejiaHho, Moserb 0Ra3aTbca h 3aRjaTMMT> 
Bparom> acReTHsna, h ropaqHMi> acReTOMi, u aHTponoMop^HCTOHi, h Bpa- 
roirb aHTponoiiop(J)H3Ma— naHTeHCTOirB, h saiuHTHHRom. pa6cTBa, h a6o- 

JHmiOHHCTOITL, H CTOpOHHHROBTb RaDHTajIH3Ma, H fiptlMT, COUiaJWCTOM'b, 

h t. a., h t. n. (MHoro npeRpacHUxi ft yAaqHHXt MLicjieit o xenncaxt 
BHCRaaaHo npo<J>. Ho^ajieMT. bt» ero He pa3i> ysi ynoMHHyTofl mm 
cepiH f Etudes orientales», neqaTdHie ROTopoft yvh npHXOAHTB rt> Rtmny, 
h bt» oahoM H8i cjitAyiomnxi) rhhx6K1> <9iHorpa$HqecRaro 06o3p*Hia» mm 
nospofiHO no&HaROMHMT> qmaTeJieM ci> TpyAam Hotyajw Bii dToft o6jiacTH. - 
BnpoqeirB, npn BCtxi HeAOdaTRaxt ynoMHHyTOif H8mh Il-fl rjiaBH khhth 
Taypn, OHa bco xe jryqnie Apymxi: RaR f b 6orocjiOBT,, aBTopT> ctyito 
HaimcaTB ee aobojebho CTpofino h cicTOMaTHqecRH h bt> to me Bpeia, 
HecnoTpa Ha cboH xpncTiaHCRiM AyxoBHHft cam>, ciynto coxpaHHTb 

BOSHOXHyiO peJIHri03HyK> OfoeRTHBHOCTB H A3»e TepnHMOCTb. 

Ho HaqHHaa ct> rjnasu IH-fl (cTp. 97): tllpasovntpie u iuiumu3Mh> — 
Taypn ohatb jioserb noaeprHyrb qHTaTejra bi OTqaame cBoeft 6e3C03Ha • 

TejbHOCTbH) H XOXAeHieiTB Bl» TeMHOTt nO TOM 06jiaCTH, ROTOpoH Offb 

ROCHyjcfl. Ohi> 8aAajicfl u$ju>jo buhcbhts, B^ qearb 3aoM)qaeTCfl *dyxi 
Hciaira>. Bpanca sa BuacHeme «Ayxa^ RaRoB-JiH6o pejHriH — bto oqenb 
onacHaa Benu>, noTowy sto tAyxi» peJinriH, a» on?e HacqimiBaH>mefi 
6ojrfee THcaqn xtrb »H3HH 3a co6o», 8T0— fffeqTO oqeHb HeyjOBHMoe h 

ClOKHOe, H RJlfl BCflRHXt Cy&LeRTHBHMXT> raAafflfl TyTb OTRpblBaeTCH 

nojnrtBmil! npocTopt. ycrpamax>mHin> npintpoinb RJia oxothhrobi bhh- 




142 



9TH0rPA*HHHCK0E OB03P&HIB* 



cHflib <xyxi> pejiHriS AOjiXHa cjyaniTb HCTopia uojaHora bhachhtb 
Ayxt xpHCTiaHCTBa: saxAui HscatAOBaTejib npHXOAHTh rt> pa3Hum> 3a- 
Rjoo < i6HLaM r b. A TaypH 6epeTca oracnaTb Ayx?» HCjaica, coBctirt MaJio 

nOSpaKOMHBUIHCB CL CaMUMl HCJiaMOITB H BOBCe He n03HaK0MHBfflHCL CT> 
ApymHU BOCTQMHHMH peJlHriflMH. MU CIHTaeMt M8JUUOHHHI Aa H H6B03- 

MorauM'b pa36HpaTt bc* cTpaHHOCTH, KOTopufl AonymeHH aBTopom b*b 
9toA rjiaBt, h cKa»ein> BRpaTii*: B3HTb xaoTHMeciyio cirfccb, neuyeMyio 
KopanoMi, npncoeAHHHTb kt> Heft y^eme optoaorcobt> MycyjibMaHCEMxt, 
npncoeAHHHTb yieide seMAHTOBt, RaftcaHHTOB'b, biot63Juhtobi> 9 cy^ieBi*, 

3eHAHK0Bl>, MOJIbXHAOBl, HCMaHJLHTOB'b H6Hl-MefiMyHa KaAA&Xa, HCMaHiH- 
TOBT> erunCTCSHXl), RBpHdTOB'b, APyBOB'b, HOCeftpHTOBt, e3HftOffb M T.A-, 

bb tobh iHCJit hbhuxt> aT6HCT0BT>, npHcoeAHHHTb c»Aa »e cyeB*pifl, 
cymecTBOBaBmifl orb caMHxi> He3anaMflTHHXi> speMCHii y rfcx* HapoAOBi», 

KOTOpbie BflOCJltACTBiH IipHHfiJEH HCJiaMT>, H 3aT*M«b, He OTjuraaa Hepnb 

pejmrio3HHx i b orb HaitfoHajibHHX'b, Heprb cymecTBeHHUXi> orb cjiyiafi- 
iibix'b, ciecTb BTy ayqy Bossptmfi 3a h*4T0 eAHfloe h ivkaoe h hsbjb- 
RaTb M3T> Hen co6uok Ayxi> MCJiama* -bto, Ha Hann> BsraaAi, fie npocro 
CTpaHHOCTb: 8T0—HHCT*Mfflee Gesyiiie, h hmchho 9to CAtaaJib TaypHl 
IlpH TanoS nocTaHOBKt HsatAOBaHifl Htrb bo3mozhocth wme cnopHTb 
hah coraamaTbCH c% t*mh BUBOAaMH o Ayxt HCJiaMa, kt> RaRHin> npn- 
niejn> Taypn; HyxHO npocTO B03AepaaTbCH orb sc/ucaro MHtHia o6*b 

9THXT> BUBOAaXl. He AJIH CHOpOBT>, HO AJifl TOrO, ^TOObl H0Ka8aTb, Ha- 

CKOJibKO Taypn 3Haerb Torb npeAMera, o Raxoirb 6epeTca miROBaTb, 
Hfai OTMtTHMT> ABa-TpH Rypbe3a. Ha dp. 135-fl Ayxy Hcaaiia npHHHcano 
6jaroAtTeju>Hoe BJiiame Ha pasBHTie cocTpaAama Kb auiBOTHbiirb: cBi 

ErHHTfei, HO CJlOBaMT> JlBHa, «6e3npiK)THHfl HOHIHH DpOHHTblBajOTCA Ha 

o6mecTBeHHufi cqera; A*a 6poaa^hxi> co6aRi HajiHBaiOTCfl boaoio ro- 

fbrra, h 6*AHHe HeptARO a^htch ct> hhmh cbohmt> xatSoMn . Ecjh &b 
aypH 6burc> sHaROMi cb B083ptiriflMH MycyjibMaFb Ha co6aKy, to era- 
neTCRaa JuoSoBb ri> um% rjiySoxo nopa3Hja 6u ero nnpHBejia rb mucjih, 
yto $aKTbi, coo6maeMHe JIaHOMT>, aojushu HCRaTb ce6t o&bacHeHia bt> 
rjiy6oROii ap^bhocth, a He bt> Ayxt HCJiaMa. Edb MycyjibMaHCRoe ape- 
AaHie, no ROTopoMy MoxaHHeAi> cRa3aii>: cAHrejm He noctTarb Toro 
Aona, iyb HaxoAflTca co6aRH>; <rto nepmvb y ce6a co6aRy, tott> e«e- 
AHeBHO ynajiaerb cboh 3acJiyrH uepeAt BoroMi Ha oahht> Rapan>>; Dpe- 
AaHie rjiacHTb TaRate, hto MoxaMMeA^ sanpemi. HORynaTb coftarb 
(Fuudgruben des Orients, t. I, CTp. 176, 177, 187). fcb apa6csix% 
nocjiOBHaax'b h noroBopRaxi coSaxa Bcei^a ^HrypHpyerb, reri caMoe 
npeaptHHoe coaAame, — cm. MeflA^HH: <3iieaJib oab-apa6> Arabum 
proverbia, edidit G. W. Freytag, Bonnae 1838 — 42, rjaBa 20-a, 
JV? 87; <XeMaca» Hamasae earmina, ed. G. W. Freytag, Bonnae 
1828, dp. 176, 518. Y nepca CaaAifl to xe: «CaHoe npeaptmoe h3t> 
cymecTBb — co6aHa» (^«rojiHCTaH , b>, nep. XojuioropoBa, CTp. 327). — 
Ha CTp. 114- ft h3b*cthhH crchthri re33asifl H8o6pa»eHi qtM^-TO bi» 
poA'b rpySlMmaro aHTponoMop$HCTa, h TaypH mobHO nayiuuieTca, Rajrb 




KPHTHKA H BHKIIOrPA^ia. 



143 



9to bt> btomt* $uoco$fc rjyGonafaiee o6pa30same yMBajioci> ct Btpoio 
bt> rpy6o-4yBCTBeHHtifi MycyjiLMaHCKifl paM; npHHeMt A**aeTca ccwMa 
Ha TpaKTart «9j-floppeT oe-eeMrae» (Laperle pr6cieuse, trad, de L. 
Gauticrj. 0 Te33ajiiH cymedByen* cpaBHHTejibHO orpoMHaa JWTepaTypa 
na eBponeifcRHii a3NRaxT>, h ecjH 6u Taypn xotl HeMHoro 6hun> 3Ha- 
robtb ct Heia h npo?ejn> noSoJibme, nbwb opy «Perle pr6cieuse>, to 
BBSA 6U, TTO BT> RyXOBHOMt pa3BHTiH CKeilTHKa re38ajria (1058-1111) 

6mjo MhCKOAbKo nepioAOBi, conpoBoaAaBnraxca ownb pfcniHTejiLHofl jiom- 
Kofi CTapuxt y6tffijjeHifl (cm. ero HcnoBiyu> bt> *9ju>-mohrh3 aH HA-Aa- 
Jiaae», «Le pr^servatif de Terreur*, trad. par. Barbier de Meynard, 
Paris 1877). HaBH3HBaTJ> re33ajriio Ha bck) »H3Hb rfc y6t»«eHia, ro- 
Topua OHt BUCKa3UBaeTi» bo> cflparoutHHoH »eMqy»HHt», dpaaHo; 
aram AOKasMBaeTca He3HaK0MCTB0 raypH ex rfeMi, o Hem* ohx cy- 
Bhtl. — Eme apne fijiemen* HeBtaecTBO TaypH Ha CTp. 123-fi, ta* bt> 
1HCJT& «peJEnrio3HHxi> npa3AHHROBi> npaBOBtpHaro, He uiiHTCRaro Hcjiana> 
ua3BaHi Aniypa, t. e. npa3pHRT> CTpaciefl AOMy AjiieBa. A 9to npa3A- 

HHRT> COScTBeHHO HliHTCRifl, aHTHCOHHHTCKifi; HORd OHT> npoAOjaiaeTCfl, 

noABepraeTca onacHOCTH camaa jkh3hi> cohhhtob'b, jRHBymHXi* bt> Hepcia; 
nepBtiM'B Tpem, xajra^ajTL (AGy-BeRpy, Onapy h OcMaHy) Bee bpoha 
pa3AaiOTCfl TorAa apocTHtw, ropjrcia npoRJwrifl; ceRTaHTCRifi niimcRifi <|>a- 
HaTH3Mi> noAAepffiHBaeTca TorAa pejrario3HHMH npeACTaBJieHiaMH («T6i>3ie>). 
Ha pyccKom H3URt o6t» Aiuypa ecu o6doaTeJu>Haa rjiaBa y Eepe3HHa, 
bt> ero « HyTeHiecTBiH bt> cfeB. flepciio* (Ba3. 1852), a Ha aanaAHO- 
eBponeftcRHxi fl3HRaxt noApo6nbia CBtA*Hia mojkho Haflra y Xoasero, 
ro6HHO,flo3fl l ), 9Te h Ap KaRT> xopomo OAHaRO 3Haen>nacTopi> TaypH boc- 
tori! — Ha dp. 144-fi Taypn coo6maen> aobojikho $aHTacTH^ecRia cb*- 
AtHia o cpRrfc HCMaajiHTOBi>; CB*A*Hifi 9thxt> hh onpoBepraTB He cra- 
HeMi) *) h o6paTHm> BHHMame tojibko ua HHTepecHyio, xapaRrepHyio 
$pa3Ry: c3aMtCTHTejeMT> He3pHMaro xajoi<j>a abmch bo BpeMa Many Ha, 
cAn,chmmcAMo(Ryipcm r b murh)m> Haq.IX B.,A6AaMaxT> H6Hi>-MefiMyHT>> . 
ASAajuiaxt HSffB-MeflMyHt ocHOBajii cbok) ceRTy m* 864 roAy, — 3Ha- 
mhtl, 3to 6ujio He bo BpeMena xaJiH^a MaiiyHa (813— 833J, a bo Bpe- 
Mena xajin^a MociauHa (862—866). 9to— BO-nepBtixt, a bo-btophxx: 
wo TaRoe fcRpmaeTCH y Taypn 3a ero HeonpeAtJieHHUMi BupaseHieifK: 
<bo BpeMa MaMyHa,— cjitAOBaTejBHO, bt> na^iajit IX b.>? JIoBHAHMOMy t 
3A*cb cRpHBaeTCH npodoe He3Hame Toro, on> RaRoro roAa ao KaRoro 
uapcTBOBajn> MaMyHt. — Ha dp. 151 -it Haun> 3HaT0RT> BOdORa yBt- 
paen>, wo uiiHTH He xoprB na noRjOHeme bt> MeRRy. OqeBHAHO, ohi> 
He noTpyAHjica AO^HTaTt ao ROHaa Aase RHHXRy ^osh, ta*, no BepTOHy, 



Taypu CCH4E6TCJ1 bi 3-fi rjasi sail pasi b Ha io3H, bo y roro (Essai, p. 449) 
npujio HaaHcaHo: „Les chiites ont plusieurs f6tes outre celles que les orthodoxes 
c^l^brent aussi; celle du Moharram en est la principale a . 

9 ) Cm. Hamy CTaniD „HcMaHJHTH a vk BHi^Huon. cjoaap* Bpoarayca ■ 3(J>poHa. 
noxpooflaa HCTopia ceara HSJoaaeHa aaMH b% aadxauijixi Boer. KomfBccii Hmii. 
Mocb. Apxeoj. o6iuecTBa a 6yAen» Bcaopt BaneiaTaaa. 



Digitized by 




144 



STHOrPAOHIBCROB OB03P*HIB. 



Tasi xhbo onHcaHO noBeneme miHTCRHX'B 6oronoju>ueBi bi Mewrt. 
(Essai, p. 443 — 446). Bi tomi> RapaBanfe nriHTCRHXi* 6oroMOJLBueBt, 
Kakoft bha^jtb B6pTOHi», 6hjio no 1200 qejOBtra. 

TaKoe ase MHfcme, KaKoe mh BHCKaaaJH o npeAMKymeft rjaBt, mbi 
BUCKaaeMi> BOo6me h o CJitayiomefl, HeTBepTOft: ^Uoeoo6pa306aniH u 

mumu pe<f)OpMb* (CTp. 155 H CJ.). H31» OTAtJIBHHXTb 3aMtHaHMUTb y 

TaypH HHTepecHO, Hanp., Ha CTp. i62-ft: <Cy$x— rpySufl niam H3*b 
K03JiHHtix r i> mnypi**. 0 cjiob* «cy$», ^aBiuefl hmh 3HaMeHHT0fi ceRTfc 
cy<j)ieBT>, iianHcaHU lvfejiua cTaTBH, h rptxt HCTopHKy HCJiaMCRaro pn- 
aema He 3HaTb, ito cy^OMt Ha3HBaeTca Bep6juo2RBfl niepeib hjh BJia- 
cBHHua. 0 BaxHOHi 3HaneHiH stoM BjiacaHHiju cm. Hann> «0?epKi> pas- 
BHTia cy(J)H8Ma> , CTp. 18. 9to cjiobo He ^yajo h CTapHHHOMy pyccROMy 
astray; cm. bi «flonojiH. rt> aRT. hct., co6p. h H3A. Apxeorp. Komm.i, 
Cn6. 1846, t. I, M 131: «3y$B ROCTOMaHCRaa, ivfcHa Tpn py6jui> 
(I^apcn. pacxop. RHHra 1584—1585 r.rj; Tarae cm. y CaBBaaiOBa: 
cOhhc dap. uapcR. yTBapefl> h t. «. (Cn6. 1865), o Mann napn 
BopMca ToflyHOBa 1589 r.: tOnaniem, 3yet jnutoHHa ROCTOMOHEa> . — Ha 
dp. 163-fi Taypa yBtpnerB jrerROBtpHtixt MTaTejiefi, <rro sctb nepcu 
mhcthrh h npeAaiOTca pejuiri03HHM , B 8RCTa3aMT>. MoserL 6uti>, Ha Aa- 
jieROMi 3anaA* eMy h HOBtparB, ho HaAteMca, qT<j y HarnHXi mocrob- 
crhxt> qHTaTeaeM B03HHRHen> noA03p*Hie wl HCTinrfc cuoBt TaypH, ecjm 
He no OTHOUieHiio ro Bceil llepciH, TO,noRpafiHetf Mtpt, no OTHonieHbo 
Rt toS nepcHACRofi rojiohIh, RaRaa npoxHBaerB bt> Mocrb*. 

Bt» rjiaBt V-fi (dp. 191): cCbw« 6wni* — cosepnieHa nyTa- 
HHua Tpext noHHTiS: ceMba ApeBHe-apa6cRaa, ceMba MOxaMMeAaHCRaa h 
ceMLH rfext Hauifl, RaRia npHHHJHi HCJiaMi*. Bo cBoeMy o6u<iaK), Taypn 
cjiHBaert Bee bto bt> oaho utJioe, npH<jean>, Hanp , Ha AOHCJiaMCRyio 
apa6cRyio aeHmnHy nepeHOCHrt qepra no3AHtfloiia. JKeHiuHHa aohcjmm- 
cRaa BOBce He 6ujia TaRHMt yraeTeHHHMi, 3a6HTBnrb cymecTBOMi, Ra- 
rhm'b pHcyeTb ee Taypn (CTp. 192): bchomhhmx TaRie o6meH3B*fccTHiie 
npHMtpu, R'dWh XeAHA»y, Anuiy, Xhhax (seHy A6y-Co$ r i>flHa), bciiomhhmt> 
Ty pojib, RaRyio arpaJiH xeHU^HHU bi> OxoacroM 6htb^ (MiOMepii, pyccR. 
nep., CTp. 137), BcnoMHHMT> Bmmn Anrapa ci> ero A6jieit, bcitomhhmi>, 
iiaROHeirL, AOHCJiaMCRO puuapcRia Ryju>n> xeHii|HH r h; MHoatecTBO noApo6- 
HOCTeft cm. y KpeMepa bo BTopOMi> tom* tKulturgeschichte des Orients> ; 
cm. TaRxe Haui f b nepeBOAi KaoycTOHa: <Popular tales and fictions* 
(JIbbobi 1896: «HapoAHi k33kh Ta BHrapu. JIr bohh 6jiyRaH)TB Ta nepe- 
BepTaK>TBca», CTp. 68 — 69 h <^OAaTOR> ro BBeAeHho). KaaeTca, npn- 
tomt>, TaypH h He noA03ptBaert, hto ApeBHie apa6u He cocTaBJUiiiH 
OAHOo6pa3Hofi Maccu, a a^hjihcl Ha nycTtrantixx h ropoACRHXi, 6un> 
KOTopuxi bsbhmho oTJiHHajTca. TaypH BOo6me HMteTB o ApeBHHXT* apa- 
6axt caMoe HeacHoe npeACTaMeme, 4T0 bhaho h3t> HaHBHoft $pa3H: 
<hh bt> RaROMi> nwepdoMb 3aK0Mb xeHn^HHa He HMtia samHTH ce6t> 
(CTp. 192), — orb AOHCjaMCRHXi apa6oBi>, ynpauHBiniixcfi oSuiaaMM, 
aBTopi »Aerb RaRoro-TO nncaHHaro cboab saROHOBi! 




KPMTHKA H BHBJlOrPAOIH. 



145 



Tjiasa medafl (CTp. 234 — 272): tQSuwmecnnhtu cwpofty — Cnjia 6h 
xopoma, ecjra 6h aBTopt H3MtHHjii> CBoeaiy oStwaio: He dapajrca 6u 
yjiOBHTb ueyjuoBHMuM ayxi HcaaMa h ue cjHBajrL 6u bt> oaho ivfcaoe 
»jieMeHTH HCjamcRie h HeHCjaMCRie, pejmrio3HHe h nojurraiecRie h t. a. 
TairB, Hanp., (Ha dp. 253-M) npecji*noBaHia, HcnHTaHHHH xpncTiaHaMH 



CTporai o Mycyju>MaHCRaro HanpaBjienifl> . Bt 9tomt> yTBep»fleHui MHoro 
ROHH^ecRHXTs HenpaBiUBHOCTefl h Hacqert Bceft ernneTCRoH (j)aTHMHACRotf 
puacTiH, h Hacqera XaRHMa. ErHnercRaa AHHaciia $aTHMHAOBT> 6ujia 
ne npaeoetbpHOM, a HCMaHAHTCRaa; ynpaBjiaa B*b ErHnri, OHa OTJuna- 
jiact 3aMfbHatneM>Hoio tnepnuMocmbw; noTOMy-TO aBTopHTerL-cneujaiHCTTi 
CTaH. rioflapi Haxoprt, hto ecjin 6h. HcmaHjiHTCRoM ceRTfc ypioci. 
ynepaaTBCfl bt» EnmTfc, to sto 6iwia 6h HacToamaa ijHBHJiHsaiuH rih 
Bcero MycyjibMaHCKaro Mipa («Un grand maitre des Assassins>, par 
St. Guyard. Journ. Asiat. 1877, I, p. 336). IHecTOl xaaH$t 9to« 
PHacTiH XaRHHt (BCTynHjn> Ha npecTOjn> bt> 996 r.) CTajii nocTynaTb 
HHane, m*itb ero npejjmecTBeHHHRH; npn Ttxi. xpHCTiane h eBpeH npi- 
oGptjiH orpoMHoe BJiiaHie, a XaRHin> c/rajn> hxt> npecjitnoBaTt. 9tooih> 
cAtjaii onacTH noTOMy, hto 6hjtb cyliaenieAinifi h B36ajmomHHtt nejio- 
Blurt, OTHacTH »e noTOMy, wo xpHCTiane, saxBaTHBinie bmcoria aojiw 

HOCTH BT> CBOH pyRH, 6HJIH yjIHHeHH BT> Rpaftfiett HeHO6p0COB*CTH0CTH 

h 3JioynoTpe6jieHiaxi; 6njh eme h Apyria npiiHHHH (cpB. Dozy: Essai, 
p. 287), ho h nxt HHRaR'i. Heju>3a cBopTL rt> «pa3BHTiio r/rporaro 
MycyjiBMaHCRaro HanpaBJieHia*, noTOMy hto XaRHii opHaROBO nron 

XpHCTiaHt H BT> T*fc MOMeHTH, ROr^a jtaaJICH OpTORORCOMt, H BT> T*, 

ROi^a onHTL CTdHOBHJCH niiHTOMi h BparoMi opTOnoRCOBT>, npecjitaya 
nocirtpHxi Bt TaRie nepioAH HapaBHt ct, xpHCTiaHaMH. KcTara otm4- 
thni>, hto bt> rohu* cBoero coo6meHifl o XaRHMt Taypn TaRHte npOflBHJIl* 
He3Hame boctohiioH HCTopin: — <B'l rohu* ate rohuobt>, h xpHCTiafie, h 
iy^eH 6hjih BHHyjRAeHH rt> iiaccoBOMy BticejieHiio h3t> OTpaHH> , roBO- 
Phtl oht», a Toro He 3Haen>, ito nocjit 1017 r. XskhmT) jo3BOJiHjn> 
BcfeMt BOSBpaTHTBCfi, h, AtficTBHTejitHO, Macca nepecejieHi^eBi BepHyjiact 
Ha3aAi wb ErHnerb.— lIpoAOJUKan bmachbtb fnyxT>> HCJiaMa, TaypH bt. 
ynoMAHyToit 6-8 rjnaB* aoxoahtl ao Bucmnxi RpafiHocTeft. KaRi» 6oro- 
cjobi, Taypu npHBum> BfepHTb, hto coAepmame RaRofi-jiH6o pejiHriH, 
iioao6ho AorMaTaM'B, BcerAa ocTaeTca oaho h to »e. A 9to He BtpHo: 
coAepffiame pejHrin Moaert MtHflTtcfl coo6pa3no vl nepeMtHaMH Bt 
o6mecTBeHHOMi> nacTpoeHiH, xoth AorMara en 0CTa»TCfl 6e3ycjiOBHO ho- 
HSMtHHUMH. BosbiieMt, Hanp., xpHCiiaHCTBo: hocji* BcejieHCRHXi co6o- 
poBT, AorMaTU ero OROH^aTejitHO y ciaHOBH jihcb , h sa ayxoitl 

EBanrejiiff hohth bc^mh h BcerAa npiaHaBajiocb h npH3HaeTca oaho h to 
»e: jih)6obi>, a uesAy TbMt HanpaBJieHie hjih coAepxame xpHCTiaHCTBa 
Bee BpeMH MtHaaoct h M*HflJioci>; h, Hanp., HAeajii cpeAHeBtROBHXi> . 
xpicTiairb 6iuh oahh, a HAeajiu HMHtiuHRXt— Apyrie. Tasi, epepeat- 
KOBue xpHciiane H3i> ropaneft jk>6bh ki> ojihshhitb c^HTajH Heo6xoAH- 




3THOrPA*H«IRCKOE 0B03P«BIK. XXVTI. 



10 



Digitized by 




146 



9TH0rPA*H<IKCK0E 0B03P*HIR. 



mhmt> sanepeTbca bi Reabt, MyiHTb ce6a n moutlca 3a nipi>, aa b 
ApyrHxi* npHHy»AaTi> rt> acKeTH3My, n noAaBjemio mhcih, n noaaB- 
jseniio bojh, a HHHtniHie xpnciiaHe bo hmh to8 se juo6bh kt» 6ju- 
hhmt> cTpeiwTca mwTb nil Mipt, yjiyqniaTb noioseaie saSHTtixt uapoA- 
huxx Macro, BHyuidTB Hail qyBCTBO coScTBeHHaro aoctohhctb3 , nopM- 
MdTb HX'b coqiajibHoe 3Haqerae. HHRaRia noAo6HHfi pasMbinueHia nacTopy 
ray pa Bb roJOBy He npHXOAarb; no ero MHtmio, pa3T> hto Ha3UBaeica 
HaaMi>, to oho Bcerjja oahht> h Torb me HCJiaM'b. IIodTOHy, Kor«a ptib 
HflerB 0 RaRofi-HHGyAB 6jiecTame9 h dutnaTaiHOfl anoxfc shshh Mycyjb- 
MaHCKaro o6medBa, Taypn cqniaerb ce6a BnpaBt roBopHTb: cHo b^ai> 
see 3to He corjiacHO cb hcthhhwmt, AyxoMi* HCjana>;H c% Apyrofi cto- 
poHM, RorAa oht> pa36apaerb RaRyio-HH6yAb anoxy ynaARa h <j>aHaTH3Ma, 
oht» aaaMflerb: «A Borb bto BnojiHt corjiacHO Cb hcthhhhmi> Ayxoin> 
HCJiaMa!> Pa3AaBaa Ha Bet ctopohh naTeHTH Ha 3Banie HCTHHHaro mh 
HeHCTHHHaro MycyjibMaHMia, TaypH oahht* pa3i> Aaerb naieHrb BToporo 
poAa, a He nepBaro... caMOMy MoxaNHeAy! fla! HecMOTpa Ha to, hto 
RaKfloe HtcTo KopaHa ecTb cbhtuhh h 3anoB*Ab bi rjasaxi Nycyu- 
Mam>, Taypa roBopHTb, <ito rfcMtCTa KopaHa/ROTopwe nponoBiAHBawrb 
nojrayio TepmiMOCTb rt> xpHCTiaHaan> h iyAeafifb h rotopmmh apa6u 
CTBHTejibHO pyROBOAHJiHCb bt> UBtTymiil iiepioAi> xajH(j)aTa, He coraacHH 
ci> AyxoMi> HCJiana: cHcthhhhM jkc Ayxi> iicjiaata Jiymue Bcero Bbipa- 
saeTca btj cjrfcflyiomHX'b cjioBaxb Oaapa (a He MoxaMHeAa!): <Mu aoj- 
khu norjioiuaTb xpHcriaHb* h t. a. (CTp. 256). Ha cTp. 258-8 wrra- 
ewb: c RorAa OyaA'b-nauia yTBepsAA^'b bt> cBoeMT> noJiHTHiecROMi* saBt- 
mame, hto pe<j>opMU, npeAOCTaBaaromia OAHHaROBHa npaBa Bctab hcho- 
BtAaniflMi, lie HaxoAHTca wb npoTHBoptiia ct> hcjtcmomt*, oht. Bnara 
npocTO-Ha-npodo bt» oaho rpy6oe 3a6ay»AeHie> . MTairb, TaypH cih- 
Taerb ce6a, npoTeciaHTa, ROMneTeHTHbiMi hiiomi» wb onpeAtieHia chc- 
THHHaro Ayxa> HcaaMa, a HacToamaro MyeyjtbMaHHHa OyaAa (h A&xe ca- 
Moro IIpopoKa!) npH3Haerb He KOMneTeHTHbiMH cyAHTb 061 HcnoBtAUBae- 
Moft'pejiHriH. CnpauiHBaerca nociit Bcero dToro: rto »e Moaserb 6brrb 
cyAbeH), h hto Moserb 6brrb RpHTepieHi a^h nosHaHia npecjOByTaro 
c HCTHHHaro Ayxa* RaRoft-JiH6o pejiarm?! 

Hy, sAtcb Mil octcLHobhmch h 6H^e AaJibuie pas6HpaTb RHHXRy Taypn 
ne 6yAeM%, xoth mu He aouijih h ao hojiobhhu ea. Bt> Hefi SesycjOBHO 

MHoro ecTb xopoiuaro , xoponiH HMeHHO bc* CTpaHHUH, cnicaHuua 

H3T> flo3H h Kpevepa GysBaAbHo; ho MHoro ecTb h Aypnoro, MHoro ecTb 
ouihSokt*, npoHCxoAamnxi orb HeB'feasecTfia aBTopa, orb HeyMtHba nepe- 
AaTb qyxia CB^AtHia h orb CTpeMJieHia fttJiaTb cjihuiromx CRopocutwe 
bhboau Aa npeAJiaraTb coMHHTejrbHue HCTopH^ecRie saxoHii BpoA* toix), 
4TO <fi*b MHHyTy Bbicoqaguiaro pejiHriosHaro HanpaateHia o6mecTBa BcerAa 
bi> HeMi> npoaBtTaiorb HayRH h hcry ccTBa > . OcTaBjaa 6o3i> pas6opa 
BTopyio qacTb RHHrH Taypa, HaMi> Bee sse najib He otm^thtl h*roto- 
pwx^ HenpaBHJibHHX'b CBtAtHiS, coo6n^aeMbixi b% Hefl, no RpaBHeM 
Mtpb ABjx'b-Tpexi. Ha CTp. 323-1 ynoMHHaeTca y TaypH RaRo8-TO H6irb- 



Digitized by 



KPHTHKA H BRBAIOrFA <Mfl . 



147 



XyiafiGt, aBiopi> KaKoS-TO «KHHr« n03Hanifl». Hsi» flajitHtMuiaro H3Jio- 
aeHifl MOffiHO AoranaTtca, hto sto nomewh 6Bm> M3BtcTHHfi hctophkt> 
H6H^-KoTefi6a, aBTopi> „KHnni CB*A*Hiff no HCTopia" („KHTa6i ojh>- 
Meapn(J)t $h T-TapHXT> tt ). — Ha cip. 326-ft TaypH yBipaerb, hto 
<j>iuioco<{)T> 8ju>-Oapa6H 6luhi> Bpan> mhcthuhsms. Oqenb ne BtpHo.— Ha 

CTp. 375-fi nOCJltAHHMT> XaJH^OMl Ha3BaHt MyTaBaKKHJLb. HoCJltAHHM'L 

6ujh» MocTacuMt (1241—1258), a MoTeBeKKHJUL ijapcTBOBajrb Ha ne- 
•rupecTa jitrt paHtuie (846—861). 

Tenepb noroBopnirb o tomt> Rocnoirfc, bt> Kaxoirb RHara Taypn hb- 
jaeTca nepep> pyccKoft ny6jiHROfi, — noroBOpHMx o nepeBOA*. Oirb He- 
yaaqeffB bo Bete* OTHomeflim. fl3HKt nepeBOA^HRa (r. XoiyTOBa) 
Tflxejui, a bt> HtROTopuxi* MtcTaxi cb TpyAOMi> Aaxe noHHMaeTca. 
Hanp., Ha dp. 288: „HopHaaJin mneft xpHCTiaiicKHXt HauioHaabHocTeft, 
bi> norpyaeHHUXi* bt> MeiTU o My3HRt, noa3M m o Rpacorfc npnpoABi 
MycyjibMaHaxt McnaHin, bha^buihxi tojibko BapBapoBi x ct> RaRofl-TO 
AHRoM aecTOROCTtH) hxt» HCTpe6jaBinirx f b\ Ha CTp. 291-8: „Bi CTpa- 
naxi HCJiaMa CMOiub HMfcerB MtcTO nepBOe coc/roame, h bt> hhxt> no- 

CTOflHHO SOJILIllifl COCTOflHW CROHJIfllOTCfl BT> pyKaXT> M6HbHIHHCTBa a (Hep- 

Btifl pa3t cjiobo „cocTO*raie a osndiaerb^cjiyHall", h oho— noAJiexamee). 
Ha CTp. 359-fl: „UpeACTaBJieHifl bt> nyOjinqHUxi* MtcTax* pa3BjieqeHia 

H BT> HaUIHXt 60JLIHHXT> ropOflaXt OTHCOAb HH JiyHHie HH Ha BOJIOCB 

(itarb Ha BOCTORt>). ipoMfc cthjih, y r. XoiiyTOBa xpoiiaerb h npaBO- 
nHcaHie, TaRi> ?to rpaMOTHOMy nejiOBtRy HHorp cTaHOBHTca npocTO He- 
npiHTHo; 6epy ajih npHirfcpa nepBiin nonaBiniacfl oihhOrh: HeB^Hie, 
BOGTOKOB'fcfleHie (2), npepfcRamft (34), bi Teieme irfcCROJibRHX'b jtn> 
(49), HHCHiift (121), ocRyAeHie (290). -Ob HtMeaRHarb H3HROin> nepe- 
boaihrt> 3H8romt> moxo, h 3to TaKxe He nocjiyarajio bt> noJib3y ero 
paSorfc. Moxho npocTtfTb esiy, RorAa oht>, Hanp., bm. raaeaH roBoparb 
o R03* (crp. 15), ho ecTb ohihSrm h nocepio3H*e. 06* oahoHh^hhxi 
ctohtt* pa3CRa3aTb noApo6HO, noTOiiy mo ona Spocaen, cBfcrb Ha to, 
RaRT> HHorAa o6o6maK>Tca eAHHHHHbie (Jwikth. Hoarb Hupyjib KaficT> (bt> 
nepBoM nojiOBBHt VI B*Ra), xejiaa otomcthtb sa cMepTb cBoero OTua, 
OTnpaBHJicH cnpocHTb coBtra y opasyjia gyjib-Xejiace (Bap. cXojoce>, 
<Xeju>ce*). OTBfcrb A^BaiCH nps noioma Tpexi cTptoiHa oahoS 6Hja 
HaADHCb: <npHRa3i>, Ha ApyroA: «3anpemeHie» , Ha TpeTbefi: «noAO«- 
AaTbi. MMpyjibRaflc/b BBiTHHyjn Ty cTptJiy, Ha ROTopofl 6hjio HanncaHo: 
«3anpemeHie». TorAa,B r b rntBt, oht* H3Jionajn> Bet TpH CTplwiH, niBup- 
Hyn o6jiomrh bi» rojroBy HAOJia h BOCKJiHRHyjix: «ByAb bto meou OTeu^, 
Tii He 3anpeTHjn> 6h mctmtb aa Hero!» h npoHSHeci oaho Rpynnoe py- 
raTeabCTBO. 9totb cjiyqaa, no apa6cRHirb HCTo^HHRairb, cooSmen'b y 
Caussin de Perceval'a b^ ero SHaiieHiiTOMT* Essai snr Thistoire des 
Arabes*, t. II, CTp. 310 (Paris 1847). flo3R bt> cbohxi jieRuiaxbno 
HCTopiH HCJiava npHBOAHTb, noBHAHHOMy no KocceHyAe HepceBajno, btotb 
xe cjiyqaM ajih xapaRTepHCTHRH o6pameiua H3MiecRHX , b apa60Bi> co cbohmh 
HAOjiaHH, npH wwh He ynoMHHaerb hh HMeHH KocceHa AeHepceBajw, hh 




148 



9TH0rPA®Ht)BCR0B 0B03PfefUE. 



Aase HM6HH HipyjibKaHca, a roBopHTb npocro: <oahhi> apa6x> (Essai 
sur Thist. de lislam. 1879, p. 10; 9T0 nepeBop* ct> rojuiaHACRaro: 
tHet Islamisme, Harlem 1863). Taypa, ROToptiS, mokho CRa3aTb na- 
BtpHoe, RocceHa ne IlepceBajifl n wb pynaxi, He Mute*, nepeflaJTb toabko 
to, hto Haiiiejrb y flo3H. A r. XoMyiwb, He bohhbuih cMticja Htmen- 
icaro HMnep^eirra, nepeBejrb ero no-pyccKH bhaomt> HecoBepnieHHbra i» , 
npH^eMt bm*cto cKor^a* nodaBHJi^ «ecjH» h bh. « karo^-to » — « Ra - 
KOii-HH6ym>>; TaRMMb o6pa30arb nojayiHjiocb rjtxyiomee o6mee npepo- 
xeHie: «Ecjm RaRoM-HH6yAb apa6i> raAajii Ha CTptiaxt o tom-k, aoji- 
xeHi hjih He AOJi3KeHT> oht> otohcthtb 3a cMepib oma, h Tpn pasa bu- 
HMMaaacb cipiJia «aanpemaeTca>, Tor^a oht> JioaajTb 8Ty cipfcjiy h 
Opocau ee bt> mio HAOia ck apocTHHirb KpBKOMt: cDpeaptHHuti! 
ecjiH 6u y6HTufl 6wn> OTeivb tboH, th He sanperajn. 6u Tor^a RpoBO- 
MmeHiflU EahuhhhuM cjiyiait, OTHoeamifica tojjbko kt> oahom)" Miipyjn> 
Kaficy, B03BeAeH r i> y r. XoMjTOBa bt> 3aR0Hi» ajw Bctn ApeBHHXTb apa- 
6obi>, a BHHOBaTo uecBoGoAHoe noHHiame HtiieuKaro B3URa.— Ha cTp. 
192-ft roBopHTca o6t» oco6ofl <j>opiri> 6paRa: 6paRa <pap HacaaatAeHia*. 
Kto 3Haen» boctokt>, totl AoraflaeTca, hto ptib aj^evb o <MBTai>> , 
hto 3Ha4Hn> <nojib30BaHie» ; h no cBoeMy Ha3Bauiio, h no cBoeiiy 3Ha- 
qeHiio 3Ta $opna 6paRa oueHb noAxoAJirb rt> JMTHHCROny «usus». 1\ Xo- 
MyxoBi> He hohbjii iiacToamaro cMtiwia iitneuRaro cjnoBa cGenuss>, 
ROTopoe 3Ha4UTL h « ii0Jii>30BaHie > m <HacjiasAcAie>, n orroro bt> ero 
uepeBOA'fe noaBHJica Rypi>e3Huli Teprnmis — <6paRi> paAH HacjiasAeHia*,— 
TepMHHi> cOHBMHBbiB h Morymifi, noaaayft, a^tl umwh HHTaxejuiMi cboo- 
o6pa3Hoe npeACTaBJieme o.sHaneHiR dToro 6paRa. — Ua CTp. 133-Snepe- 
BOAa r. XoMyTOBa ■WTaTejib HaftAera crpaHHyio #a3y: tDpHUHprneabHoe 
OorocjioBie nfcRoero (sic!!) Aniapa, Aocrarniee rocnoACTBa okojo 900 r. 
h c r b rfcxt uopi> odaiomeeca rocnoACTBy»mHM r b ao HaniBXi BpeMeHT>\ 
<HtbKoeeo AniapH!> 9to roBopmca o T0M r b cJiaBHOMi 6orocjOB*, ro- 
ToptiB HaHecb phuiHTeJibHHfl yAapi 3HaMeiurrofi ceRit M0Te3HJBT0Bi> 
(pauioHajiHCTOB , b-$njioco(J)OBi)! He mta nepeAi co6oio HtieuRaro opa- 
iHHajia, He HoseNi cyAHTb t% yBtpemiocTbio, rto 3A*cb HanyTaJii: 
aBTopi hjih nepeB0A4HRi>? Rymewb OAHaRO, hto Taypa, RaRi> qeJOBtRi> 
3anaAHufl, He MorbHe3HaTb o6t> Ani'bapiH m, npeAnojiaraa TaRoe xe saa- 
nie wh cbohxtj ^HTaTejaxi, HanHcaJH>: <des gewissen Asch , ari> , t. . e. 
HaBtdHaro Am r bapia, a r. XoMyTOBy BcnoMHHJiocb Bupaaenie: ein ge- 
wisser— cHtRifi>.— JIaTHHCRifl a3biR f b r. XonyTOBy HtcROJibRO HSBtcTem, 
ho Jiyune Cujio 6bi, ecjiu 6t> 6hji> BOBce He HSBtcTeHT*; ohi> Tor«a He 
cMtinajTb 6bi crauscularis>, h <niasculinus>, Rasi 3T0 ohi CA^aJi^ 
Tenepb, Ha3UBaa 6ojit3Hb MoxaMMeAa He <nycRyjibHofl HCTepieit>, a 
iMyjtcecKou Hdepiei(> (dp. 23)..— ApaGcRaro H3URa nepeBOA^HRi BOBce 
He 3HaeTb, m noTOMy co6cTBeimua HMeHa ipaHCRpn6HpyioTCfl cb Htiieu- 
rhxi> 6yRB*b ua pyccRia co MH0S6CTB0M r b offln6oRT>: Hanp., aBJiaeTca 
ABa «c» TaMi, i'At Hy»HO TOJitKO oaho <c> (fiaccpa," Manccypi>, ancwpu, 
uyccapiH); bm. <a»» miuieTca <aui> (mopauihtu 155); bm. «3» 6HBaerb 




KPH1HKA H BHBJIorPA^lfl 



U9 



<c» (A3ttct 181) h HaoSoporb — bm. «c» y r. XoMyroBa nHiucica 
HHorAa «3», RaRi> „XaB3a" (bm. „Xa<|)ca u , aeHa MoxaMMep) m n raMasa te 
(bm. *XeMaca a , c6ophhrt> flpeBHe-apaocRHXt cthxobt> h ntcetrb); HCRa- 
aaa nocjrfcpee ua3Baflie, nepeBoaqHRT> tbwb caMibun> pRastiBaerb csoe 

DOJIHOe H63HaR0MCTB0 CL rJiaBHtftlUHMH UpOH3B6AeuiflMH apa6CR0ft J1HT6- 

paiypu (pa OTpuBKa h3t> XeMacti nepeBepHH pae Ha pyccKifi h3Uri> 
CTMxaMH y Bepra bt> ero ^DtcHaxt pa3HMXi> HapopBi> a cip. 215 — 
220, RHHrfc o^eHb nonyjiapHOfl), h 9nHTen» „u3mcmnbiu c6opHHRT> a 
BBMeTca TxOKb nepoMt r. XoMyTOBa npocTO apoHieM. 3aMtTHMi> RCTam, 
uto „XeMaca u 03HaqaerL ^nopHrw^ „p6jiecTb u , Torp RairL B TaMa3a tt 
(ct ypoeHHHMB <m> ) — „ nopnrHBaiomdH ROReTKa"; hmh aeHH UpopoRa 
„Xa$ca u 3 Ha 4 art (no cjiOBapio KaMycy) He to „mojwph JibBHina", He 
to „rieHa a , Ha3Bame bo bchromi ciyqa* Saaropopoe, Torp RaRt Xo- 
MyTOBCROe «XaB3a> 3Hawn> ^riraa mulieris a . Oco6eHHaa Sfcp r. Xo- 
Mymy cb nepepqefl jiajHHCRoM 6yRBU ^h u : aanapue opienrajiHCTU, 
Bt cHjy 6tffHocTH jaTHHCRaro a^aBHTa, ynoTpeOjawrb ee h pa 060- 
3Ha^6Hia 3ByRa „h a , h pa o6o3HaqeHia* MarRaro „x a , h HaROHeirt Bt 
RaqecTBt HtMOft 6yRBH (HanpHMtpt b*l n Schah-naineA a ROHeiHoe „h u 
He HHTaeTca). T. XoMyTOBi naydany CTaBHn> HHorp bm. „h a pyccRoe 
«